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Entered  according  tx)  Act  ot  Congi-ess.  in  tlie  year  l&stt,  by 

PHINEA.'^    G.    GOODKICn, 

[n  the  Olliw  of  the  Librarian  of  C^ongi'ess.  Washington,  D.  C. 

/^  lO^P"^ 



Woodward's  Commencement. 

Act  of  Legislature  Establishing  Wayne  County — Original 
Boundaries — Population  in  1800 — Milford  and  Wilsonville, 
the  First  Seats  of  Justice — Permanent  Location  of  the 
Courts  at  Bethany  and  Erection  of  the  First  County  Build- 
ings— Attempts  to  Change  the  Location  Abortive — The 
People  Refuse  to  Comply  with  Legislative  Enactment — 
First  County  Commissioners — Beginning  of  Official  Mis- 
deeds and  Delinquencies — Sacredness  of  Public  Trusts — 
A  Depleted  Treasury — Investigating  County  Finances — 
An  Era  of  Progress  and  Prosperity — Navigating  the  Dela- 
ware— How  Sui)plies  were  Procured — Division  of  the 
County 1 . 


The    Indians. 

Wronged  and  Abused  by  Invaders — The  Tribes  that  Inhabited 
Wayne  County — The  Chai-ter  Granted  to  W^illiam  Penn — 
A  Treaty  that  was  Never  Broken — No  Quaker  Blood  Ever 
Shed  by  an  Indian — How  the  Boundaries  of  Penn's  Prov- 
ince were  Determined — Dissatisfaction  of  the  Indians — 
Wars  and  Massacres — The  Great  Council  at  Easton — 
Peace  Concluded — Indian  Plot  to  Annihilate  the  Whites 
— Mountains  and  Valleys  Crimsoned  with  Blood  and  Car- 
nage— Bounties  Offered  for  Indian  Scalj^s — The  Red  Men 
Alarmed   and  Plead  for  Peace — Final  Purchase  of   their 


Lands — Charter  Granted  to  Connecticut — Disjjuted  Titles 
— Misguided  Indian  Revenge — Final  Settlement  of  Diffi- 
culties— Description  of  the  Indians  and  their  Mode  of  Life 
—Their  Belief  in  a  Future  State— The  Tribes  almost  Ex- 
tinct  12 


Wayne    County. 

After  Whom  it  was  Named — Its  Geology,  Climate,  and  For- 
ests  32. 



The  Animals  that  Once  Roamed  the  County's  Forests — Anec- 
dotes about  the  Bear — Description  of  the  Bear,  Wolf, 
Panther,  Deer,  Elk,  Beaver,  Marten,  Raccoon,  Wood- 
chuck,  Hedgehog,  Skunk,  Otter,  Musk-Rat,  Mink,  Wea- 
sel, Squirrel,   Wild-Cat,   Fox,  Hare,  and  Rabbit 42. 



The  Birds  of  the  Past  and  Present — A  Description  of  their 
Plumage  and  Peculiarities — Why  they  Rear  their  Young 
at  the  North — The  Dyberry  Taxidermist 62. 



The  Trout — Other  Fish — Introduction  of  Black  Bass  by  Mc- 
Kown 91. 



The  Rattlesnake — The  Whiskey  Antidote  for  its  Bite — Unven- 
omous  Reptiles 94 




Those  that  Abound  m  the  County — Honey-Bees — How  they 
were  Kept  by  the  First  Settlers — Their  Wisdom 95. 


Land-Titles  and  Subveys. 

The  Penn  Family  Accused  of  Being  Adherents  of  the  British 
Government — Confiscation  of  Estates — The  Land- Office — 
Early  Prices  of  Unimproved  Land — Laws  in  Regard  to 
State  Lands — Unprofitable  Investments — Jason  Torrey, 
Agent  for  the  Sale  of  Lands  in  "Wayne  and  Pike  Counties 
— Subsequent  Agents — Inaccuracy  of  the  Original  Sur- 
veys— Present  Declination  of  the  Needle — Land- Warrants 
— How  they  were  Granted — County  Surveyor — "Cham- 
ber  Surveys. " 97. 



The  First  Judges — President  Judges — Associate  Judges — Sher- 
iffs— Prothonotaries — Registers  and  Recorders 108. 


Townships — Damascus. 

Damascus — Its  Early  Settlement— The  Minisinks — First  Set- 
tlers— First  Attempt  to  Run  Logs  to  Market  on  the  Dela- 
ware a  Failure — Perseverance  and  Ingenuity  Rewarded 
with  Success — The  First  Raft  that  Successfully  Descended 
the  River — Settlers  Attacked  by  the  Indians  —The  Mur- 
der of  Kane  and  his  Family — The  Whites  Flee  from  their 
Homes — Subsequent  Attacks  by  Marauding  Whites — Bit- 
ter Dissensions  about  Titles  of  Lands — Effect  of  the  Wyo- 
ming Massacre — Battle  of  Minisink — Gen.  Sullivan's  Ex- 
pedition into  the  Indian  Country — Return  of  the  Settlers 
to  their  Homes  and  the  Reign  of  Peace — Brief  Sketches;of 
the  Early  Settlers — The  Hamlets  of  Branningville,  Darby- 
town,  Damascus,  Milan ville,  and  Tyler  Hill llV. 



Townships — Lebanon. 

Its  Lands,  Streams,  aud  Ponds — First  Settlements — Sliields- 
boro' — Incidents  of  Pioneer  Life — Sketches  of  the  Early 
Settlers — Agriculture  their  Chief  Pursuit  and  Depend- 
ence   140. 

CHAPTER    Xni. 

Townships — PALaiYKA. 

Taken  Prisoner  by  the  Indians — An  Ingenious  Escape — Jones, 
and  not  Haines,  the  Murderer  of  Can  ope — First  Improve- 
ments— Sketches  of  the  Pioneers — Strange  Curiosities — 
Com23letion  of  the  Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal — The  Penn- 
sylvania Company's  Gravity  Railroad — The  Failure  of  a 
Great  Project — Falls  of  the  Wallenpaupack — A  Water- 
power  of  Immense  Magnitude — A  Mammoth  Pine — Schools 
and  Churches 156. 


Townships — Paupack. 

When  Erected — Silas  Purdy,  Sen.,  the  First  Settler — Names 
and  Sketches  of  the  Early  Residents — "The  Shades  of 
Death  " — A  Touching  Incident 165. 


Townships — Canaan. 

One  of  the  Original  Townships — Its  Soil  and  Productions — 
The  Easton  and  Belmont,  and  Milford  and  Owego  Turn- 
pikes—Great Thoroughfares  in  their  Day— The  First  Fam- 
ilies that  Settled  in  the  Township — A  Sketch  by  Asa  Stan- 
ton— Mrs.  Frisbie — Her  Interpretation  of  the  Command, 
"Thou  Shalt  not  Kill  "—Merciful  to  all  of  God's  Creatures 
— The  Borough  of  Waymart 170. 


Townships — Mount  Pleasant. 
The   Smtzerland  of  Northern   Pennsylvania — A  Paradise  in 


Summer,  and  a  Siberia  in  Winter— Streams  and  Ponds- 
Former   Great  Thoroughfares— The   First   Settler— Fir. 
Public  House— Sketches  of  the  First  Settlers— Their  Hart 
ships  and  Struggles  to  Procure  Food  and  Raiment— Lcs 
Children— The  Meredith  Family— The  First  Treasurer  (  ■ 
the  United  States— His  Place  of   Interment  Unmarkcvl- 
An  Aged  Lady— Standing  Sentinel  for  Her  Husband    lu- 
ing   the    Revolution— Poetry  by   Asa    Stanton,    Entitle.) 
'♦  The  Golden  Age  of  Mount  Pleasant. " l<Si 


Townships — Buckingham. 

Streams  and  Lakes — The  Township  Assessment  in  1806 — Sui 
uel    Preston,    Sen.,    the    First   Settler — Stockport — He.. 
Merchandise   was  Conveyed   up  the  Delaware — Durha  , 
Boats— Wayne  County's  First  Associate  Judge — The  Pre 
ton.  Knight,  and  Dillon  Families 21 


Townships — Manchesteb. 

Its  Original  Name — A  Box  of  Maple  Sugar  Sent  to  Georj^^ 
Washington — His  Letter  of  Acknowledgment — A  Coi  ; 
pany  Formed  to  Manufacture  Maple  Sugar  and  Pei 
Ashes — Streams  and  Ponds — Early  Residents — Matthi 
Mogridge — His  Eventful  Life— He  Fights  Gen.  Jacks* 
at  New  Orleans — Accompanies  Napoleon  to  St.  Helena 
A  Visit  to  His  Native  Country,  and  His  Call  on  Hora 
Greeley — The  Village  of  Equinunk 21; 


TowT^SHiPs — Scott. 

Streams  and  Lakelets — The  Soil  and  its  Productions — Sh« 
man— Names  of  the  Early  Settlers— The  North-East  C< 
ner  of  Pennsylvania 2/ 


Townships — Preston. 
Named  in  Honor  of  Judge  Preston — N  oted  for  its  Numero 

:iiji  CONTENTS. 

I  Lakes  and  Ponds — Destined  to  be  an  Important  Bntter- 

j  Making  District — Early   Settlers — A    Sketch   of   Pioneer 

\  Life,  and  Some  Interesting  Anecdotes,  by  C.  P,  Tallman 

^     — Starrncca  Borough 289, 


I  Townships — Salem. 

When  Erected — Division  of  the  Township  and  Erection  of 
Lake — Names  and  Sketches  of  the  First  Settlers — Battles 
with  the  Indians — The  Author  of  Wood  bridge's  Geogra- 
phy— The  Township's  Hamlets,  Churches,  and  Schools — 
The  First  Postmaster  and  the  First  Store — The  Time 
when  only  Two  Newspapers  were  Taken  in  the  Township 
— The  News  of  the  Battle  of  Waterloo  Four  Months  in 
Reaching  the  Beech  Woods 260 


Townships — Steeling  and  Drehek. 

The  Lands— The  First  Settler—Resident  Taxables  at  the  Time 
of  the  Town's  Formation — The  First  Grist-Mill  and  Saw- 
Mill — Sketches  of  the  Original  Settlers — Mingled  Nation- 
alities— Peaceful,  Law- Abiding  People — New  Township — 
Named  in  Honor  of  Judge  Dreher 279. 


Townships — Cheery  Ridge. 

Settlement  Commenced  before  the  Organization  of  the  County 
—The  Assessment  of  1799— Sketches  of  the  First  Settlers 
— Origin  of  the  Township's  Name 286. 


Townships — Dyberry. 

Formed  from  Palmyra,  Canaan,  and  Damascus — Sketches  of 
the  First  Settlers — The  First  County  Commissioner  Elec- 
ted by  the  People — The  Hamlets  of  Dyberry  and  Tanners 
Falls— Establishment  of  a  Glass-Factory 292. 



Borough  of  Bethany. 

The  Coimty  Seat — Land  Deeded  to  the  Comity  by  Henry 
Drinker — Convening  of  the  First  Court — The  First  Conrt- 
House  and  Jail — Imprisonment  for  Debt — The  First 
Dwelling  and  First  Public  House — Growth  of  the  Bor- 
ough— A  Noted  Surveyor— By  Whom  the  First  House 
was  Built  in  Honesdale — Sketches  of  the  Early  Besidents 
— An  Impartial  Judge — The  First  Newspaper  Published 
in  Wayne  County— The  Birth-place  of  *'Ned  Buntline" 
—Removal  of  the  County-Seat — The  Old  Court-House 
Converted  into  a  University — Churches  and  Societies — 
Alonzo  Collins'  Poetic  Description  of  the  Place 303. 


Townships — Clinton. 

When  Erected— Jefferson  Railroad— Sketch  by  Alva  W.  Norton 
— Early  Settlers — Aldenville — Churches  and  Schools . .  322. 


Borough  of  Prompton. 
When  Incorporated — First  Settlers — Taxables — Schools . .  330. 


Townships — Berlin. 

When  Erected — The  First  Assessment  and  First  Taxables — 
Transportation  and  Travel  between  Honesdale  and  the  Erie 
Railroad — Sketches  of  Noted  Settlers — Beech  Pond — Tan- 
ning and  Lumbering — Honesdale  and  Texas  Poor 332. 


Townships — Oregon. 

When  Erected — Streams  and  Ponds — The  Adams  Family — 
Probable  Origin  of  the  Name — Early  Events — Girdland — 
First  Land  Taken  up  by  Jason  Torrey 338. 


Townships — Texas. 

When  Erected — White  Mills — Dorfiinger's  Celebrated  Glass- 


Works — Indian  Orchard— Leonardsville— Tracy  ville— First 
Grist-mill — Honesdale  Glass  Company — White's  Ax  Fac- 
tory— Seelyville — Rev.  Jonathan  Seely — The  First  Settler 
— First  House  and  First  Koad — Sket<;li  of  R.  L.  Seely — 
Other  Settlers —Manufactures — Election  Districts 342. 


BoBOUGH    OF    Honesdale. 

First  Clearing — Attempts  at  Coal  Transportation — Construc- 
tion of  the  D.  &  H.  Canal — Gravity  Railroad — Opening  of 
the  Canal — Original  and  Present  Shipments  of  Coal — After 
whom  Honesdale  was  Named — Wlien  Incorporated — When 
Made  the  County  Seat — Honesdale  Bank — Hawley  and 
Honesdale  Branch  of  the  Erie  Railway — First  Beginners 
in  Honesdale — The  First  Locomotive  in  America — First 
Settlers  and  First  Merchants — A  Noted  Tavern  Keeper — 
Surviving  Old  Settlers — Past  and  Present  Physicians — 
Postmasters — Christian  Denominations — The  Hebrews — 
D.  &  H.  Canal  Company — The  Soldiers'  Monument — The 
County's  Soldier-Dead — Foster's  Tannery — Members  of 
Wayne  County  Bar— Manufactures  and  Industries— Schools 
and  their  Principals — Court-Houses — Newspapers. . .  .354:. 


Palmyka,  Pike  County. 

First  Settlers — Troubles  with  the  Indians  and  Tories — Battle 
of  Wyoming — Fleeing  of  the  Settlers — Their  Return.  .381. 



Life  in  the  Log-Cabins — School-Houses  and  Schools — The 
First  Church  Organized  in  the  County — Religious  Denom- 
ination s — Manufactures — Agriculture-  -Pennsylvania  Coal 
Company — Population  of  the  County 387. 


Pike  County. 

The  County  Seat— Milford— Noted  Men— The  Route  over 
which  the  Early  Pioneers  *  *  Columbused "  their  Way  to 
Wyoming  Valley — Conclusion 406. 


In  the  year  1873,  Hon.  Geo.  W.  Woodward  an- 
nounced his  purpose  to  write  a  history  of  Wayne 
county,  and  came  hither  to  gather  up  materials 
for  his  work.  Being  a  native  of  the  county,  reared 
and  educated  therein,  and  acquainted  with  many  of 
the  original  settlers,  also,  having  been  a  member  of 
the  conventions  that  framed  the  Constitutions  of  the 
State  in  1838  and  1873,  and  a  member  of  Congress, 
and  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania,  his 
position,  legal  attainments,  and  extensive  knowledge 
peculiarly  fitted  him  to  write  a  popular  history  of  his 
native  county.  In  the  summer  of  1874  he  told  me 
that  the  task  of  compiling  his  history  would  take  more 
time  than  he  had  at  first  anticipated ;  that  he  had 
written  only  a  few  pages,  but  that  he  intended  to  have 
it  published  by  the  commencement  of  the  Centennial 
year.  I  never  saw  him  afterwards,  altliough  I  contin- 
ued, at  his  request,  to  collect  materials  for  his  proposed 

xii  PREFACE. 

work.  He  sailed  for  Europe,  from  Philadelphia, 
October  22d,  1874,  and  died  at  Kome,  May  10th, 
1875,  of  pneumonia,  complicated  with  Roman  fever. 
Some  months  after  the  death  of  the  Judge,  his  son, 
Hon.  Stanley  Woodward,  of  Wilkesbarre,  generously 
returned  to  me  all  the  manuscripts  and  material  that 
I  had  collected  for  the  construction  of  his  father's  his- 
tory. He  had  written  eleven  pages.  How  large  a 
book  he  designed  to  write,  and  in  what  manner  he 
would  have  arranged  its  contents,  I  know  not.  He 
strongly  assured  me  of  his  wish  that  in  case  he  should 
be  unable  to  iinish  his  work,  that  I  should  undertake 
the  task  of  completing  it.  But  it  may  be  asked,  is 
such  a  history  needed?  If  it  contained  nothing  but 
the  truth,  would  it  be  valuable  and  interesting? 
Whatever  the  answers  may  be  to  these  questions,  it 
must  be  conceded  that  an  important  part  of  our  knowl- 
edge is  derived  from  historv.  Therefrom  we  learn  the 
rise  and  progress  of  our  country  through  darkness  and 
sunshine,  war  and  peace,  to  its  present  eminence 
among  the  nations  of  the  earth.  We  respect  and  ad- 
mire the  Hebrew  people  who,  although  scattered 
abroad  among  all  civilized  nations,  have  preserved  a 
history  which,  throughout  Christendom,  is  believed  to 
be  commensurate  with  the  morning  of  the  world. 
Almost  every  important  county  in  Pennsylvania  has 

PREFACE.  xiii 

published  a  history  of  its  early  settlement,  tlie  nation- 
ality of  its  people,  their  struggles,  privations,  and 
peculiar  modes  of  living.  Should  the  economy,  indus- 
try, honesty,  and  self-denial  of  the  primitive  settlers 
be  practiced  for  ten  years  to  come,  by  all  our  inhabi- 
tants, the  complaint  of  hard  times  would  be  heard  no 
more  in  the  land.  There  was  little  diversity  in  the 
hard  experience  of  the  pioneer  settlers  of  Northern 
Pennsylvania.  Many  of  them  had  been  soldiers  in  the 
Revolutionary  war,  or  were  the  children  of  those  who 
had  been  impoverished  thereby.  Is  there  nothing  in 
the  history  of  such  a  people  worthy  of   preservation  ? 

**  Let  not  Ambition  mock  their  useful  toil, 
Their  homely  Joys,  and  destiny  obscure  ; 
Nor  Grandeur  hear  with  a  disdainful  smile, 
The  short  and  simple  annals  of  the  poor," 

Judge  Woodward  regretted  that  he  had  not  begun 
at  an  earlier  day  to  collect  materials  for  his  history, 
which  might  have  been  obtained  from  the  old  settlers 
themselv^es.  But  those  old  settlers  are  now  all  gone, 
and  but  very  few  of  their  children  survive.  If  their 
history  is  ever  written  it  must  be  done  soon.  Already 
some  of  it  is  fragmentary  and  uncertain ;  but  such  as 
it  is,  I  have  concluded,  after  much  hesitation,  to  pre- 
sent what  I  have  collected ;  not  for  fame,  but  as  a 
tribute  of  respect  to  the  people  of  my  native  county. 

My  main  object  will  be  to  preserve  a  history  of  the 

xiv  PREFACE. 

primitive  settlers,  and  of  events  which  occurred  in 
early  times,  not  neglecting  to  give  a  cursory  exhibit  of 
the  progress  of  the  connty  from  its  erection  to  the 
present  time. 

As  Pike  county  was  formerly  a  part  of  Wayne, 
some  of  its  history  is  so  intermingled  witli  ours,  that 
it  cannot,  with  propriety,  be  separated  from  it.  The 
history  of  Palmyra  in  Pike  county  is  so  full  of  inter- 
est, and  has  been  so  well  preserved,  that  I  cannot  fore- 
go the  pleasure  of  giving  it  in  detail,  much  of  which 
I  learned  from  the  settlers  themselves. 

Those  wlio  have  furnished  sketches  about  the  early 

settlers   of   their   townships,  will   please   accept    tlie 

thanks  of  the  writer.     Want  of  space  has  forced  me 

to  condense  their  contributions,  but  the  pith  of  them 

has  been  retained. 


Bethany,  Wayne  County,  Pa., 

June,  1880. 


Page  13,  26tli  line  from  the  top  of  the  page,   "twenty-six  mil- 
lions," should  read  sixteen  millions. 

"  33,  Uth  line  from  the  top,  "pots  in  which  the  glass  is 
melted,"  should  read  arches  of  their  furnaces. 

"  107,  in  running  title,  "Judiciary,"  should  read  Land- 
Titles  and  Sm'veys. 

"      155,  in  running  title,  "  Palmyra,"  should  read  Lebanon. 

"  204,  7th  line,  after  "  another,"  read  Stephen  J.  Par- 
tridge, father  of  James  and  William  Partridge,  of 
Mount  Pleasant,  also,  married  a  daughter  of  James 

"  267,  5th  line,  after  "age,"  read  They  have  four  sons 
living,  adding  to  those  mentioned  the  name  of  Alva 

"  276,  17th  line  from  top,  "Asa  Johnson,"  should  read 
Asa  Jones. 

"  292,  6th  line  from  the  bottom,  "Sand  pond,"  should 
read  Long  2'>ond. 

"  300,  13th  line  from  top,  after  "Dwight  Henshaw,"  read 
and  the  wife  of  W.  B.  Arnold, 





rpHE  territory  which  constitutes  the  counties  of  Wayne 
-^  and  Pike,  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  was  set 
off  from  the  county  of  Northampton,  in  pursuance 
of  an  act  of  Legislature,  passed  on  the  21st  of  March, 
1798.  "All  that  part  of  Northampton  county,"  said 
the  act,  "lying,  and  being  to  the  northward  of  a  line 
to  be  drawn,  and  beginning  at  the  west  end  of  George 
MichaeFs  farm,  on  the  river  Delaware,  in  Middle 
Smithfield  township,  and  from  thence  a  straight  line 
to  the  mouth  of  Trout  Creek,  on  the  Lehigh,  adjoin- 
ing Luzerne  county,  shall  be  and  the  same  is  hereby 
erected  into  a  county  henceforth  to  be  called  Wayne." 
This  line  of  excision  separated  from  Northampton  not 
only  the  territory  of  the  present  counties  of  Wayne 
and  Pike,  but  also  two  townships,  subsequently  taken 
from  Pike  and  incorporated  with  other  townships  of 
Northampton,  to  form  the  present  county  of  Monroe. 
The  original  boundaries  of  Wayne  county  w^ere,  there- 



fore,  the  northern  line  of   the  state  on  tlie  north,  the 
Dehiware  river  on  the  east,  Northampton  (now  Mon- 
roe) on  the  sonth,  and  Luzerne  and  Susquelianna  coun- 
ties on  the  west.     The  area    of   the  county  was  1,492 
square  miles,  and  the  population  in  1800  only  2,562, 
an  average  of  less  than  two  persons  to  the  square  mile. 
A   handful  of   people,  scarcely  more  than  an  ordi- 
narv  town-meetinf?  in  modern  times,  scattered  over  so 
large  a  space  of  rugged  territory,  destitute  of   roads, 
mills,  and  other  conveniences  of  civilization,  must  have 
found  it  very  ditticult  to  maintain  the  necessary  expen- 
ses of   a  county  organization,  and  excessively    incon- 
venient to  attend  the  courts  and  places  of    election. 
The  act  of    '98  established  the  courts  in  the  house  of 
Greorge  Buchanan,  in  the  town  of  JVlilford,  as  a  tempo- 
rary   arrangement.     The  10th  section  of  the  act  (3rd 
Smith's  Laws,  p.  318)  appointed  Daniel  Stroud,  Abm. 
Ham,  John  Mahallen,  Samuel  0.  Seely,  and  Samuel 
Stanton,  of  Northampton  and  Wayne,  a  board  of  trus- 
tees for  the  latter  county,  and  empowered  them  to  fix 
on  the  most  eligible  spot  for  the  seat  of  justice  in  and 
for  the  said  county,  to  purchase  or  take  and  receive 
any  quantity  of  land  wdthin  said  county  and  to  survey 
and  lay  out  the  same  in  town  and  outlots,  and  to  sell 
as  many  of    said  lots  at  auction  as  they  should  think 
proper,  and  with  the  money  arising  from   said   sales 
and   other  moneys  to  be  duly  levied  and  collected  as 
taxes,  to  pay  for  the  lands  they  should  purchase,  and 
to  build   a  court-house  and  jail  on  such  of  the  town 
lots  as  they  should  require  for  that  purpose. 

The  11th  section  empowered  the  county  commission- 
ers who  should  be  elected  at  the  next  annual  election , 
to  take  the  title  to  such  lot  as  the  trustees  should  se- 
lect for  the  court  house  and  jail,  and  to  assess  the 
necessary  taxes  for  erecting  said  buildings,  "not  to 
exceed  two  thousand  dollars." 


The  location  of  the  county  seat  must  have  greatly 
agitated  this  sparse  population  scattered  along  the 
valleys  of  the  principal  streams,  for  the  next  year, 
1799,  the  Legislature  removed  the  courts  from  Mil- 
ford  to  Wilson ville,  until  suitable  buildings  should 
be  erected,  ''  within  four  miles  of  the  Dyberry  forks 
of  the  Lackawaxen  river."  This  was  the  Legislative 
mode  of  describing  the  junction,  at  what  is  now^  Hones- 
dale,  of  the  North  and  West  branches  of  the  Lacka- 

But  Wilsonville,  a  small  manufacturing  village  at 
the  falls  of  the  Wallenpaupack,  a  few  miles  above  the 
point  at  which  that  stream  empties  into  the  Lacka- 
waxen, was  found  not  to  be  satisfactory,  even  as  a 
temporary  location  of  the  courts,  for,  on  the  5  th  of 
April,  1802,  the  Legislature  remanded  them  back  to 
Milford  for  "  three  years  and  no  longer." 

Meanwhile,  the  trustees,  under  the  organizing  act 
of  '98,  accepted  from  tienry  Drinker,  Esq.,  of  Phila- 
delphia, a  large  land  proprietor  in  Wayne  county,  a 
conveyance,  upon  a  nominal  consideration,  of  a  tract  of 
999  acres  of  land  in  trust  for  the  county  of  Wayne, 
to  be  laid  out  in  town  and  outlots,  and  to  convey  to 
the  county  commissioners  such  of  said  lots  as  they 
shall  fix  on  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  a  court-house, 
jail,  and  ofiices  for  the  safe-keeping  of  the  records. 
This  deed,  made  the  30th  of  August,  1800,  was  a 
compliance  with  the  act  of  1799,  for  the  land  it  con- 
veyed was  within  fom*  miles  of  the  Dyberry  forks. 

The  trustees  had  the  land  surveyed  into  lots,  and 
on  the  2d  of  January,  1802,  conv^eyed  to  the  county 
commissioners  the  lots  necessary  for  a  public  square 
and  county  buildings,  and  sold  at  public  auction  241 
lots,  at  prices  ranging  from  a  few  cents  to  twenty-seven 
dollars  eacli,  the  proceeds  amounting  in  the  aggregate 
to  $2,735.97.     The  remaining  lots  and  outlots,  183  in 


number,  were  then  conveyed  to  the  county  commis- 
sioners, who  continued  to  sell  from  time  to  time,  until 
they  were  fdl  disposed  of,  at  an  aggregate  of  $1,524.66, 
making  a  total  of  the  proceeds  of  the  Drinker  grant 
$4,260.63.  Besides  this  sum  there  was  the  land  that 
forms  the  beautiful  square  in  Bethany  and  the  site 
of  the  public  buildings,  and  sev^eral  lots  given  to  the 
town  for  church  and  school  purposes. 

It  was  in  this  manner  Bethany  became  the  county 
seat  of  Wayne.  A  frame  court-house  and  a  log  jail 
were  erected  upon  the  pul)lic  square  and  the  court  was 
removed  there  from  Milford,in  1805.  But  no  sooner 
was  the  seat  of  justice  establislied  at  Bethany  than  the 
inhabitants  of  the  lower  end  of  the  county  began  to 
complain  of  the  hardship  of  going  so  far  to  attend 
courts  and  consult  the  records.  The  valleys  of  the 
Delaware  and  of  the  Wallenpaupack  contained  almost 
the  entire  population  of  the  lower  half  of  the  county. 
The  reo;ion  Ivino;  between  these  rivers  and  called  "  The 
Barrens  "  to  this  day,  was,  at  that  time,  an  utter  wilder- 
ness. But  along  the  Delaware  and  the  Wallenpau- 
pack  were  narrow  but  fertile  valleys  whi(?]i  invited  a 
hardy  and  industrious  population  of  farmers  and  lum- 
bermen. It  was  quite  natural  that  these  people  should 
complain  of  the  distance  they  had  to  travel  over  bad 
roads  to  the  seat  of  justice,  and,  accordingly,  they  pre- 
vailed upon  the  Legislature  to  pass  an  act  of  the  19tli 
of  March,  1810,  (5th  S.  L.,  p.  125)  authorizing  the 
Governor  to  appoint  commissioners  to  fix  a  place  for 
the  county  seat  at  or  within  five  miles  of  tlie  territo- 
rial center  of  the  county.  The  preamble  to  this  act  is 
in  these  words:  ''Whereas,  it  appears  to  the  Legisla- 
ture that  those  inhabitants  of  Wayne  county  who  live 
near  tlie  line  of  Northampton  county,  along  the  river 
Delaware,  below  Milford,  are  sul)jected  to  very  great 
hardships  in  their  attendance  on  courts  and  other  pub- 


lie  business  at  Betliany,  on  account  of  the  great  dis- 
tance and  the  uninhabitable  region  over  which  they 
are  obliged  to  travel :  and,  whereas,  it  also  appears  that 
Bethany  is  situated  many  miles  to  the  north  of  the 
territorial  center  of  Wayne  county,  and  that  by  a  re- 
moval of  the  seat  of  justice  to  a  place  at  or  near  the 
center,  the  inhabitants  first  above  mentioned  would 
gain  some  relief,  whilst  the  inliabitants  of  the  upper 
townships  would  not  suffer  any  material  disadvantage 
by  such  removal ; "  therefore  it  was  enacted  that  the 
Governor  should  appoint  three  disinterested  commis- 
sioners "  to  fix  on  a  place  for  the  seat  of  justice  at  or 
within  five  miles  of  the  territorial  center  of  said 
county,"  witli  power  as  to  laying  out  and  selling  lots 
similar  to  those  conferred  upon  the  trustees  by  the  act 
of  '98.  The  commissioners  appointed  under  this  act 
reported  on  the  21st  of  August,  1810,  that  they  had 
fixed  on  a  place  known  as  Blooming  Grove,  now 
within  the  limits  of  Pike  county  and  called  Nyce's 

The  county  commissioners  refused  to  levy  the 
necessary  taxes  for  the  erection  of  public  buildings  at 
Blooming  Grove  and  they  set  forth  their  reasons  in  a 
paper  that  was  drawn  with  great  ability.  After  co- 
gent statements  for  believing  that  the  Legislature 
meant  that  the  public  buildings  should  be  principally 
paid  for  by  grants  of  land  rather  than  by  taxation  of 
a  people  already  heavily  oppressed,  the  county  com- 
missioners said  in  conclusion :  "  but  while  the  county  is 
annually  subjected  to  a  heavy  tax  without  being  able 
to  discharge  its  just  and  necessary  expenditures ;  while 
after  the  most  vigorous  exertions  in  collecting  taxes 
there  remain  many  orders  on  the  Treasury  unpaid, 
while  the  poor  juror  and  laborer  is  compelled  from 
his  necessities  to  sell  his  hard-earned  county  orders  to 
some  speculator  at  a  discount  of  from  twelve  to  twen- 


ty-five  per  cent.,  while  the  traveler  is  put  in  jeopardy 
by  the  failure  of  bridges  which  the  county  wants  the 
necessary  funds  to  repair;  and  while  with  their  best 
efforts  and  strictest  economy,  the  commissioners  are 
able  but  gradually  to  retrieve  the  credit  of  the  county, 
they  cannot  consider  that  there  are  any  existing  cir- 
cumstances or  advantages  to  the  county  which  would 
result  from  forcing  a  fund  for  the  purpose  of  erecting 
public  buildings  at  Blooming  Grove  which  would  bear 
any  comparative  weight  in  counterbalancing  the  evils 
which  would  necessarily  follow  a  pursuit  of  the  meas- 
ure." And  then  followed  a  formal  resolution  not  to 
tax  the  people  for  this  purpose. 

ReiJrarded  as  resistance  to  an  act  of  Assemblv  this 
was  a  bold  step,  but  the  poverty  of  the  people  pleaded 
so  strongly  in  favor  of  the  stand  assumed  by  the  com- 
missioners that  all  parties  acquiesced  in  it,  or  at  least 
no  appeal  was  made  to  the  courts  to  compel  obedi- 
ence to  the  behests  of  the  Legislature. 

The  names  of  the  lirst  county  commissioners  were 
Eliphalet  Kellogg,  Johannes  Yan  Etten,  and  John 
Carson.  John  Brink  was  the  iirst  county  treasurer. 
On  the  26th  of  December,  1799,  Jason  Torrey  and 
John  H.  Schenck  presented  to  the  court  the  hrst  aud- 
itors' report  of  the  iinances  of  the  county,  in  wliich 
they  noticed  and  excused  some  irregularities  on  the 
part  of  the  accounting  otticers,  but,  on  the  whole,  com- 
mended their  measures  as  reflecting  credit  upon  them- 
selves and  the  county.  On  the  11th  of  December, 
1800,  Jason  Torrey  was  reappointed  auditor  in  connec- 
tion with  James  Eldred  and  Martin  Overfield,but  their 
report  submitted  at  the  February  terili  of  court,  1801, 
was  less  complimentary  to  the  county  commissioners 
and  their  clerk  than  that  of  the  previous  year.  The 
commissioners  were  charged  with  selling  bridges  with- 
out prescribing  the  manner  in  which  the  work  should 

woodwabd'jS  commencement.  7 

be  done  nor  when  they  should  be  completed — with 
paymg  for  them  in  full  without  exHmination  and  be- 
fore there  was  any  pretence  of  their  completion — with 
paying  their  clerk  upwards  of  $200  for  a  year's  service 
while  there  w^ere  persons  in  the  county  w^ho  would 
perform  the  duties  for  half  the  money — w^ith  allowing 
one  of  their  number  (Mr.  Carson)  to  go  to  Philadel- 
phia and  advertise  in  three  daily  papers  for  three 
months  that  he  was  there  to  receive  taxes  on  unseated 
lands,  and  receiving  a  considerable  amount  without 
accounting  for  them  to  the  auditors,  and  with  various 
other  irregularities.  This  report  was  not  finally  tiled 
imtil  the  14th  of  September,  1801,  when  Major  Torrey 
appended  to  it  a  note  partially  exonerating  Mr.  Car- 
son and  clerk  Kellogg  from  the  charges  preferred  in 
the  text  of  the  report. 

The  irregularities  so  justly  censured  by  the  auditors 
show  that  even  in  this  infant  county,  of  slender  re- 
sources and  small  finances,  official  delinquencies  and 
misdeeds  had  begun  which  in  after  times  and  in  other 
counties,  if  not  in  Wayne,  have  grown  into  enormous 
abuses.  Official  infidelity  to  public  trusts  is  a  crying 
evil  of  our  times.  And  it  is  not  peculiar  to  any  peri- 
od or  place.  It  has  come  down  to  us  in  regular  suc- 
cession from  an  antiquity  much  beyond  the  origin  of 
our  counties  or  even  our  State,  and  it  grows  apace, 
l)oth  in  the  State  and  nation.  When  and  from  whence 
is  the  corrective  to  come  ?  Only  from  a  better  moral 
education  of  the  masses.  When  schools,  the  press, 
and  the  pulpit  shall  impress  the  rising  generation  with 
the  sacredness  of  pul)lic  trusts — and  with  the  thought 
that  office  exists  for  the  convenience  of  the  people  and 
not  for  the  emolument  of  the  possessor,  and  that 
wealth  acquired  from  public  office  is  prima-facie  evi- 
dence of  crime — we  may  hope  to  find  men  for  public 
servants  who  will  not  steal. 


During  the  following  year  the  receipts  from  actual 
residents  amounted  to  $605.87,  and  from  unseated 
lands  to  |C)13.68,  making  a  total  of  $1,219.55,  while 
the  expenditures  of  the  year  1 800  w^ere  $1,050.06.  Each 
year  the  aggregate  of  taxes  increased  with  the  increas- 
ing population,  but  expenditures  increased  also.  The 
county  treasury  was  unable  to  redeem  the  orders 
drawn  upon  it,  and  pul)lic  accounts  fell  into  confusion 
until  1807  and  1808,  when  an  earnest  effort  was  made 
to  straighten  public  affairs.  The  records  had  been 
removed  to  the  new  offices  in  Bethany,  and  the  first 
meeting  of  the  county  commissioners  was  held  there 
early  in  1807.  A  careful  examination  of  the  financial 
condition  of  the  county  disclosed  the  fact  that  there 
was  no  money  in  the  treasury,  while  its  liabilities  in 
the  shape  of  unpaid  checks,  refunded  taxes,  etc.,  amount- 
ed to  about  $5,000.  Upwards  of  $16,000  were  due 
the  county  from  owners  of  unseated  lands,  delinquent 
collectors,  dilatory  sheriffs,  overpaid  commissioners, 
and  other  officers,  w^hich,  if  collected,  would,  it  was 
claimed,  put  the  county  out  of  debt,  and  leave  a  con- 
siderable balance  in  the  treasury.  As  one  of  the  re- 
sults of  this  investigation,  in  1808,  the  sheriff,  Abisha 
Woodward,  w^as  directed  to  sell  such  unseated  lands  as 
were  in  arrears  for  taxes,  which  he  proceeded  to  do,  and 
in  1809  the  receipts  from  these  sales  amounted  to  be- 
tween $9,000  and  $10,000.  In  1811  the  inconvenien- 
ces and  losses  to  the  county  and  to  individuals  w^hich 
had  resulted  from  the  neglect  of  treasurers  to  furnish 
information  to  the  commissioners  with  respect  to  the 
state  of  the  treasury,  led  to  the  adoption  of  a  series  of 
resolutions  requiring  the  treasurer  to  report,  on  the 
first  day  of  every  term,  the  exact  condition  of  the 
finances,  and  declaring  a  failure  to  do  so  as  well  as  the 
buying  up  of  county  orders  at  a  discount  with  tlie  pub- 
lic funds,  to  be  a  misdemeanor  in  office.     The  Com- 


missioners  might  well  treat  such  official  misconduct  as 
ground  for  removal,  for  they  held  then  the  appoint- 
ment of  county  treasurer,  and  were,  in  a  very  special 
sense,  the  exclusive  fiscal  agents  of  the  county. 

Under  the  sharp  animadversions  of  the  county  audi- 
tors, and  with  increasing  experience  in  the  conduct  of 
public  affairs,  the  linancial  condition  of  the  county  im- 
proved with  the  increase  of  population.  The  frame 
court-house  and  the  log  jail  at  Bethany  were  complet- 
ed; courts  were  held  regularly  there;  farms  were 
cleared,  roads  were  Iniilt,  and  the  winters  were  improv- 
ed to  get  out  logs  and  squared  timber  from  the  forests 
of  pine,  hemlock,  and  oak,  to  be  rafted  down  the  Lack- 
awaxen  and  Delaware  to  Easton,  Trenton,  and  Phila- 
delphia, wlien  the  spring  freshets  came.  The  supplies 
of  store  goods,  of  iron,  salt,  leather,  cloths  and  grocer- 
ies, purchased  wdth  the  proceeds  of  the  lumber,  were 
transported  to  the  scattered  settlements  with  great  dif- 
ficulty. The  "Durham  Boat"  on  the  Delaw^are  was 
the  prime,  and  for  a  long  time,  the  only  ascending  nav- 
igation. This  craft  which  has  disappeared  from  these 
waters  within  the  last  quarter  of  a  century,  was  a  long, 
trim  boat,  which,  though  laden  wdth  several  tons,  drew 
so  little  water  that  it  could  pass  up  the  rifts  and  shoals 
of  the  streams,  propelled  by  a  poleman  on  each  side, 
and  guided  by  a  steersman  at  the  rudder.  Another 
mode  of  getting  goods  into  Wayne  county  was  to  car- 
ry them  up  the  Hudson  river  to  Newburg,  and  thence 
cart  them  by  way  of  Cochecton  to  Bethany  and  other 
points.  After  the  north  and  south  turnpike  was  built 
through  Sterling,  Salem,  and  Canaan  townships,  a  con- 
siderable trade  was  established  with  Easton. 

But  although  the  industries  of  Wayne  were  in  proc- 
ess of  gradual  though  healthful  development,  great 
discontent  continued  to  be  manifested  by  the  people 
along  the  Delaware  below  Milford,  on  account  of  the 


location  of  the  county  seat  at  Bethany,  and,  in  1814, 
the  LegisLiture,  witli  the  general  consent  of  the  people, 
set  oif  the  lower  end  into  a  new  county,  to  be  called 
Pike,  with  the  seat  of  justice  at  Milford  where  it  has 
remained  ever  since.  The  division  line  was  run  by 
John  K.  Woodward,  conformably  to  the  act  of  Sep- 
tember, 1814,  beginning  at  the  lower  end  of  Big  Eddy 
on  the  Delaware,  thence  to  a  point  on  the  Lackawaxen 
opposite  the  Wallenpaupack,  thence  up  the  Wallenpau- 
pack  and  the  South  l)ranch  thereof  to  the  old  north 
and  south  State  road,  and  thence  west  seven  miles  and 
ninety  two  perches  to  the  Lehigli  creek.  Thus  was 
Pike  county  set  off  with  an  area  of  772  square  miles, 
and  witli  a  population,  ^vhich,  according  to  the  census 
of  1820,  amounted  to  2,894.  The  area  left  to  Wayne 
was  720  square  miles,  and  the  population  in  1820  was 

I  have  compiled,  from  various  sources,  the  lead- 
ing events  that  attended  the  formation  of  the  two 
counties  of  Wayne  and  Pike.  The  people  were  gen- 
erally poor.  Most  of  the  old  men  had  been  soldiers 
in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  others  were  descendants 
of  families  who  had  suifered  in  various  ways  in  that 
struggle  and  from  frequent  incursions  of  Indians.  The 
settlements  Avere  sparse  and  Avidely  separated.  The 
soil  and  climate  were  rigorous.  The  land  which  was 
worth  clearing  for  agricultural  purposes  was  heavily 
timbered  with  beech,  maple,  and  hemlock,  though  much 
of  the  mountain  range  that  runs  through  Pike  cdunty 
was  and  still  is  "  The  Barrens,"  and  utterly  insuscep- 
tible of  cultivation.  Except  along  the  river-bottoms 
the  arable  land  was  stony,  requiring  much  labor  to  re- 
move them  and  lay  them  into  w^alls  for  fences  of  the 
lields.  Much  of  the  soil  was  wet  and  needed  ditching 
to  make  it  productive.  Yet  with  all  these  disadvan- 
tages, the   hardy  and  industrious  people  who  settled 


the  bills  and  valleys  of  these  counties,  persevered  in 
lumbering  and  farming  until  they  established  large 
and  prosperous  communities,  built  towns  and  tm-npikes, 
improved  their  farms,  established  schools  and  churches, 
so  that  these  counties  have  become  influential  in  the 

The  foregoing  is  all  that  Judge  G.  W.  Woodward  wrote  of 
the  History  of  Wayne  County. 


CHAPTEIl     11. 

PROBABLY  a  history  of  Wayne  would  be  considered 
imperfect  that  did  not  embrace  a  description  of  the 
Indian  tribes  that  once  chiimed  and  occupied  the  ter- 
ritory as  their  favorite  hunting  grounds.  Having  be- 
come extinct  in  consequence  of  their  conflicts  with  the 
whites,  who  had  the  superior  means  of  sharpening  the 
scythe  of  death,  and  who,  in  encroaching  and  overpow- 
ering numbers,  dispossessed  tliem  of  their  lands  and 
homes,  none  of  them  are  left  to  rehearse,  in  truth  and 
sadness,  how  they  were  ^\Tonged  and  abused  by  their 
invaders.  From  the  scanty  traditions  preserved  by 
the  early  explorers  and  settlers,  it  appears  that  a  tribe 
called  the  Mousey s,  wdio  held  their  head-quarters  or 
council  fire  at  a  place  on  the  Delaware,  called  "Mini- 
sink,"  (a  part  of  which  tribe  settled  at  Wyoming)  held 
jurisdiction  over  the  lands  now  embraced  in  Wayne, 
Pike,  and  Susquehanna  counties.  This  tribe  claimed 
to  hold  their  territory  independent  of  the  Delawares 
from  whom  William  Penn  purchased  his  lands.  A 
tribe,  or  remnant  of  a  tribe,  lived  on  the  Delaware, 
scattered  between  Shehawken  and  tlie  mouth  of  the 
Lackawaxen,  most  of  them  a]>out  Cochecton,  and  were 
known   as   the  Mohicans  or  Cushetunks.     But  there 


was  a  powerful  confederacy  southward  of  the  Great 
Lakes,  known  as  the  Six  I^ations,  consisting  of  the 
Onondagas,  Senecas,  Cayugas,  Mohawks,  Oneidas,  and 
Tuscaroras.*  These  chiimed  to  hold  the  Monseys, 
Delawares,  and  Shawnees  in  subjection,  and  denied 
that  they  had  any  right  to  sell  lands  to  the  whites. 
These  six  nations,  by  an  early  alliance  with  the  Dutch, 
who  first  settled  on  the  Hudson,  obtained  fire-arms  by 
the  use  of  which  they  were  able  to  check  the  encroach- 
ments of  the  French  and  to  reduce  to  submission  many 
bordering  tril)es.  From  these  they  exacted  an  ac- 
knowledgment of  fealty,  permitting  them  under  such 
humiliation  to  occupy  their  former  liunting  grounds. 
To  this  dependent  condition  the  Iroquois  asserted  that 
they  had,  by  conquest,  reduced  the  Lenni  Lenape. 
Charles  the  II.,  King  of  England,  in  1681,  granted  a 
charter  to  William  Penn  of  a  large  province  of  land 
in  the  JS^ew  World,  as  it  was  then  called,  the  extent  of 
which  was  to  be  three  degrees  of  latitude  in  breadth  by 
five  degrees  of  longitude  in  length;  the  Delaware  river 
was  to  be  the  eastern  boundary,  and  the  northern 
boundary  was  to  begin  on  the  commencement  of  the 
three  and  fortieth  degree  of  north  latitude,  which  pro- 
vince was  by  royal  order  called  Pennsylvania.  The 
amount  of  land  embraced  in  said  charter  comprised 
twenty-six  millions  of  acres.  In  1682,  AYm.  Penn  came 
over  from  England  to  found  a  colony  upon  the  broad 
principles  of  Christian  charity,  free  toleration,  and  con- 
stitutional freedom.    Althouo-li  he  had  obtained  a  char- 

*Called  by  the  French,  Iroquois. 


ter  from  th3  king  of  England  empowering  him  to  take 
possession  of  the  lands  therein  embraced,  yet  he  hon- 
estly admitted   that  the   Indians  were   the  only   true 
owners  of  the  lands.     Acting  under  that  conviction 
he  had  not  been  long  in  the  country  before  he  took 
measures  to  bring  together  the  Indians  from  various 
parts  of   his  province,  to  form  with  them  a  treaty  of 
peace  and  friendship.     Sucli  a  treaty  was  made  and, 
unlike  most  Indian  treaties,  was  never  broken.     Not  a 
drop  of    Quaker  blood  was  ever  shed  by  an  Indian. 
The  colony  was  peaceful  and  prosperous  for  seventy 
years.     It  is  remarkable  that  no  original  \\'ritten  re(*- 
ord  can  be  disc^overed   of   Penn's  memorable    treaty 
with  the  Indians,  though  traditional  evidence  is  abun- 
dant regarding  its  occurrence.     The  heirs  of  William 
Penn,  who  were    called  the  Proprietaries,    were    the 
governing  element  in  the  province  until  near  the  days 
of  the  Pevolution,  but  took  no  measures  to  fix  and  de- 
termine the  boundaries  of  the  lands  which  their  great 
progenitor  or  his  agents,  in  his  life-time,  purchased  of 
the  Indians,  until  1733.     The  northern  boundary  of 
one   important  purchase  was   to  be  determined   by    a 
man's  walk  of    a  day  and  a-half.     Beginning  on  the 
bank  of   the  Delaware,  near  Wrightstown,  in  Bucks 
county,  (the  boundary  of  a  former  purchase),  the  walk 
was  to  be  done  by  three  white  men  and  a  like  number 
of  Indians.     The  men  having  been  selected,  the  wdiites 
walked  with  all  their  might,  and  arrived  at  the  north 
side  of  Blue  mountain,  the  first  day,  which  was  as  far 
as  the  whole  walk  would  extend,  according  to  the  ex- 


pectations  of  the  Indians;  and  when  they  found  the 
walk   was  to  proceed  half  a  day  further,  they  were 
angry,  said  tliey  were  cheated,  and  wonld  go  no  fur- 
ther.    The  whites  started  again  next  morning;  two  of 
them  gave  out:  but  one,  Edward  Marshall,  went  on 
alone  and  arrived  at  noon  on  a  spur  of  Pocono  moun- 
tain,  sixty-five  miles  from  the  starting  point.     Sher- 
man Day,  the  historian,  says  :     "If   the  w^alk  had  ter- 
minated at  the  Kittatinny,  the  line  from  the  end  of 
the  walk  to  intersect  the  Delaware,  if   drawn  at  right 
angles,  would  have  intersected  the  Delaware  at  the 
Water  Gap,  and  Avould  not  have  included  the  Mini- 
sink  lands,  a  prominent  object  of  the  speculators.     The 
line  as  actually  drawn  by  Mr.  Eastburn,  the  surveyor- 
general,  intersected  the  Delaware  near  Shohola  creek, 
in  Pike  county.     Overreaching^  both  in  its  literal  and 
figurative    sense,  is    the  term  most  applicable  to  the 
whole  transaction."     The  Indians  remonstrated  against 
the  great  wrong  done  them  by  the  said  walk,  and  de- 
clared their  intention  to  hold  the  disputed  lands  by 
force  of   arms.     The  Proprietary  Government,  know- 
ing that  the  Six  Nations  held  the  Delawares  under  a 
sort  of   fear  and  vassalage,  prevailed  upon  them  l)y 
presents  to  interpose  their  authority,  in  the  expulsion 
of  the  refractory  Delawares.     Accordingly,  in  1742, 
a  delegation  of  two  hundred  and  thirty  of  the  Six  Na- 
tions met  in  Philadelphia,  and  being  made  to  believe 
that  the  Delawares  had  actually  sold  the  disputed  lands, 
Canassatoga,   on  the  part  of    the  deputation,  roundly 
berated  the  Delawares  for  selling  the  lands  at  all^  call- 


ing  them  vassals  and  women,  thereby  adding  insult 
to  injury,  and  ending  by  bidding  them  instantly  to 
remove  from  the  lands.  They  dared  not  disregard 
this  peremptory  command.  Some  of  them,  it  is  said, 
went  to  Wyoming  and  Shamokin,  others  to  Ohio. 
Even  at  this  council  the  deputies  complained  that  the 
whites  were  settling  on  unbought  lands  and  spoiling 
their  hunting,  and  demanded  the  removal  of  the  set- 
tlers upon  and  along  the  Juniata,  who,  they  said,  were 
doing  great  damage  to  their  cousins,  the  Delawares. 
In  March,  1744,  war  was  declared  between  France 
and  Great  Britain.  The  drsrk  clouds  of  savage  war- 
fare gathered  over  the  western  frontiers,  and  many 
murders  were  committed  by  tlie  Indians.  The  French, 
hovering  around  the  Great  Lakes,  spared  no  pains  to 
seduce  the  savages  from  their  allegiance  to  the  Eng- 
lish. The  Shawnees  at  once  joined  the  French,  the 
Delawares  only  waited  for  a  chance  to  revenge  their 
wrongs,  and  the  Six  Nations  were  wavering;  massa- 
cres ensued,  and  no  age  or  sex  was  spared.  A  treaty 
was  made  between  France  and  Great  Britain,  in  1748, 
but  it  tended  very  little  to  abate  tlie  violence  of  savage 
warfare.  The  Proprietors,  anxious  to  secure  all  the 
lands  of  the  Indians,  in  July,  1754,  purchased  of  the 
Six  Nations  all  the  lands  within  the  province  not  ])e- 
f ore  obtained,  lying  south-west  of  a  line,  "  Beginning 
one  mile  above  the  mouth  of  Penn's  creek,  thence  run- 
ning north-west  by  west  to  the  western  l)oundary  of 
the  province."  The  line  instead  of  striking  the  west- 
ern line  of  the  State,  as  the  Indians  supposed  it  would, 


struck  the  northern  boundary  thereof,  west  of  Cone- 
wango  creek.  The  Shawnees,  Delawares,  Monse3^s, 
and  other  tribes  soon  found  out  that  their  lands  on  the 
Susquehanna,  Juniata,  Allegheny,  and  Oliio  rivers, 
which  the  Six  Nations  had  guaranteed  to  tliem,  had 
been  sold  from  under  their  feet.  The  Indians  on  the 
Allegheny  at  once  went  over  to  the  French.  After 
Braddock's  defeat,  in  1753,  the  whole  frontier,  from 
the  Delaware  to  the  Potomac,  was  desolated  by  the 
Indians,  who,  having  been  joined  by  other  tribes,  laid 
waste  all  the  settlements  beyond  the  Kittatinny  moun- 
tains, burning  the  hamlets  and  scalping  the  settlers. 
The  Proprietors  became  alarmed  and,  in  November, 
1756,  held  another  grand  council,  at  Easton,  between 
Teedyuscung,  a  noted  Delaware  chief,  and  some  other 
chiefs,  on  the  one  part,  and  Governor  Denny,  on  the 
part  of  the  Proprietors.  The  conference  lasted  nine 
days.  The  discontents  of  the  Indians  with  regard  to 
the  great  walk  and  the  purchase  of  lands  made  by  the 
Proprietors,  in  1754,  were  heard  and  inquired  into, 
and  a  treaty  of  peace  was  patched  up  with  the  Dela- 
wares. But  the  complaints  of  the  Indians  that  the 
whites  were  encroaching  upon  their  lands  continued 
and  became  boisterous.  It  was  found  that  something 
must  be  done.  Another  great  council  was  summoned 
to  meet  at  Easton,  in  the  fall  of  1758.  Easton  was  a 
noted  place  for  holding  councils  between  the  whites 
and  Indians.  It  was,  as  now,  the  county  seat  of  North- 
ampton county,  which  county  w^as  established  and  sep- 
arated from  Bucks  county,  in  1752,  and,  at  the  time 



of  its  establishment,  included  Wayne,  Pike,  Monroe, 
Lehigh,  and  Carbon  counties.  The  said  council  was  the 
most  important  and  imposing  one  ever  held  in  the  prov- 
ince. It  was  attended  by  chiefs  both  of  the  Six  Nations 
and  Delawares,  and  by  the  agents  of  the  governments 
of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey.  About  five  hundred 
Indians  were  present,  representing  all  the  Six  Nations, 
most  of  the  Delawares,  the  Shawnees,  the  Miamis,  the 
Mohicans,  Monseys,  Nanticokes,  and  Conoys.  Many 
Quakers,  who  were  anxious  that  peace  and  justice 
might  prevail,  were  present  as  the  friends  of  the  In- 
dians. Teedyuscung  spoke  for  several  of  the  tribes. 
He  was  a  noted  Delaware  chief.  He  rehearsed  the 
wrongs  of  the  Pennsylvania  tribes,  and  accused  the 
Proprietors  of  being  very  profuse  of  promises,  and 
neglectful  in  keeping  them;  and  he  accused  the  Six 
Nations  of  dealing  and  deciding  unfairly  with  the 
Pennsylvania  tribes,  and  that  they  had  been,  from  time 
to  time,  perverted  from  doing  their  duty  by  the  rich 
and  abundant  presents  made  to  them  by  the  agents  of 
the  Proprietary  Government.  The  Six  Nations  were 
offended  at  the  boldness  of  Teedyuscung,  and  sought 
to  counteract  his  influence ;  but  he  bore  himself  Avith 
dignity  and  firmness,  and  although  he  was  well-plied 
with  liquor,  he  refused  to  yield  to  the  Six  Nations, 
and  resisted  all  the  wiles  of  the  intriguing  whites. 
The  council  lasted  eighteen  days,  and  all  matters  which 
had  caused  discontent  among  the  Indians  were  freely 
discussed.  All  lands  claimed  as  having  been  purchas- 
ed of   them,  beyond  the  Allegheny  mountains,  were 


given  up.  An  additional  compensation  for  lands  al- 
ready purchased  was  to  be  given.  In  short,  another 
peace  was  concluded,  and  at  the  close  of  the  treaty — 
to  the  shame  of  the  whites  be  it  said — stores  of  rum 
were  given  to  the  Indians,  who  soon  exhil)ited  its  ef- 
fect in  frightful  orgies  or  stupid  insensibility.  The 
English  having  taken  Quel)ec  from  the  French,  in 
1759,  and  captured  all  their  forts  and  military  depots 
on  the  north-west  and  western  frontiers,  peace  was  con- 
cluded between  Great  Britain,  France  and  Spain,  in 
1762,  and  Pennsylvania  was,  for  a  short  time,  relieved 
of  the  horrors  of  war.  But  the  short  cahn  was  fol- 
lowed by  a  terrific  storm.  The  Indians  about  the 
Great  Lakes  and  on  the  Ohio,  without  complaint,  had 
permitted  the  French  to  erect  and  maintain  a  chain  of 
forts  from  Presque  Isle  (Erie)  to  the  Monongahela,  so 
long  as  they  proved  a  barrier  to  the  encroachments  of 
the  English,  but  when  they  saw  Canada  and  these  forts 
in  the  hands  of  the  English,  and  reflected  that  the 
lands  upon  which  said  forts  stood  w^ere  never  purchas- 
ed of  the  native  owners,  their  hatred  of  the  intrusive 
whites  became  intense  and  wide-spread.  A  great  In- 
dian chief,  named  Pontiac,  of  the  Ottawas,  (a  western 
tribe),  formed  the  plan  of  uniting  all  the  Indian  tribes 
and  of  precipitating  them  at  once  upon  the  whole  fron- 
tier. Tlie  utter  extermination  of  the  whites  was  his 
object.  With  the  suddenness  and  violence  of  a  tor- 
nado, the  attack  was  made.  The  English  traders 
among  the  Indians  were  killed  first.  Out  of  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  only  three  escaped.     Scalping  parties 


overran  the  frontier  settlements  among  the  mountains, 
marking  their  way  with  blood  and  carnage.  The  forts 
of  Presque  Isle,  Yenango,  St.  Joseph,  and  Mackinaw 
were  taken,  and  their  garrisons  slaughtered.  Other 
forts  were  saved  with  great  difficulty.  The  dismayed 
settlers  on  the  Juniata  and  Susquehanna,  with  their 
families  and  ftocks,  sought  refuge  at  Carlisle,  Lancas- 
ter, and  Reading.  The  peaceful  Moravian  Indians  fled 
to  Philadelphia  which  was  their  only  place  of  safety. 
This  was  the  most  destructive  and  fiercely-contested 
war  ever  waged  between  the  whites  and  Indians  in 
Pennsylvania.  The  cruelties  and  barbarities  perpetra- 
ted in  tliis  war  on  both  sides  are  too  shocking  to  relate. 
In  October,  1763,  John  Penn,  grandson  of  William 
Penn,  came  over  from  England  as  lieutenant-gover- 
nor, and,  having  ignored  the  peaceful  non-resistant  pol- 
icy of  the  Quakers,  by  proclamation  offered  bounties 
for  the  capture,  death,  or  scalps  of  Indians,  viz:  "For 
every  male  above  the  age  of  ten  years  captured,  $150; 
scalped,  being  killed,  $134;  for  every  male  or  female 
Indian  enemy  above  the  age  of  ten  years  captured, 
$130;  for  every  female  above  the  age  of  ten  years  be- 
ing scalped  or  killed,  $50."  Effective  measures  were 
at  once  taken  by  the  Proprietary  Government  to  repel 
the  assaults  of  the  savages  by  carrying  the  war  into 
their  own  country.  Volunteers  from  Cumberland  and 
Bedford  counties,  under  Col.  Armstrong,  went  up  and 
defeated  several  parties  of  Indians  on  the  West 
branch.  General  Amherst  dispatched  Col.  Boquet, 
with  a  large  quantity  of   provisions,  under    a    strong 


force,  to  the  relief  of  Fort  Pitt.  From  thence,  in  the 
autumn  of  1764,  he  extended  his  expedition  to  the 
Muskingum  in  Ohio.  The  Indians  were  alarmed  and 
sued  for  peace.  The  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Senecas, 
and  other  tribes  agreed  to  cease  hostilities,  and  they 
gave  up  a  large  number  of  prisoners  that  in  former 
wars  they  had  carried  into  captivity. 

Though  peace  was  restored,  yet  the  complaints  of 
the  Indians  were  continued  and  not  causelessly;  for 
lawless  white  men  continued  to  settle  upon  the  Indian 
lands  and  to  incite  hostilities  by  the  unprovoked 
murder  of  the  peaceable  natives.  Another  savage  war 
was  threatened,  which,  happily,  was  prevented  by  the 
tact  and  wise  intervention  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  a 
British  officer,  at  whose  instance,  a  great  council  was 
held  at  Fort  Stanwix,  in  New  York,  at  which  all 
grievances  were  adjusted,  and  a  treaty  made  Novem- 
ber 5tli,  1768,  with  the  Six  Nations,  who  then  sold 
and  conveyed  to  the  Proprietors,.  "All  the  land  wdthin 
a  boundary  extending  from  the  New  York  line  on  the 
Susquelianna,  past  Towanda  and  Pine  creek,  up  the 
West  branch  over  to  Kittanning  and  thence  down  the 
Ohio."  This  was  called  the  "New  Purchase,"  and  in- 
cluded the  lands  in  Wayne  and  Susquehanna  counties, 
most  of  Luzerne  and  part  of  Pike  county.  This  was 
the  last  purchase  made  by  the  Proprietors.  The  State 
afterwards  bought  of  the  Indians  all  the  lands  which 
remained  unsold  witliin  its  chartered  limits. 

(If  the  preceding  narrative  of  Indian  matters  should 
be  deemed  irrelevant  to  the  history  of  Wayne  county, 


the  following  continuance  thereof  may  be  a  sufficient 
apology  for  its  presentation.) 

In  the  month  of  August,  1762,  about  two  lumdred 
colonists  from  Connecticut  commenced  a  settlement  at 
Wyoming,  on  the  Susquehanna  river,  claiming  a  right 
under  the  said  named  State,  which  founded  her  claim 
under  the  original  charter  granted  in  1620  to  the  Ply- 
mouth Company  by  James  I.,  Avhich  charter  was  con- 
firmed by  Cliarles  II.,  to  Connecticut  in  1663,  and  set- 
tiuix  forth  that  the  said  charter  should  include :  "  All 
that  part  of  our  dominions  in  New  England,  in  Ameri- 
ca, bounded  on  the  east  by  Narragansett  bay  where  the 
said  river  f alleth  into  the  sea,  and  on  the  north  by  the 
line  of  the  Massachusetts  Plantation,  on  the  south  by 
the  sea  and  in  longitude  as  the  Massachusetts  Colony 
running  from  east  to  west — that  is  to  say,  from  the 
Narragansett  bay  on  the  east,  to  the  South  sea  on  the 
west  part."  Tliis  charter,  it  w^as  claimed,  included  all 
the  lands  of  sixty  miles  in  width  extending  to  the  Pa- 
cific ocean,  excepting  the  intervening  part  betw^een 
Connecticut  and  Pennsylvania,  w^hich  had  been  con- 
ceded to  the  province  of  New^  York,  in  consequence  of 
a  charter  granted  by  Charles  II.  to  his  l^rother,  the 
Duke  of  York  and  Albany.  The  charter  to  the  col- 
ony of  Connecticut  was  made  eighteen  years  prior  to 
that  made  to  William  Penn,  by  the  same  monarch. 
It  has  ]>een  presumed  that  said  monarch  knew^  little  or 
nothino;  of  the  location  or  extent  of  the  territories  that 
he  granted,  and  tliat  his  title  to  the  same  w^as  little 
superior  to  his  knowledge. 


In  the  year  1753,  a  number  of  persons,  mostly  in- 
habitants of  Connecticut,  formed  a  company  with  the 
intent  of  purchasing  the  lands  of  the  Indians  on  the 
Susquehanna,  and  establishing  settlements  at  Wyo- 
ming. This  association  was  called  the  "Susquehanna 
Company."  The  said  two  hundred  settlers  of  1762 
were  a  part  of  them.  The  agents  of  said  Company 
attended  a  council  of  the  Six  Nations  held  at  Albany 
on  the  11th  of  eluly,  1754,  and  made  a  purchase  from 
the  Indians  of  the  Wyoming  lands,  the  boundaries  of 
which  are  thus  given  in  their  deeds :  "Beginning  from 
the  one  and  fortieth  degree  of  north  latitude,  ten  miles 
east  of  the  Susquehanna  river,  and  from  thence  by  a 
north  line  ten  miles  east  of  the  river  to  the  end  of  the 
forty-second  degree  of  north  latitude  and  so  to  extend 
Tvest  two  degrees  of  longitude,  one  hundred  and  twenty 
miles,  and  from  thence  south  to  the  beginning  of  the 
forty-second  degree,  and  thence  east  to  the  beginning, 
which  is  ten  miles  east  of  the  Susquehanna  river."  It 
has  never  been  denied  but  that  this  purchase  included 
the  valley  of  the  Wyoming  and  the  country  westward 
to  the  head  waters  of  the  Allegheny  river.  At  the 
time  the  above-named  purchase  was  made,  the  country 
east  of  the  Susquehanna  Company  purchase  was 
bought  of  the  Indians  by  another  association,  called 
the  "Delaware  Company,"  under  whose  encourage- 
ment the  first  settlement  of  whites  was  made,  at  Co- 
checton,  on  the  Delaware,  in  1755.  This  was  the  first 
attempt  made  to  liold  lands  under  said  Connecticut 
and  Indian  titles.    The  progress  made  by  the  last-nam- 


ed  colony  will  be  noticed  under  the  head  of  Danuis- 
cus  township.  At  the  time  the  last-above-named  pur- 
chases were  made  of  the  Indians,  commissioners  were 
present  to  act  for  tlie  Proprietors,  but  there  is  no  evi- 
dence that  they  then  made  any  purchase  of  the  Wyo- 
ming and  Delaware  lands,  though  they  obtained  a  deed 
on  the  6th  of  July,  1754,  of  a  tract  of  land  between  the 
Blue  mountain  and  the  forks  of  the  Susquehanna  river. 
Gov.  Morris,  of  Pennsylvania,  on  the  return  of  his 
commissioners  from  Albany,  having  learned  that  the 
Susquehanna  and  Delaware  Companies  had  effected  a 
purchase  of  the  Wyoming  and  other  lands,  wrote  to 
Sir  William  Johnson,  (so  Chapman  alleges,)  on  the 
15th  of  November,  1751,  requesting  him  to  induce  the 
Indians,  if  possible,  to  deny  the  contracts  they  had 
made,  and,  as  a  means  of  effecting  it,  to  wdn  over  Hen- 
drick,  a  noted  chief,  to  his  interests,  and  persuade  the 
chief  to  visit  Philadelphia.  The  Connecticut  settlers 
reprobated  the  conduct  of  Governor  Morris,  as  dis- 
honorable and  unworthy  of  a  man  occupying  his  po- 
sition. The  settlers  knew  that  the  villainy  which  the 
whites  taught  the  Indians,  they  were  ready  to  practice. 
It  is  probable  that  the  Indians  would  have  sold  the 
lands  as  often  as  they  could  get  pay  for  them.  They 
kept  no  record  of  their  sales,  and  knew  but  little  about 
the  boundaries  and  extent  of  what  they  had  sold,  and 
looked  with  contempt  upon  the  titles  which  the  kings 
in  Europe  pretended  to  have  to  lands  in  America. 
Indeed,  as  has  been  before  stated,  the  Six  Nations,  at 
general  council,  held  at  Fort  Stanwix,  November  5th, 


1708,  conveyed  to  the  Pennsylvania;  Proprietors,  the 
same  lands  which  they  had  sold  to  the  Susquehanna 
and  Delaware  Companies  in  July,  1754. 

The  reader  will  now  readily  miderstand  that  the 
contention  which  so  long  existed  between  the  people 
of  Connecticut  and  Pennsylvania,  and  which  caused 
so  much  suffering,  spoliation,  and  bloodshed,  origina- 
ted in  an  interference  of  the  territorial  claims  of  the 
contending  parties.  The  charter  of  Connecticut  ante- 
dated that  of  William  Penn  eighteen  years.  The  pur- 
chases of  the  Susquehanna  and  Delaware  Companies, 
it  was  claimed,  antedated  that  of  the  Proprietors  four- 
teen years.  The  Susquehanna  Company,  honestly  be- 
lieving that  their  title  was  paramount,  commenced 
their  settlement  at  Wyoming  in  all  good  faith.  They 
located  themselves  so  as  not  to  interfere  with  the  In- 
dians, and  built  a  log-house  and  several  huts  at  the 
mouth  of  a  small  stream,  now  called  Mill  creek.  Not 
having  sufficient  provisions  to  keep  them  through  the 
winter,  they  hid  their  few  tools  and  went  back  to  their 
native  homes  in  Connecticut. 

Early  in  the  spring  of  1763,  these  settlers  returned 
to  Wyoming,  attended  by  their  families  and  a  number 
of  new  settlers.  They  brought  with  them  cattle,  and 
swine,  and  provisions  for  immediate  use.  Their  build- 
ings had  not  been  disturbed.  The  chiefs  of  the  Six 
Nations  had  never  forgiven  Teedyuscung  for  his  bold- 
ness and  independence  displayed  at  the  great  council 
held  at  Easton  in  1758 ;  and  their  emissaries,  in  the 
autumn  of  1763,  murdered  him  or  burned  him  in  his 


cabin,   and  then  made  the    Delawares  believe  it  Avas 
done  by  the  Yankees.     They  had  thus  far  been  peace- 
able, but  at  once  sought  revenge.     They  surprised  the 
whites  while  at  work  in  their  lields,  killed  upwards  of 
twenty  of    them,  took    some  prisoners,  and,  after  the 
remainder  had  fled,  set  fire  to  the  buildings,  and  drove 
away  the  cattle.     Chapman  says,  "  Those  who  escaped 
hastened  to  their   dwellings,  gave    the  alarm   to  tlie 
families  of  those  who  were  killed,  and  the  remainder 
of    the  colonists,  men,  women,  and  children,  fled  to 
the  mountains,     Tliey  took  no  provisions  with  them 
except  wliat  they  had  hastily  seized  in  their   flight, 
and  must  pass  through  a  wilderness  sixty  miles  in  ex- 
tent,  before    they    could  reach  the  Delaware  river." 
They   had   no   means    of  defense,  had  not   sufficient 
raiment,    and,    with    such    cheerless  prospects,  com- 
menced a  journey  of  two  hundred  and  flfty  miles  on 
foot.     Some    of    the   whites    reached  the    settlement 
on    the  Delaware,  at  Cochecton.     The  Susquehanna 
Company,  still  persisting  in  their  determination  to  es- 
tablish a  settlement  in  Wyoming,  early  in  1769,  sent 
forty  men  thither  to  look  after  their  former  improve- 
ments, and  found  that  they  had  been  taken  possession 
of  l)y  agents  of  the  Proprietary  Government.     Noth- 
ing daunted,  they  selet^ted  another  piece  of  land  and 
built  temporary  huts,  and  Avere  soon  joined  by   two 
hundred  additional  emigrants,  wh(^,  anticipating  that 
they   w^ould  be  aimoyed  by  the  Pennsylvania  party, 
built  a  fort  near  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  near  it 
erected    about    twenty    log-houses,    with    loop-holes 
through  which  to  Are,  in  case  of  an  attack. 


It  would  ex(5eed  the  intended  limits  of  this  work  to 
give,  in  detail,  the  subsequent  history  of  the  heroic  set- 
tlers of  Wyoming.  The  reader  that  wishes  to  know 
what  outrages,  imprisonments,  and  murders  were  in- 
flicted upon  the  settlers,  under  the  tyrannical  domina- 
tion of  the  land-holding  Proprietors  and  their  unscru- 
pulous agents,  and  of  the  horrors  of  the  Wyoming 
massacre,  is  referred  to  the  histories  by  Chapman,  Mi- 
ner, Stone,  HoUister,  and  Pierce  for  full  information. 

The  settlers  at  Cochecton,  Paupack,  and  Wyoming 
took  a  deep  interest  in  one  another's  welfare  and, 
thougli  widely  separated,  warned  one  another  in  season, 
of  the  approach  of  an  Indian. 

To  settle  the  long-contested  question  between  Penn- 
sylvania and  Connecticut,  as  to  wdiich  state  the  juris- 
diction of  the  disputed  lands  belonged,  the  Continen- 
tal Congress  appointed  a  board  of  commissioners  to 
hear  the  question,  wdio  met  at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  and, 
after  a  deliberation  of  ^yq  weeks,  on  the  30th  of  De- 
cember, 1782,  pronounced  their  opinion  as  follows: 
"We  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  State  of  Con- 
necticut has  no  right  to  the  land  in  controversy,"  etc. 

The  justice  and  impartiality  of  the  decision  were 
questioned  and  have  not  as  yet  been  conceded.  The 
State  of  Connecticut  still  clauned  lands  west  of  Penn- 
sylvania, but  in  1786  made  a  cession  of  the  same  to 
the  United  States,  with  a  reserve  of  about  a  half  of 
a  million  acres.  The  lands  thus  reserved  were  called 
"]New  Connecticut,"  or  the  "Western  Keserve,"  by  the 
sale  of  which,  Connecticut  realized  a  fund  of  $1,900,- 


000  for  the  support  of  her  common  schools.  If  the 
title  of  Comiecticiit  to  the  Reserve  lands  was  valid, 
why  was  not  a  like  title  good  in  Pennsylvania  ?  The 
inhabitants  at  Wyoming  were  willing  to  submit  to  the 
laws  and  jurisdiction  of  Pennsylvania,  but  contended 
that  as  the  State  of  Connecticut  had  conveyed  her  in- 
terest in  the  soil  to  the  Susquehanna  Company,  from 
which  they  derived  their  riglit,  tliat  the  decision  did 
not  deprive  them  of  their  title  to  the  lands  upon  which 
they  had  settled.  The  subsequent  measures  used  by 
the  land-holding  government  of  Pennsylvania,  were 
attended  by  acts  of  violence,  suffering,  and  bloodshed, 
in  dispossessing  this  brave  and  long-suifering  people. 
They  did  not,  however,  tamely  nor  suddenly  submit  to 
the  exactions  of  their  oppressors.  Even  as  late  as 
1799,  Judge  Post,  an  emigrant  from  Long  Island, 
took  up  land  under  the  Pennsylvania  claimants,  near 
Montrose,  for  which  he  was  mol)bed,  burnt  in  effigy, 
and  insulted  by  the  Yankees,  who  could  not  bear  that 
any  one  should  acknowledge  the  validity  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania title.  Finally,  after  years  of  turmoil,  more 
just  and  reasonable  laws  were  enacted,  under  the  oper- 
ation of  which,  the  New  England  people,  in  all  the 
settlements,  became  quiet  and  valuable  citizens. 

With  re<rard  to  the  Indians  but  little  can  be  said. 
There  was  some  diversity  of  color  among  them.  Gen- 
erally their  skin  was  of  a  reddish,  copper  color.  They 
were  symmetrical  in  form,  tall  in  stature,  with  deep-set 
eyes,  high  cheek-l)ones,  often  with  aquiline  noses,  and 
long,  straight  hair.  The  squaws  were  short,  with  broad, 


liomelj  faces,  Tlie  senses  of  the  Indians  were  intense- 
ly acute.  Tliey  could  follow  the  footsteps  of  man  or 
beast  over  plains  or  mountains,  where  the  white  man 
could  not  discern  the  slightest  vestige.  When  not 
engaged  in  war  the  chief  employments  of  the  men 
were  hunting  and  fishing.  The  squaws  did  all  the 
work,  l)uilt  all  the  cabins,  planted  all  the  corn, 
tended  it,  and  prepared  it  for  food  by  roasting,  parch- 
ing, or  pounding  it  in  a  stone  mortar.  The  ancient 
weapons  of  the  Indians  were  the  bow,  and  arrows 
pointed  wdth  flint,  the  stone  hatchet,  and  the  scalping 
knife.  It  is  said  that  some  of  the  western  tribes  had 
hatchets  and  kettles  made  of  copper.  If  so  they  had 
advanced  one  step  nearer  to  civilization  than  the  Lenni 
Lenape  tribes  of  Pennsylvania. 

Dr.  Horace  Hollister,  of  Providence,  Pa.,  has  made 
a  full  and  curious  collection  of  all  the  warlike  weapons 
and  culinary  and  domestic  utensils,  used  and  employed 
by  the  Indians  that  once  lived  in  Pennsylvania.  The 
colle(!;tion  is  made  up  largely  of  warlike  implements, 
while  the  scarcity  of  domestic  utensils  attests  the  slight 
elevation  that  our  Indians  had  attained  above  the 
"Stone  Age."  The  dress  of  the  Indians,  before  their 
commerce  with  Europeans,  was  mostly,  if  not  wholly, 
made  of  skins.  Their  wigwams  were  differently  con- 
structed by  different  tribes.  The  rudest  were  made 
of  poles  resting  against  each  other  at  the  top,  and  cov- 
ered with  l)ark  and  skins,  with  an  aperture  at  the  top 
for  the  escape  of  smoke.  How  the  poor  creatures  con- 
trived to  live  throuo'h  the  cold  winters  of  the  northern 


climate  is  a  problem  uiisolvable.  The  practice  of  tor- 
tm'ing  and  l)urniiig  their  prisoners  was  most  abhorrent 
and  revolting.  When  we  think  of  them  as  gloating 
over  the  agonies  of  their  victims,  we  are  consoled  with 
the  reflection  that  they  have  been  exterminated.  It 
must  be  admitted,  however,  that  white  men,  though 
boastful  of  the  humanizing  influences  of  civilization 
and  religion,  have  with  pleasure  indulged  in  the  same 
devilish  enormities.  That  the  Indians  resorted  to  de- 
ceit and  treachery,  to  cruelties  and  diabolism,  in  their 
I'ontests  with  the  whites,  cannot  be  denied.  When 
they  commenced  selling  lands  to  the  whites,  they  had 
no  just  conceptions  of  their  overpowering  numbers. 
Said  Red  Jacket,  "My  forefathers  sold  one  tree  to  a 
white  man,  who  came  with  ten  more  men,  who  each 
cut  down  a  tree,  and  then  there  came  ten  more  to  each 
tree."  When  they  found  that  they  had  been  deluded 
and  cheated,  they  fought  with  the  desperation  of  de- 
spair. What  mercy  should  we  show  to  an  invading 
enemy  as  much  superior  to  us  in  deadly  weapons  of 
war  as  we  were  to  the  Indians,  if  such  invaders  were 
intent  upon  dispossessing  us  of  our  lands  and  homes  'i 
What  compensation  did  the  Pennsylvania  Indians 
receive  for  the  16,000,000  of  acres  in  this  State  ?  Had 
the  lands  been  sold  at  live  mills  per  acre,  they  would 
have  brought  §80,000.  Have  we  any  evidence  that 
they  were  paid  even  that  amount? 

The  Indians  worshiped  no  idols.  From  the  earth  and 
firmament,  "that  elder  scripture  writ  by  God's  own 
hand,"  they  inferred  the  existence  of    an  overruling 


Intelligence  which  they  called  the  Great  Spirit.  They 
had  a  iirm  and  abiding  belief  in  a  fntnre  state  of  ex- 
istence. They  have  been  spoken  of  in  the  past  tense. 
They  belong  to  the  past.  In  the  early  discovery  of 
the  conntry,  it  is  supposed  that  there  were  200,000  In- 
dians east  of  the  Mississippi  river.  They  are  now  ex- 
tinct. Disease,  war,  and  intemperance  have  destroyed 
them.  In  the  early  part  of  this  century,  occasionally 
a  few  straggling  Indians  with  their  squaws  and  a  pap- 
poose  or  two  would  \^sit  Beaver  Meadows  and  some 
other  places  in  the  county,  stealing  warily  and  fearful- 
ly through  the  tangled  woods,  perhaps  to  visit,  in  want 
and  anguish,  the  graves  of  their  fatliers,  who  once 
owned  and  governed  this  wide  domain.  A  few  tribes, 
destined  to  be  duped  and  cheated  by  governmental 
agents  or  hunted  down  by  military  bands  and  destroy- 
ed like  wild  beasts,  are  still  left  in  our  Territories. 
Why  does  not  our  Government  imitate  the  just  policy 
of  the  English  Canadian  Government,  which  has  had 
no  trouble  with  their  Indians  for  the  past  seventy 
years  ?  Finally,  had  the  whites  dealt  justly  with  the  \y'' 
Indians,  after  the  manner  of  William  Penn,  thousands 
of  lives  w^ould  have  been  saved.  Had  not  the  Pennsyl- 
vania claimants  resorted  to  wrong  and  violence  to  dis- 
possess the  Connecticut  people,  the  massacre  at  Wyo- 
ming might  have  been  averted,  the  settlers  at  Cochec- 
ton  and  Paupack  would  not  have  been  murdered  or 
driven  from  their  homes,  and  no  battle  would  have 
been  fought  at  the  mouth  of  the  Lackawaxen. 



WAYNE  County  was  named  in  honor  of  Anthony 
Wayne,  a  major-general  in  the  Hevolntionary 
war,  who  was  l)orn  in  Chester  county,  Pennsylvania, 
in  1745,  and  died  at  Presqne  Isle,  in  1796.  In  de- 
votion to  the  cause  of  liberty,  and  in  heroic,  dashing 
exploits,  lie  was  second  to  no  officer  in  tliat  war.  The 
Legislature  of  1879  made  an  appropriation  for  tlie 
erection  of  a  monument  at  Chester,  Pa.,  commemora- 
tive of  his  great  services  to  his  country. 

In  point  of  population,  Wayne  county  is  by  no 
means  inconsiderable.  There  are  in  the  sixty-seven 
counties  in  the  State,  about  thirty  in  number  that 
have  each  a  less  amount  of  population  and  taxables 
than  Wayne. 

Geologically  considered,  the  whole  county  is  of 
a  secondary  formation,  excepting  the  alluvions  along 
the  streams,  and  is  destitute  of  basalt,  gypsum,  mica, 
and  limestone.  No  fossil  remains  of  animals  have 
l)een  found.  The  rocks  are  generally  a  compound  of 
sand  and  clay,  with  the  exception  of  red  shale,  which 
is  composed  of  line  grains  of  sand  cemented  by  the 
oxide  of  iron.  The  rocks  are  mostly  arranged  in  hor- 
izontal  strata,  whatever  may  be  the  contour  of   the 


ground.  The  surface  is  diversified  with  many  inequal- 
ities, bat  they  are  not  of  such  extent  or  abruptness  as 
to  render  much  of  it  worthless.  The  general  average 
elevation  of  the  upland  is  estimated  at  1,400  feet 
above  tide  water,  and  parts  of  the  Moosic  mountain 
are  600  feet  above  the  upland. 

The  southern  extremity  of  that  mountain  is  in 
Lackawanna  county.  In  Canaan  the  county  line  cross- 
es the  mountain,  thence  running  westward  of  it,  leav- 
ing Ararat  and  Sugar  Loaf  in  Wayne.  On  and  about 
this  mountain  are  quartz  rocks  of  intense  hardness 
from  which  the  first  millers  in  the  county  fashioned 
their  mill-stones.  The  glass-factories  obtain  from  the 
same  source,  the  stone  of  which  they  make  the  pots 
in  which  the  glass  is  melted.  The  hill-sides  along  the 
various  streams,  sometimes  steep  and  precipitous,  have 
the  greatest  part  of  the  rocky,  stony,  uncultivatable 
land.  The  soil  is  an  admixture  of  clay  and  sand, 
which,  in  its  primitive  state,  was  covered  with  a  leafy 
mould.  The  main  streams  in  the  southern  part  are 
the  Paupack  and  Middle  creek,  with  their  branches ; 
in  the  middle  are  the  West  branch  and  Dyberry, 
which,  uniting  at  Honesdale,  form  the  Lackawaxen; 
in  the  north  is  the  Starrucca;  and  in  the  northern  and 
eastern  part,  as  tributaries  of  the  Delaware  river,  are 
Shrawder's  creek,  Shehawken*,  Equinunk,  Little  Equi- 
nunk,  Hollister's  creek.  Cash's  creek,  and  Calkins' 
creek.  These  streams  afford  abundant  water-powder 
for  the  propulsion  of  mills  and  factories. 

*  Among  the  oklest  records  the  name  ''Shehawken  "  is  thus 




The  elevation  of  the  county  above  tide-water  will 
account  in  part  for  the  rigor  of  our  winters.  But  that 
elevation  insures  a  pure  air  and  an  assured  immunity 
against  the  plague  and  Asiatic  cholera.  The  extremes 
l)etween  tlie  heat  of  our  summers  and  the  (-old  of  our 
winters  are  very  great,  and  appear  to  be  increasing. 
The  removal  of  our  forests  exposes  the  country  to  tlie 
cold  winds  in  winter,  thereby  decreasing  the  tempera- 
ture, wdiile  the  exposure  of  the  soil  in  summer  to  the 
<lirect  rays  of  tlie  sun  increases  the  temperature. 
Sixty  years  ago,  on  account  of  the  coolness  and  hu- 
midity of  the  summers,  Indian  corn  was  an  uncertain 
crop ;  at  the  same  time  such  was  the  mildness  of  the 
winters  that  the  peach  trees  were  not  injured  by  the 
severity  of  the  cold,  and  bore  fruit  from  year  to  year. 
Now  the  thermometer  in  summer  rises  to  ninety-six 
degrees,  Fahrenheit,  and,  in  the  winter,  falls  to  twenty 
degrees  below^  zero.  Some  meteorologists  entertain 
the  theory  that  Avinters  of  extreme  cold,  and  sum- 
mers of  intense  heat  have  their  appointed  cycles. 
From  some  cause  unknown,  the  winters  of  1819,  1836, 
and  1843  were  very  cold  and  the  summers  of  1816 
and  1836,  short,  cold,  and  frosty,  while  the  summers 
of  1838  and  1845  were  remarkable  for  long-continued 


These  in  their  primitive  glory  consisted  of  white, 
and  yellow  pine;  hemlock;  white,  and  red  beech;  hard 
maple,   called  also    rock,   or   sugar-maple ;  white,    or 


red  flowering  maple  ;  white,  and  black  ash;  poplar,  or 
tulip-tree;  black  cherry ;  black,  and  yellow  birch;  but- 
ton-wood; basswood,  or  linn;  white,  and  slippery 
elm ;  hemlock  spruce,  and  dwarf  spruce ;  pepperidge ; 
tamarack,  or  larch;  balsam  fir;  white,  black,  and  red 
oak ;  chestnut ;  butternut ;  shagbark  walnut ;  hickory  ; 
and  many  smaller  trees  and  shrubs,  yiz:  ironwood, 
fire  cherry,  aspen  or  quiver-leaf,  mountain  ash,  june- 
berry,  black  maple  or  buckhorn,  mountain  and  swamp 
dog-wood,  water  beech,  green  osier,  sassafras,  white 
dwarf  maple,  choke-cherry,  yellow  plum,  tag  alder, 
swamp  apple,  spotted  alder,  crooked  alnus,  prickly 
asli,  bilberry,  crab-apple  ti-ee,  willow,  bachelor  tea, 
swamp  whortleberry,  hardback,  leather-wood,  mountain 
and  dwarf  laurel,  spice-bush,  hazel-nut,  poison  sumac, 
tanners'  sumac,  pigeon  bush,  witch-hazel,  dwarf  juni- 
per, hemlock  bearing  red  berries,  (a  very  rare  tree,)  and, 
perhaps,  a  few  others. 

The  forests  standing  at  the  present  time  liave  little 
of  the  yalue  of  those  that  adorned  the  country  a  cen- 
tury ago.  The  lofty  pines,  which  then  lined  the 
streams  and  cro^^^led  the  hills,  have  been  removed ; 
the  hemlock,  once  considered  a  nuisance,  having  be- 
come valuable,  is  fast  disappearing.  It  is  a  tree  of 
v'ery  slow  growth,  and  if  the  ground  were  now  cover- 
ed wdth  a  second  growth,  generations  would  pass  away 
before  the  timber  would  be  large  enough  to  be  valua- 
l>le.  Hemlocks,  which  were  cut  into  ninety  years  ago, 
have  only  added  a  growth  of  four  or  five  inches  to 
their  semi-diameters.     An  enormous  one  o^rew  on  the 


north  side  of  Middle  creek,  about  a  mile  below  Rob- 
inson's tannery.  Tlie  grain,  or  growths  of  the 
wood,  showed  that  it  was  one  thousand  years  old  when 
it  died.  It  must  have  been  a  large  tree,  when  Chris- 
topher Columbus  discovered  America,  in  1492.  The 
late  Mrs.  H.  G.  Otis,  of  Boston,  who  often  came  to 
Bethany,  greatly  admired  the  hemlock.  She  said  she 
had  seen  all  the  noted  evergreen  trees  of  Europe,  but 
that  in  fineness,  delicacy,  and  compactness  of  foliage, 
coolness  and  neatness,  the  hemlock  surpasses  them  all. 

The  poplar,  which  is  a  straight,  tall  tree,  from 
two  to  three  feet  in  diameter,  was  once  quite  com- 
mon, especially  in  the  lower  part  of  the  county,  but 
the  w^ood,  which  was  light  and  easily  removed,  being 
valuable,  was  at  an  early  day  all  sent  to  market.  It 
was  all  used  up  forty  years  ago.  White  ash  was  once 
so  abundant  as  to  be  split  into  rails,  and  w^as  often  used 
for  fire-wood.  It  has  been  valuable  for  many  years 
as  the  quantity  is  constantly  decreasing.  It  is,  how- 
ever, a  tree  of  rapid  growth  and  may  be  saved  and 

The  black  cherry,  now  so  valuable  for  cabinet-work, 
was  once  to  be  found  on  almost  every  hill,  it  often 
beins:  three  feet  in  diameter.  Abraham  J.  Stryker 
told  me,  many  years  ago,  that  it  was  so  abundant  in 
Cherry  Kidge  that  the  first  settlers  split  it  into  rails 
and  stakes,  used  it  for  barn  frames,  and  burnt  some  of 
it  up.  What  now^  remains  of  that  timber  is  costly 
and  of  poor  quality.  Where  it  is  not  shaded  by  other 
timber  it  crrows  very  fast. 


The  basswood,  found  in  every  part  of  the  county, 
has  long  been  used  for  siding  in  lieu  of  pine.  Large 
quantities  of  this  himber  have  been  yearly  sent  to 
market.  It  is  a  beautiful  tree  and  is  growing  scarce; 
but  as  its  growth  is  very  rapid,  there  is  some  hope 
that  it  will  not  all  be  destroyed. 

The  black  bircli  is  a  heavy,  substantial  wood.  It  is 
being  substituted  for  black  cherry.  Both  the  black 
and  yellow  birch  make  excellent  fire-wood. 

The  chestnut  was  plentiful  in  Scott  township  and  in 
Salem,  and  not  scarce  in  other  townships.  In  Salem, 
it  was,  on  some  ridges,  the  chief  timber,  and  some  of 
the  trees  were  very  large.  The  largest  tree  that  I  ever 
saw  in  Wayne  county  was  a  chestnut-tree  standing  on 
the  old  road  between  Jonestown  and  Cherry  Ridge. 
It  was,  I  think,  larger  than  the  big  elm  in  Damascus. 
Tliey  were  both  unusually  large.  It  was  rare  sport 
to  gather  chestnuts  in  those  old  forests.  There  were 
enough  of  them  for  the  boys,  bears,  raccoons,  and 
squirrels.  Those  chestnut-trees  were  all  cut  down, 
split  into  rails,  or  stakes,  or  bnrnt  up.  But  few,  if  any, 
of  them  were  ever  sent  to  market.  About  the  same 
fate  befell  tliat  w^hich  grew  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
county.    Being  of  sudden  growth  the  tree  may  survive. 

The  beech  is  the  most  abundant  tree  in  our  for- 
ests, and  will  probably  continue  to  be,  so  long  as  we 
shall  have  any  forests.  It  is  the  only  tree  that  tlie 
lightning  seems  to  respect.  Is  there  not  a  ligneous 
acid  in  the  tree  which  repels  the  electric  fluid  i  The 
wood  is  valual^le  for  many  purposes.    The  ^vhite  beech 


when  standing  alone  assumes  a  pyramidal  form  of 
exceeding  beauty.  About  the  Red  school-house  in 
Dy berry,  a  mile  east  of  Bethany,  are  some  of  the  love- 
liest specimens  of  the  beauty  and  symmetry  of  the  iso- 
lated white  beech. 

The  elm,  grand  and  majestic,  is  a  tree  which  is  like- 
ly to  continue  in  existence  as  its  wood  is  not  so  valu- 
a])le  as  to  invite  its  destruction.  .  Long  may  it  wave! 

The  hemlock  spruce,  sometimes  called  double  spruce, 
is  found  only  in  the  south-western  part  of  the  county. 
It  grows  to  the  height  of  the  white  pine,  is  equally 
straight,  and  often  attains  a  size  of  two  and  a  half  feet 
in  diameter.  It  is  found  chieliy  along  the  head-waters 
of  the  Lehigh  and  Tobyhanna.  The  timber  was  for 
many  years  the  common  plunder  of  the  shingle-makers, 
who  found  a  ready  market  for  their  shingles  in  North- 
ampton county.  Tlie  timber  is  free  and  easy  to  work, 
and  since  the  construction  of  the  Delaware,  Lackawan- 
na and  Western  railroad,  the  timber  has  advanced  in 
value,  and  large  quantities  of  it  are  yearly  prepared  for 
market,  at  the  mills  of  Dodge  tfe  Co.,  at  Tobyhanna. 
Like  the  hemlock,  it  is  a  slow-growing  tree,  and  will 
not  be  reproduced  for  a  century. 

The  white  oak  and  other  varieties  of  the  oak  were 
found  principally  about  Moosic  mountain  and  Pahnyra 
and  Paupack  townships.  The  timber,  never  very  abun- 
dant, has  been  used  up  in  the  county.  Could  the  fires 
be  kept  out  of  the  woods,  some  of  it  might  be  repro- 
duced and  preserved. 

The  shaffbark  hickorv  was  and  is  found  onlv  in  iso- 


lated  places,  generally  upon  hills,  as  upon  Hickory  hill 
in  Lebanon,  McCollam's  hill  in  Damascus,  and  Collin's 
liill  in  Cherry  Ridge.  It  was  found,  also,  upon  the 
alluvial  soil  of  the  Paupack,  above  Wilsonville,  where 
many  of  tlie  trees  grew  to  be  twT>  and  a  half  feet  in 
diameter.  Whether  they  have  all  been  taken  off,  I  do 
not  know.  The  nut  in  size  and  flavor  is  exceeded  only 
l)y  the  English  walnut. 

The  butternut  is  found  along  the  hill-sides  of  all  the 
large  streams  of  the  county,  seeming  titted  to  the  deep, 
strong,  stony  land  in  such  places.  But  it  will  grow^ 
almost  anywhere  remote  from  streams.  It  is  found  at 
tlie  foot  of  Hickory  hill  in  Lebanon,  several  miles  from 
the  Delaware  river,  whence  those  useful  tree-planters, 
the  squirrels,  carried  the  butternuts,  it  is  supposed. 
If  the  nuts  are  planted  soon  after  they  fall,  by  cover- 
ing them  with  soil  and  leaves,  they  grow  with  a  rapid- 
ity attributed  to  Jonah's  gourd,  and  if  cut  do^^Ti  will 
sprout  up  again.  The  wood  is  valuable  for  ornamen- 
tal purposes.  Tlie  tree  seems  likely  to  escape  extinc- 
tion. The  Lombardy  poplar,  mulberry,  locust,  horse- 
chestnut,  and  black-walnut  have  not  been  named,  ])e- 
cause  they  are  not  considered  indigenous  to  this  pai't 
of  our  country. 

The  sugar-maple.  This  tree  is  found  in  most  of  the 
Northern  States,  and  is  one  of  the  marvels  of  the 
American  forests.  The  extraordinary  neatness  of  its 
appearance,  and  the  beauty  of  its  foliage,  which  in  sum- 
mer is  of  the  liveliest  green,  and  in  autumn  of  a  glow- 


iiig  crimson,  has  led  to  its  selection  as  a  beantiful  or- 
nament in  our  yards  and  avenues.  It  will  grow  upon 
almost  any  soil,  and  is  easily  transplanted.  When 
used  for  fuel,  its  wood  almost  equals  tlie  solid  hickory. 
The  tree  has  l)een  destroyed  with  a  reckless  prodigality 
and  a  thoughtless  disregard  of  its  value.  Tlie  consid- 
eration, how^ever,  that  the  tree  yields  a  sugar  wdiich  is 
delicious  to  the  tastes  of  the  young  and  the  old,  the 
manufacture  of  w^hich.may  be  made  profitable,  is  like- 
ly to  lead  to  its  future  preservation.  In  some  parts 
of  the  county,  especially  in  Mount  Pleasant,  the  farm- 
ers are  wisely  saving  the  second  growth  of  maples  for 
sugar-orchards.  On  almost  every  hilly  farm  is  some 
rocky  spot,  uniit  for  the  plow,  wliich  might  be  planted 
with  maples.  In  the  Eastern  States  the  farmers  set 
maples  on  both  sides  of  the  highw^ays,  from  which  trees 
some  of  them  make  all  the  sugar  they  need.  They 
also  furnish  the  traveler  with  cooling  shade  and  add 
to  the  farmer's  prospective  store  of  fuel.  The  day 
Avill  come  w^ien  tlie  higliways  of  Wayne  county  will, 
in  like  manner,  be  embellished  with  maples,  to  the 
proht  and  comfc^rt  of  the  farmers.  In  ordinary  sea- 
sons, four  pounds  of  sugar  can  be  made  from  a  tree  of 
medium  size.  The  sap  of  second-grow^th  trees  produces 
more  sugar  than  tliat  from  trees  found  in  old  forests. 
The  seed  of  the  sugar-maple  ripens  and  falls  in  October. 
There  are  varieties  of  this  tree  called  "birds'-eye"  and 
"curled"  maple,  the  wood  of  wdiich,  fifty  years  ago, 
was  valual)le  and  much  sought  after  by  cal)inct-makers. 
It   commanded    a   liigh    price    in   England.     But  the 


caprice    of    taste   is    siicli    that  its  value  has  greatly 

The  red  flowering  maple  is  a  beautiful  tree.  It  blos- 
soms in  the  latter  part  of  April.  The  blossoms  are  of  a 
beautiful  red  and  unfold  more  than  a  fortnight  before 
the  leaves.  The  tree  is  called  soft  maple  and  the  grain 
is  sometimes  curled  like  the  sugar-maple.  Sugar  is 
made  from  the  sap  of  the  tree  as  wliite  as  that  made 
from  the  other  maple,  if  the  bark  of  the  tree  is  not  boil- 
ed with  the  sap.  The  tree  grows  luxuriantly  in  rich, 
moist  land,  the  bark  is  smootli,  the  body  straight,  and 
the  foliage  of  a  light  green ;  many  consider  it  more 
graceful  than  the  hard-maple.  The  wood  is  used  for  a 
variety  of  purposes  in  making  domestic  wooden  ware 
and  agricultural  implements.  The  utility  and  beauty  of 
the  tree  should  insure  its  cultivation  and  preservation. 

The  amoimt  of  money  received  in  Wayne  county 
during  the  past  eighty  years  for  all  kinds  of  lumber 
sent  to  market  and  for  hemlock  bark  sold  to  our  tan- 
neries, cannot  be  estimated,  but,  if  it  could  be,  the 
amount  would  astonisli  us.  Probably  the  wants  of  the 
people  were  such  that  they  were  justified  in  cutting- 
down  our  most  valuable  trees,  to  ol)tain  what  they  could 
from  them.  But  it  appeared  to  us  that  some  descrip- 
tion of  our  native  forests  would  l)e  appropriate,  lest 
some  of  our  noblest  trees,  once  the  glory  of  our  hills 
and  streams,  should  ])e  forever  forgotten. 




ANY  of  the  kinds  of  wild  beasts  which  lived  in 
the  original  forests  of  Wayne  eoimty,  have  become 
extinct.  The  bear,  wolf,  pantlier,  elk,  beaver,  and 
marten,  have  entirely  disappeaj-ed.  Tlie  bear  lived  a 
solitary,  qniet  life  in  forests  and  deserts,  sal)sisting  o\\ 
fruits,  chestnuts,  beech-nuts,  and  roots,  and,  al- 
though not  carnivorous,  would,  when  incited  by  hun- 
ger, attack  and  devour  small  animals.  Like  the  Rel)- 
els,  they  liked  to  be  let  alone ;  but,  forced  into  a  con- 
flict, tliey  fought  desperately.  Owing  to  the  liardness 
of  tlieir  skulls,  tliickness  of  hide,  and  tenacity  of  life, 
they  were  hard  to  kill.  When  sliot  down  from  trees, 
or  caught  in  traps,  hunters,  sometimes,  by  going  too 
near  them,  paid  dearly  for  tlieir  rashness,  l^arely  es- 
(^aping  with  their  lives. 

Asa  Stanton,  of  Waymart,  says  his  father.  Col.  Asa 
Stanton,  once  caught  in  a  trap  a  bear  which  broke  the 
(^hain,  and,  there  being  a  tracking  snow,  his  father  fol- 
lowed the  trail  over  the  mountain,  down  to  al)out 
Archbald,  Avhere  lie  overtook  the  fugitive.  A  large 
dog  that  he  had  along,  pitc^hed  in  for  a  tight,  but  soon 
got  the  worst  of  it.  Stanton's  gun  was  Avet ;  so,  to  re- 
lieve   his    dog,  he    went  at  the  bear  with    his    knife. 

THE    BEAR.  43 

Brniii  caught  Stanton  by  the  leg,  above  the  knee,  and 
tore  it  so  that  lie  bled  very  profusely.  But  the  dog, 
annoying  the  l^east,  made  him  quit  his  hold  of  his 
master,  who,  cleaning  and  reloading  his  gun,  shot  the 
monster  dead.  Stanton,  weak  and  faint,  was  found 
])y  a  hunter,  who  went  with  him  to  his  home.  From 
the  wound  received,  he  was  lame  the  rest  of   his  life. 

Seth  Yale,  Esq.,  shot  and  \\'Ounded  a  young  bear  at 
the  head  of  the  Upper  Wood's  pond,  in  Lebanon.  The 
old  dam  came  to  the  rescue,  and,  with  open  moutli,  ad- 
vanced upon  the  Esquire,  who  struck  at  her  with  a 
hatchet.  She  knocked  the  hatchet  from  the  handle. 
He  ran  the  handle  into  her  mouth,  but  she  managed 
to  seize  him  by  the  arm,  and,  with  her  iron  jaws, 
almost  crushed  it.  The  Esquire  luckily  had  a  faith- 
ful dog  along,  which,  annoying  the  bear  in  the  rear, 
made  her  release  her  hold  upon  the  Esquire  and  turn 
upo7i  the  dog,  which  was  too  cunning  to  let  her 
get  hold  of  him.  Yale  picked  up  his  gun,  retreated 
a  few  rods,  reloaded  it,  shot  and  mortally  wounded  the 
bear,  and  then  with  his  dog  went  for  his  home,  which 
he  reached  with  difficulty,  being  weak  and  faint  from 
the  loss  of  blood.  Had  it  not  been  for  the  sagacity 
of  the  dog,  it  was  the  opinion  of  the  Esquire  that  tlie 
bear  would  have  overcome  them  both. 

The  Ijear  is  a  hibernating  animal.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  winter,  when  very  fat,  lie  retires  to  some 
hollow  tree,  and  slet^ps  through  the  heart  of  the  win- 
ter. The  Indians  seldom  attacked  the  bear,  and  free- 
Iv  admitted  that   l)ruin  was  too  much  for  them.     But 


the  whites  killed  them  for  their  skins,  and  often 
smoked  and  ate  the  flesh.  Hilkiah  Willis  and  my 
father  killed  one,  the  meat  of  which  weighed  about 
five  hundred  pounds.  The  skin  was  glossy  black,  and 
they  sold  it  for  twelve  dollars.  It  would  now  l^e 
worth  forty  dollars,  at  least.  The  bears  in  the  sum- 
mer months  had  their  wallowing  places,  near  which 
they  were  in  the  habit  of  standing  upon  their  hind 
legs,  and  marking,  or  registering,  their  utmost  height 
by  biting  the  bark  on  some  chosen  tree.  The  bear 
may  be  said  to  be  extinct  in  Wayne  county. 

THE    GRAY     WOLF. 

The  common  gray  wolf,  originally  found  in  all  the 
Northern  States,  traversed  every  hill,  and  howled  in 
every  swamp.  Being  wholly  carnivorous,  he  killed 
and  devoured  every  animal  that  he  could  overpower. 
The  first  settlers  found  it  absolutely  necessary  to  keep 
sheep  to  supply  them  with  wool,  from  which,  l)y  hand 
labor,  they  manufactured  their  winter-clothing.  The 
wolves  hunted  the  deer  in  packs,  but  the  deer,  when 
not  impeded  by  snows,  often  ran  to  the  rivers  or 
ponds  and  escaped.  But  sheep  and  young  cattle  could 
not  thus  escape,  and  if  not  watched  l)y  day  and  se- 
curely folded  by  night,  were  sure  to  fall  a  prey  to  the 
wolves.  It  w^as  said  by  the  old  farmers  that  witli  all 
their  watchfulness,  thev  lost  vearly  one-eio^hth  of  their 
sheep  by  wild  beasts.  A  law  was  passed  the  lOtli  of 
March,  1806,  requiring  the  county  to  pay  to  the  per- 
son producing  the  scalp  of    a  full-grown  anoK  or  pan- 

THE    PANTHER.  45 

tlier,  eight  dollars,  and  for  the  scalp  of  a  young  whelp 
or  cub  of  the  same,  four  dollars;  another  act  was  pass- 
ed the  16th  of  March,  1819,  raismg  the  bounty  on  a 
full-grown  wolf  or  panther  to  twelve  dollars,  and  on  a 
whelp  or  cub  of  the  same,  four  dollars. 

The  farmers  and  hunters,  encouraged  by  the  boun- 
ty laws,  made  constant  war  upon  th^ir  enemies.  But 
the  wolves  were  cunning  and  suspicious,  and  were  not 
often  caught  in  traps.  Esquire  Spangenberg  and 
Charles  Kimble  walked  one  down  in  two  days  and  kill- 
ed him ;  and  Alva  W.  l^orton,  Esq.,  with  a  companion, 
pursued  and  walked  down  two  Canadian  black  wolves 
and  shot  them,  but  these  were  exceptional  cases.  Old 
hunters  used  to  say  that  wolves,  having  made  a  de- 
scent upon  a  flock  of  sheep  and  satiated  their  hunger, 
at  once  put  off  upon  a  long  tramp,  as  experience  and 
instinct  taught  them  tliat  they  were  not  safe  to  re- 
main long  near  the  scene  of  their  depredations.  Pur- 
suit was  generally  una^^ailing.  After  many  years  they 
were  all  exterminated.  Fhineas  Teeple,  a  famous 
hunter  in  Manchester,  prol)ably  killed  the  last  one 
heard  of  in  the  county. 


The  panthers,  though  less  numerous  than  the  wolves, 
were  more  to  be  dreaded  because  they  could  climh 
over  any  fence  that  could  be  built.  They  often  sprang 
from  their  covert  lairs  and  caught  sheep  in  the  day- 
time. I  once  saw  one  spring  from  a  thicket  and  kill 
a  sheep  in  the  public  road  near  the  place  where  Geo. 


Foote  afterwards  l)uilt  a  house.  A  iieiglil)or  came 
along  and  frightened  tlie  beast  away  before  he  had 
tinished  his  meal.  The  carcass  of  the  sheep  was  taken 
for  bait,  a  trap  was  set  in  a  spring  near  by,  and  the 
panther  canght.  About  the  year  1809,  Joseph  Wood- 
))ridge,  Esq.,  of  Salem,  bought  eleven  choice  sheep. 
He  kept  them  in  a  lot  near  his  house,  and  built  a 
high  fence  around  a  pen,  in  which  to  keep  them  dur- 
ing the  nights.  He  came  to  my  father's  one  morning 
greatly  excited,  saying  that  some  animal  had  been  in 
his  pen  and  killed  the  most  of  his  sheep,  and  sucked 
the  blood  from  their  throats.  The  finding  was  that  the 
killing  had  been  done  by  a  panther,  and  the  sentence, 
"immediate  death.'"  A  large  mastiff  dog  soon  treed 
the  murderer,  and  my  father  shot  at  him  with  a  mus- 
ket. The  monster  fell  down  the  tree  wounded  and 
fought  desperately  and  almost  killed  the  dog,  but  he 
was  iinally  overcome.  Several  hunters  said  it  was 
the  largest  panther  they  had  ever  seen  or  heard  of. 
Its  claws  were  sent  to  Connecticut  to  show  the 
Yankees  what  kind  of  monsters  the  settlers  had  to 
contend  with  in  the  beech  woods.  IN^ot  being  a  rov- 
ing animal,  the  panther  was  much  sooner  destroyed 
than  the  wolf.  If  there  is  one  left  in  the  county,  he 
must  live  in  the  most  desolate  places.  It  is  almost 
safe  to  say  that  the  panther  has  in  these  parts  bec^ome 

The  marvelous  stories  sometimes  told  about  bears, 
wolves,  and  panthers,  without  provocation  aggressively 
attacking  men,  women,  or  children,  should  l)e  received 

THE   DEER.  47 

with  many  grains  of  allowance.  That  fear  of  man, 
seemingly  impressed  on  the  brute  creation  by  a  Higher 
Power,  restrains  them  from  committing  any  sncli 


These  most  useful  of  all  the  wild  animals  were  onc^e 
the  most  numerous.  They  were  shy  and  retiring,  del- 
icate in  form,  fleet  as  the  race-horse,  with  sight  and 
heai'ing  intensely  acute.  They  were  called  red  in  the 
summer  and  gray  in  the  winter.  Their  skins  were  val- 
uable only  when  in  the  red  coat.  Throughout  the 
whole  species  the  males  have  horns  which  are  shed  and 
renewed  yearly,  increasing  in  size  and  the  number  of 
their  branches,  at  eacli  renewal,  until  a  certain  period. 
Their  flrst  antlers  appear  in  their  seciond  year  and  are 
straight,  small,  and  simple,  and  are  shed  in  the  succeed- 
ing winter.  Though  the  Indians  were  dependent 
chiefly  upon  the  flesh  of  the  deer  for  food,  and  on  their 
skins  for  raiment,  they  were  careful  not  to  kill  them 
wantonly  or  Avhen  they  were  with  young;  consequently 
when  the  whites  came  into  the  county,  they  found  the 
deer  bounding  over  every  hill  or  grazing  in  every 
grassy  valley.  They  were  as  necessary  to  the  subsist- 
ence of  tlie  whites  as  they  had  been  to  the  Indians. 
Their  flesh  was  not  eaten  when  killed  in  the  winter 
season,  unless  necessity  compelled  its  use,  for  tlie  ani- 
mal in  hard  winters  fed  upon  the  laurel  which  im- 
parted a  poisonous  principle  to  the  meat.  In  view  of 
this  fact  and  to  prevent  a  wanton  destruction  of  tlie 
deer,  an  act  was  passed  in  1760,  making  any  person 


liable  to  the  payment  of  a  line  of  three  pounds,  who 
should  kill  or  destroy  any  deer  between  the  first  day  of 
January  and  the  first  day  of  August  in  envh.  year,  and 
the  law  was  generally  respected.  Almost  all  the  early 
settlers  kept  guns,  many  of  them  muskets  of  the  old 
"Queen  Anne's  Arms,"  as  they  were  called,  which  l)e- 
ing  loaded  with  buck-shot  when  discharged  were  dan- 
gerous at  both  ends.  All  guns,  muskets,  and  rifles  had 
flint-locks  until  about  fifty  years  ago,  when  they  were 
superseded  by  percussion  powder  and  caps.  Hunting 
was  followed,  in  order  to  procure  necessary  food.  Some 
few  men  made  it  profitable,  or  pursued  it  fi*om  an  ac- 
quired passion  for  dangerous  adventures.  Some  per- 
sons are  doul)tful  whether  white  deer  w^ere  ever  found 
among  our  common  fallow  deer,  but  it  is  a  fact.  About 
fifty-five  years  ago  a  hunter  in  Sterling  township,  sold 
the  skin  of  a  white  deer  to  William  T.  Noble,  a  mer- 
chant at  Noble  Hill.  As  the  animal  was  a  very  large 
one,  Mr.  Noble  regretted  that  he  could  not  have  had 
it  as  it  was  before  it  was  skinned,  so  that  it  might  have 
]>een  stufPed  and  preserved,  as  it  was  a  male  and  had 
huge  antlers.  The  flesh  of  the  deer,  called  venison,  in 
the  fall  months  was  delicious.  It  was  often  dried  or 
smoked  mthout  being  salted,  and  called  fresh  junk. 
The  skins  were  worth  from  fifty  cents  to  one  dollar. 
Deer  often  w^ent  in  flocks  of  twenty  or  thirty  in  num- 
ber. After  rifles  came  into  use,  al)out  1810,  the  num- 
ber of  deer  l)egan  to  fail.  For  forty  years  they  were 
hunted,  trapped,  and  chased  to  ponds  by  dogs,  where 
thev  were  assaulted  and  killed  bv   the    hunters   who 

THE   ELK.  49 

overtook  them  ^v^tll  canoes.  From  year  to  year  de- 
clining in  numbers,  they  have  become  so  scarce  that  a 
hunter  might  rove  a  month  without  finding  one.  If 
not  now  extinct  in  this  county,  they  surely  Avill  l)e  in 
a  few  years. 


This  noble  animal,  considerably  larger  than  the 
common  deer,  which  otherwise  they  very  much  resem- 
ble, never  was  very  numerous ;  still  in  early  days  they 
were  found  in  some  parts,  especially  in  Canaan  and 
Clinton,  by  reason  of  which  a  large  tract  of  land  in 
those  townships  containing  11,526  acres  was  named 
"Elk  Forest."  It  is  said  that  the  elk  sometimes  at- 
tained the  height  of  five  feet,  and  that  they  did  not 
attain  their  full  growth  until  they  were  twelve  years 
old.  When  full-grown  their  antlers  are  very  large 
and  spreading.  Charles  Stanton  killed  one  in  Canaan, 
the  horns  of  which  weighed  twenty-five  pounds  and 
their  length  and  spread  was  each  four  feet.  Asa  Stan- 
ton now  has  the  horns,  which  are  distinguished  for  the 
broad  palmation  of  the  antlers.  By  nature  the  elk  is 
shy  and  timorous  and  scuds  away  at  the  sight  of  man. 
When  brought  to  bay  or  standing  in  defense,  however, 
like  all  the  deer  kind,  he  is  a  dangerous  antagonist. 
His  weapons  are  his  horns  and  hoofs,  and  he  strikes  so 
forcil)ly  with  his  feet  that  he  can  kill  a  wolf  or  dog  with 
a  single  l)low.  It  is  then  that  the  hair  on  his  neck  bris- 
tles up  like  the  mane  of  a  lion,  which  gives  him  a  wild 
and  f(^rmidal)le  appearance.  In  winter  he  lives  by 
browsing  upon  the  laurel  and  srnall  l)oughs  of  trees,  and 



in  the  summer  upon  the  wild  grass  in  the  swamps. 
The  usual  pace  of  the  elk  is  a  high,  shamhling  trot, 
but  when  frightened  he  makes  w^ondrous  leaps  and 
goes  with  a  tremendous  gallop.  In  passing  through 
thick  woods  he  carries  his  horns  horizontally  or  thrown 
hack,  to  keep  them  from  being  entangled  in  the  branch- 
es. He  is  an  excellent  swimmer,  and  in  summer  re- 
sorts to  the  lakes  and  ponds  and  stands  in  the  water,  to 
escape  from  the  bites  of  the  flies  and  mosquitoes.  Asa 
Stanton,  of  Waymart,  says  that  his  father  had  seen 
twenty  or  more  at  one  time  standing  in  the  Elk  pond. 
What  became  of  all  the  elk  is  not  known.  Probably 
they  retired  to  the  westward  at  the  advance  of  the 
whites.  Hunters  did  not  boast  of  killing  many  of 
them.  The  meat  of  the  animal  is*  delicious,  and  the 
skin  very  valuable.  The  elk  is  easily  domesticated. 
It  was  the  pride  and  glory  of  the  hunter  to  kill  them. 
The  county  of  Elk  was  erected  in  1843,  at  which  time 
there  were  some  found  in  the  great  forests,  but  they  were 
soon  all  destroyed.  Probably  there  are  not  ten  men 
living  in  Wayne  county  who  ever  saw  one  in  our  for- 
ests.    The  last  one  heard  of  was  killed  fifty  years  ago. 


This  animal  challenged  the  Indian's  veneration  and 
the  white  man's  admiration.  They  were  found  along 
most  of  the  main  streams,  and  especially  along  the 
Wallenpaupack,  the  Lackawaxen,  and  the  head-waters 
of  the  Lehigh.  Like  the  elephant  they  w^ere  half-rea- 
soning animals,  lived  together  in  societies,  and  tenanted 

THE    BEAVER.  51 

the  ponds,  rivers,  and  creeks.  Where  the  creeks  were 
not  of  sufficient  depth,  they  built  dams,  to  deepen  the 
water  beyond  the  power  of  frost.  Asa  Stanton,  who 
understood  them  well,  says :  "They  built  houses  of  wil- 
lows, birch,  and  poplars,  their  aim  seeming  to  be  to 
have  a  dry  place  to  sleep,  lie,  and,  perhaps,  eat  in. 
Sometimes  the  houses  had  several  compartments  which 
had  no  communication  with  each  other  except  by  wa- 
ter, and  when  finished  had  a  dome-like  appearance." 
In  building  dams,  or  houses,  they  carry  stones  and 
mud  under  the  throat,  by  the  aid  of  their  fore-paws. 
Their  trowel-shaped  tails  are  used  as  rudders  and  pro- 
pellers and  not,  as  has  been  supposed,  for  the  carrying 
of  mud  and  for  use  as  a  trowel.  They  generally  work 
in  the  night.  Though  they  are  classified  with  the  Ro- 
dentia,  or  squirrels,  yet  their  teeth  are  different;  for 
such  is  the  strength  and  sharpness  of  their  teeth  that 
they  can  lop  off  a  bush  as  thick  as  a  cane  at  one  l)ite, 
and  do  it  as  smoothly  as  if  cut  with  a  knife.  I  have 
seen  trees  that  had  been  gnawed  down  by  them,  six 
inches  or  more  in  diameter.  It  attains  its  full  growth 
at,  or  before,  its  third  year.  It  produces  from  two  to 
six  at  a  birth.  The  length  of  its  head  and  body  is 
about  forty  inches,  and  its  tail  one  foot.  They  live 
upon  the  bark  of  the  willow,  birch,  shaking  asp,  and 
other  trees  which  they  gnaw  down,  drag  into  the  wa- 
ter, and,  for  winter  use,  cover  up  in  the  water  below 
the  reach  of  frost.  The  Indians  attached  great  value 
to  the  skin  of  the  beaver,  and  they  had  occasion  to  ex- 
ercise all  their  sagacity  to  capture  them;   the  wliites, 


also,  dulj  appreciated  the  fur  of  the  animal,  from  which 
hats  of  great  value  were  manufactured.  The  guns  and 
traps  of  the  white  men  finally  effected  their  extinction, 
and  tradition  has  it  that  near  the  depot  of  the  Erie 
railroad  below  Honesdale,  was  killed  the  last  beaver 
ever  seen  in  Wayne  county.  The  last  one  that  I  ever 
saw,  w^as  caught  in  a  trap  by  Edmund  Nicholson,  of 


This  animal,  generally  called  Pennant's  marten, 
though  never  very  abundant,  was  found  in  Wayne. 
They  were  carnivorous  and  l)elonged  to  the  weasel 
tribe,  living  upon  squirrels,  mice,  and  birds.  Their 
length  was  about  thirty  inches,  and  the  tail  about  seven- 
teen inches.  The  fur  was  short  on  the  head,  l)ut  in- 
creased in  length  tow^ards  the  tail. 


This  animal  is  to  be  found  about  farms  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  forests.  The  body  is  about  fifteen  inches  in 
length,  the  head  about  five  inches,  and  the  tail  eight 
or  ten  inches,  the  latter  being  ornamented  with  several 
whitish  rings.  Tlie  color  of  the  back  is  a  dark  gray. 
The  blacker  the  fur,  the  more  valuable  is  the  skin. 
The  late  Franklin  Barnes  in  his  time  dressed  and  man- 
ufactured the  skins  into  beautiful  and  valuable  gloves. 
They  are  hibernating  animals,  that  is,  they  burrow  in 
the  winter  and  lie  in  a  torpid  state,  sometimes  coming- 
out  during  a  thaw.  They  go  in  very  fat  and  come  out 
very  lean.     They  prey  upon  small  animals,  1)irds.  in- 

THE     WOODGHUCK   AND    HEDGEHOG.         53 

sects,  and  eggs,  adding  frnits  and  suecnlent  vegetables 
to  their  diet,  and  especially  ravaging  the  farmer's  corn- 
fields. There  is  no  difficulty  in  taming  a  raccoon,  but 
they  become  too  mischievons  to  be  endured.  The  fur 
was  once  extensively  used  in  the  manufacture  of  hats. 


Called  also  the  Maryland  marmot,  is  too  well 
known  to  need  nuich  description.  He  is  a  hibernating 
animal  and  lives  upon  clover,  grass,  and  vegetables. 
When  tamed  he  is  harmless  and  fond  of  caresses.  In 
tlie  month  of  I^ovember,  he  goes  into  winter  quarters, 
blocks  up  his  door,  and  lies  torpid,  without  eating,  un- 
til spring.  When  he  comes  out,  the  severity  of  win- 
ter is  past.  He  is  of  a  grayish-brown  color.  Occa- 
sionally one  may  l)e  found  that  is  intensely  black.  The 
teeth  of  this  animal  show  that  he  belongs  to  the  Ro- 
dentia,  or  squirrel  tribe. 


It  is  known  by  naturalists  as  the  Urson,  or  Canadian 
porcupine,  but  it  is  altogether  different  from  the  Eu- 
ropean, or  African  porcupine.  The  hedgehog  has  but 
one  kind  of  spines  or  quills,  which  are  thickly  set  over 
all  the  superior  parts  of  its  body  and  covered  by  a 
coarse,  long  hair  that  almost  conceals  the  quills, 
which  are  of  different  lengths,  the  longest  not  being- 
over  two  and  a  half  inches.  These,  however,  form  a 
coat  of  armor  which  protects  the  animal  against  every 
enemy  but  man.     When  attacked  they  roll  themselves 


up  into  a  ball,  and  woe  be  to  the  animal  that  seizes 
them  then.  The  hedgehog  lives  upon  mice  and  frogs 
and  upon  vegetables  and  the  bark  of  trees,  and  hiber- 
nates among  rocks  and  in  caves.  It  has  been  tamed 
and  kept  in  a  cage,  but  they  cannot  be  honestly  recom- 
mended as  suitable  pets  for  children.  The  Indians 
highly  prized  the  animal  both  for  its  flesh  and  quills; 
with  the  latter  they  ornamented  their  pipes,  moccasins, 
and  dresses. 


This  animal  is  almost  black,  with  white  stripes.  It 
generally  lives  near  a  rocky  forest,  having  its  den  in 
an  excavation  in  the  ground  or  under  rocks,  where  it 
lies  dormant  most  of  the  winter.  It  is  a  pest,  as  it 
makes  nocturnal  visits  to  the  poultry-yard,  eats  the 
eggs  of  geese,  ducks,  and  hens,  and  destroys  their 
broods.  From  a  sack  it  discharges  a  most  fetid  and 
disgusting  fluid  secretion,  one  drop  of  which  is  sufli- 
cient  to  make  a  garment  unbearable  for  years.  Not- 
withstanding all  this  it  was  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Budd, 
a  noted  physician  of  New  Jersey,  that  the  musk  of  the 
skunk  will  yet  be  recognized  as  the  most  effective 
remedy  in  materia  medica,  for  the  cure  of  phthisis  oi- 
any  cognate  disease  of  the  respiratory  organs. 


This  animal,  in  consequence  of  its  amphibious  na- 
ture, is  nearly  allied  to  the  beaver,  mink,  and  musk-rat. 
It  is  about  Ave  feet  in  length,  including  the  tail,  which 
is    eighteen  inches.     The  chin  and  throat  are  dusky 

THE   MUSK-RAT.  55 

white;  the  rest  of  the  body  is  a  histroiis  brown.  The 
fur  is  vahiable,  so  mucli  so  that  the  keeping  and  breed- 
ing of  the  otter,  for  the  sake  of  their  skins,  has  been 
made  profitable.  More  than  fifty  years  ago  Miss  Polly 
Wright,  a  daughter  of  Nathan  Wright,  had  a  tame 
otter.  (The  Wright  family  were  noted  for  their  skill 
in  taming  animals.)  I  saw  the  animal  several  times  at 
the  house  of  Egbert  Woodbridge,  where  Miss  Wright 
lived.  This  fellow  went  wiiere  he  pleased,  and  caught 
liis  own  food.  He  would  go  to  the  Paupack,  a  half 
mile  distant,  at  all  times  of  the  year,  and  often  bring 
home  a  fine  trout,  take  it  to  a  large  spring  near  the 
house,  play  with  it  as  a  cat  does  with  a  mouse,  and  de- 
vour it  when  he  had  finished  his  gambols.  No  one 
could  coax  a  fish  away  from  him,  although  he  w^as  as 
playful  and  harmless  as  a  kitten.  His  smooth,  glossy 
skin  was  very  beautiful.  He  had  a  winding  hole  un- 
der the  house  where  he  would  lie,  and  where  he  seem- 
ed to  take  a  roguish  delight  in  biting  the  nose  of  every 
dog  that  attempted  to  interview  him.  After  living 
several  years  in  a  state  of  domestication,  he  went  away 
one  summer  and  never  returned. 


Old  hunters  used  to  (;all  this  animal  a  ''  musquash." 
The  head  and  body  measure  about  fifteen  inches :  the 
tail  nine  inches.  The  fur  is  dark  umber  brown,  chang- 
ing into  a  brownisli  yelloAV  on  the  under  part  of  the 
l)ody.  In  Slimmer  its  food  consists  of  roots,  tender 
shoots,  and  leaves  of  aquatic  plants,  and,  in  the  win- 


ter,  of  fresh-water  clams.  It  is  iioetiirnHl  and  not  of- 
ten seen  in  tlie  day-time,  swims  and  dives  well,  and  can 
remain  a  long  time  under  water  without  breathing.  It 
yearly  builds  a  winter  habitation  out  of  mud  and  long 
grass,  and  lives  about  small,  grassy  ponds,  nniddy, 
slow  streams,  or  swamps.  Many  of  the  skins  are  year- 
ly exported. 


In  its  habits  and  appearance  resembles  the  otter, 
being  much  smaller,  however,  as  it  is  only  about  twen- 
ty inches  in  length.  It  lives  al)out  bog  meadows, 
ponds,  or  sluggish  streams,  and  feeds  on  frogs,  tish, 
and  clams,  and  will  kill  poultry  in  the  winter  if  it  can 
get  at  them.  Its  depredations  are  all  nocturnal.  Six- 
ty years  ago  the  skin  of  a  mink  was  worth  only  a 
York  shillino'.  A  few  vears  ag-o  it  was  worth  several 
<lollars,  l)ut  since  that  time  their  value  has  greatly 


This  animal  with  all  its  varieties  is  classified  with 
the  marten.  They  are  cunning,  silent,  and  cautious, 
and  no  animal  exceeds  them  in  agility.  They  can 
climb  trees  and  follow  the  rat  throuo:h  all  his  wind- 
ings;  having  seized  their  victim,  they  never  relax  their 
hold,  but,  iixing  upon  the  back  of  the  head,  drive  their 
teeth  through  the  skull.  They  hunt  day  and  night 
and  are  accused  of  killing  poultry  and  destroying  their 
eggs.  There  are  several  varieties.  The  skin  of  the 
most  common  kind  is  brown  on  the  back,  and   white 

THE    SQ  UIRliELS.  57 

on  the  belly  and  tliroat.  The  white  kind  is  called  the 
ermine  weasel.  The  movements  of  all  the  varieties 
are  singvdarly  gi'acefnl. 


The  black  squirrel,  never  very  abundant,  is  yet  to 
l)e  found  in  the  vicinity  of  chestnut  forests.  In  the 
winter  its  skin  is  of  a  fine,  glossy  black.  In  some 
years  numbers  of  them  are  seen  in  the  woods ;  at  other 
times  they  cannot  be  found.  They  are  not  as  large  as 
they  appear  to  be ;  their  skins  are  of  little  or  no  value, 
and  they  are  killed  to  gratify  a  morbid  propensity  to 
shed  blood.  The  gray  squirrels  are  larger  and  more 
numerous  than  the  black  kind,  and  remarkable  for 
their  beauty  and  activity.  Like  other  squirrels  it 
feeds  upon  all  the  nuts  found  in  the  woods  and  lays 
up  a  store  of  them  for  winter.  It  is  easily  tamed 
and  is  then  cunning,  playful,  and  mischievous.  The 
common  red  squirrel  is  one  of  the  boldest,  most  nimble, 
and  thievish  of  all  the  rodents.  He  often  lives  in  a 
liollow  tree,  and  when  he  has  a  litter  of  young  squir- 
rels on  hand,  he  will  run  up  and  down  his  tree,  and, 
with  a  rattling  chatter,  scold  and  threaten  any  crea- 
ture that  approaches  his  home;  for  this  cause  he  has 
been  called  a  chickaree.  He  does  not  appear  to  dig 
up  the  planted  corn,  Ijut  steals  and  carries  it  away  in 
the  fall.  The  Indians  called  these  squirrels  tree-plant- 
ers. A  solitary  (chestnut,  hickory,  or  butternut  tree 
is  found  a  mile  away  from  any  of  its  kind.  The  In- 
dians believed  that  the  seed  of  such  isolated  trees  was 


c.arried  and  planted  by  the  red  squirrel.     It  may  l)e 
that  the  animal  is  impelled  by  the  impulsive  power  of 
instinct  to  plant  trees  for  the  future  support  of   its 
race.     This  squirrel  overmasters  all  the  others,  driv- 
ing them  from  their  holes  and  consuming  tlieir  hoard- 
ed stores.  When  pursued  it  makes  long  leaps  from  tree 
to  tree.     Its  tail  is  long  and  adds  much  to  the  beauty 
of  this  interesting,  sylvan  rover.   When  dnven  by  hun- 
ger, it  will  live  on  the  bark   of   trees.     Flying-squir- 
rels are  scarce.     The  skin  of  their  sides  is  extended 
from  the  fore  to  the  hind  legs,  tlie  expansion  of  whi(ih 
forms  a  sort  of  s:dl  that  enables  them  to  descend  from 
one  ti*ee  to  another.     They  build  their  nests  in  hol- 
low  trees,  and    are    the  smallest  of   all  the  squirrels. 
The  upper  parts  are  ash   color  and  the  under  parts 
white.     Their  skins   are   soft  and  silken,   eyes  large, 
black,  and  prominent.     The  ground-squirrel,  or  (chip- 
munk, is  the  most  abundant  of  all  squirrels ;  it  lives  in 
hollow  trees  or  in  holes  in  the  ground,  digs  up  corn  in 
the  spring,  and  steals  it  fi*om  the  ear  in  the  fall.   This 
is    the   laboring    squirrel,  ever   busy    and    active;  he 
lioards  up  abundance  of   nuts  and  gi^ain  which  other 
squirrels  steal  from  him,  whenever  they  can  get  at  his 
garnered  treasures.     It  is  the  way  of   the  world;  tlie 
laboring  class  are  subject  to  have  their  acquisitions 
taken  from  them  by  the  crafty  and  improvident. 

THE    WILD    CAT. 

There  are  several  varieties  of   tin's  animal,  one  of 
which  reseml)les  the  Canadian  lynx,  and  among  our 

THE   FOX.  59 

liunters  is  called  a  catamount.  It  is  larger  than  the 
wild  cat  and  has  longer  ears  and  a  shorter  tail.  Tlie 
whole  tribe  are  carnivorous,  living  upon  squirrels  and 
mice.  They  are  cowardly  in  disposition,  but,  when 
forced  into  a  light,  defend  themselves  with  bloody 


This  animal,  noted  in  fable  and  in  song  and  known 
in  all  the  northern  parts  of  Europe  and  Asia,  as  well 
as  in  all  the  northern  portions  of  the  American  Con- 
tinent, consists  of  many  varieties,  all  of  whicli  are  cel- 
ebrated for  cunning  and  rapacity.  The  variety  most 
common  in  Northern  Pennsylvania  is  the  red  fox.  Its 
fur  is  long,  fine,  and  brilliant.  It  is  a  great  thief, 
troublesome  to  poultry  keepers,  and  does  not  scruple 
to  devour  small  lambs,  if  they  are  found  in  its  way. 
They  are  caught  in  traps  and  hunted  by  hounds  and 
men,  yet  there  are  some  of  them  still  left.  There  is 
another  kind  called  the  gray  fox,  whose  fur  is  not  of 
much  value.  The  most  rare  and  valuable  variety  is 
the  black,  or  silver  fox.  This  variety  is  sometimes 
found  of  a  rich,  deep,  lustrous  black,  the  end  of  the 
tail  alone  being  wliite ;  in  general,  however,  the  fur 
has  a  silver  hue,  tlie  end  of  each  of  the  long  hairs  be- 
ing white,  and  presenting  a  beautiful  appearance. 
The  hunters  no  sooner  find  out  the  haunts  of  one  of 
this  scarce  variety  than  they  use  every  art  to  catch 
liim,  as  the  fur  fetches  six  times  the  price  of  any  oth- 
er kind. 



This  is  one  of  the  most  innocent  and  defenseless  of 
all  animals,  and  its  only  chance  to  escape  from  its  ene- 
mies is  l)y  concealment  or  flight.  It  is  remarkably 
swift,  and  when  pni'sued  is  capable  of  making  most 
astonishing  leaps.  It  lives  on  the  bark  and  buds  of 
trees,  in  the  winter,  and  upon  tender  herbage,  in  the 
summer,  seeking  its  food  in  the  night.  From  Decem- 
ber to  May  this  animal  is  white,  excepting  the  red- 
dish-brown of  the  ears.  During  the  rest  of  the  year 
the  upper  parts  of  the  body  are  of  a  lead  color. 
This  hare  has  one  peculiarity  that  has  escaped  the 
notice  of  zoologists.  In  the  night,  after  some  mild 
day  in  early  spring,  a  strange  sound  is  often  heard  in 
the  woods,  resembling  the  filing  of  a  saw,  which 
sound,  it  is  generally  believed,  is  made  by  a  ])ird, 
which,  consequently,  has  been  named  "  saw-filer."  Now 
this  strange  sound  is  not  made  by  a  bird,  but  l)y  the 
male  and  female  hare.  This  I  know  to  be  a  fact,  hav- 
ing stood,  on  a  bright  moonlight  night,  within  two 
rods  of  the  animal  when  the  sound  was  made.  Sam- 
uel Quick,  of  Blooming  Grove,  assured  me  that  he 
had  tamed  the  hare,  and  knew  that  they  made  such 


This  animal  closely  resembles  the  hare  in  all  its 
principal  characteristics,  size  only  excepted.  It  may, 
however,  be  at  once  recognized  by  the  comparative 
shortness  of  the  head  and  ears,  as  well  as  of  the  hinder 
limbs,  and  the  absence  of  a  reddish-brown  tip  on  the 

THE   RABBIT.  61 

ears,  trnd  by  the  brown  color  of  the  upper  surface  of 
the  tail.  In  habits  it  is  different  from  the  hare.  Its 
flesh,  instead  of  l)eing  dark  and  highly-flavored,  is 
white,  and,  though  delicate,  is  said  to  be  insipid,  es- 
pecially that  of  tlie  tame  l)reed.  The  animal  is  decid- 
edly gregarious,  and  makes  extensive  burrow^s,  in 
wliich  it  dwells  and  rears  its  young.  When  alarmed 
it  takes  to  its  burrow  and  disappears  as  by  magic. 
They  produce  three  or  four  litters  annually.  The 
young,  when  first  produced,  are  blind,  naked,  and 
helpless.  The  female  forms  a  separate  burrow,  at  the 
bottom  of  which  she  makes  a  bed  of  dried  grass,  lin- 
ing it  wdth  fur.  There  she  deposits  her  young,  care- 
fully covering  them  over  every  time  she  leaves  them. 
It  is  not  until  the  tentli  or  twelfth  day  that  the  young- 
are  able  to  see.  The  ral)]nt  is  of  a  fulvous  gray,  and 
does  not  turn  white. 





O  part  of  nnimated  nature  is  enlivened  with  any- 
thing more  interesting  than  hirds.  Their  great 
diversity  of  forms,  habits,  and  instincts ;  their  phimage 
always  attractive,  often  gorgeous  and  rich  with  varied 
colors;  their  singular  endowments  by  which  they  are 
enabled  to  navigate  the  air ;  their  ingenuity  displayed  in 
the  construction  of  their  nests ;  their  songs  and  chants, — 
all  combine  to  throw  a  halo  of  enchantment  around 
them,  w^hich  will  ever  iind  place  in  our  memories. 

Thomas  Jefferson,  in  his  "Notes  on  Virginia,"  upon 
many  subjects  is  full  and  exhaustive;  but  when  he 
comes  to  write  about  the  birds,  he  merely  gives  us  a 
catalogue  of  their  Latin  and  English  names,  without 
any  description  of  their  plumage  and  peculiarities. 
This  neglect  his  readers  very  much  regret,  when  re- 
flecting upon  the  descriptive  ability  of  the  noted  au- 
thor. Although  destitute  of  the  descriptive  powers  of 
that  eminent  writer,  we  shall  attempt  to  give  a  general 
description,  imperfect  though  it  may  be,  of  some  of  the 
])irds  which  have  frequented,  or,  which  do  yet  fre- 
quent, the   flelds  and  forests  of  Wayne  county. 

Birds  are  either  carnivorous,  insectivorous,  graniv- 
orous,  or  onmivorous,  and  their  digestive  organs  ;u'e 


modilied  accordingly.     Of  the  lirst  kind  are  the  eagle, 
hawk,  kingfisher,  owl,  heron,  and  loon. 


That  the  eagle  has  been  seen  and  killed  in  Wayne 
county  may  be  a  fact;  but  that  it  has  ever  made  its 
aerie  in  our  hills  and  mountains  is  questionable,  as  it 
ever  l)uilds  its  nest  upon  precipitous  cliffs,  higher  than 
any  that  exist  in  tlie  county. 


Tlie  great  hen-hawk  is  well  known  to  all  farmers, 
as  they  are  subject  to  have  their  domestic  fowis  de- 
stroyed by  liim.  When  he  can  iind  no  other  food  he 
catches  the  garter-snake  and  sails  about  with  it  at  a 
great  lieight,  sometimes  letting  the  reptile  fall,  as  if 
disgusted  w^ith  his  prey.  His  sight  is  intensely  acute; 
he  spares  no  bird  that  he  can  catch,  and  is  the  terror 
of  all  the  smaller  tenants  of  the  air,  excepting  the  king- 
])ird  and  the  purple  martin,  who  drive  him  from  the 
vicinity  of  their  nests.  The  pigeon-hawk  in  habits  is 
like  the  larger  kind. 


Is  found  along  the  Delaware  and  other  large  streams. 
He  has  a  loud,  rattling  voice.  His  sight  is  remarkably 
acute.  From  a  tree  near  his  frequented  stream  he  will 
descend  like  a  dart,  seize  upon  a  fish,  carry  it  to  his 
tree,  and  devour  it,  or  convey  it  to  his  young.  This 
bird  sometimes  lives  in  an  excavation  in  some  sand  bank 


where  its  nest  is  made,  to  which  it  returns  year  after 

THE    OWL. 

This  bird,  once  very  nnnierons,  was  found  in  all  the 
dark  solitudes  of  the  deep  woods,  and  in  the  night 
made  such  sounds  as  seemed  s(?arcely  to  l)elong  to  this 
world.  Attracted  hy  the  dazzlini>:  iire-li«:ht  of  the 
hunter,  he  would,  from  some  near  tree,  utter  a  sudden 
and  friglitful  "waugh-0,  waugh-(),''  sulhciently  loud  to 
alarm  an  army  of  men.  In  the  same  manner  lie  star- 
tled tlie  belated  traveler  of  the  night.  The  Indian 
must  have  learned  his  terrific  war-whoop  from  the  owl. 
By  way  of  variety,  the  wretch  had  otlier  noctin-nal 
soh)s,  which  were  like  the  screeches  of  a  mortal  in  in- 
tolerable agony.  Dr.  Richardson,  an  English  traveler, 
tells  of  the  winter  night  of  agony  endured  by  a  party 
of  Scotch  Highlanders  who  had  encamped  in  the  dark 
recesses  of  an  American  forest,  and  fed  tlieir  hre  with 
a  part  of  an  Indian  toml)  which  had  been  placed  in  a 
secluded  spot.  The  startling  notes  of  tJie  great  owl 
broke  on  their  ears,  and  they  at  once  concluded  that  a 
voice  so  unearthly,  nnist  be  the  moaning  of  tlie  spirit 
<jf  the  departed,  whose  repose  they  supposed  they  had 
distm-])ed.  The  Indians  dreaded  the  l)oding  hoots 
of  tlie  owl  and  f<u*bade  the  mockery  of  his  ominous, 
dismal,  and  almost  supernatural  cries.  He  is  the  sym- 
l)ol  of  gloom,  solitude,  and  melancholy.  He  lives 
on  all  lesser  birds  and  animals  that  he  can  surprise,  and 
will  destroy  all  poultry  that  he  can  reach.  All  his 
depredations  are  nocturna.l.     He  builds  a  great  nest  in 

THE    HERON   AND    LOON.  65' 

some  forked  tree,  lines  it  with  grass  and  feathers,  and 
raises  three  or  four  owlets  at  one  brood.  Occasionally 
one  is  heard  in  some  large  forest,  bnt  the  most  of  them 
have  been  killed  by  hunters.  There  is  a  small  kind 
called  the  screech-owl  which  is  of  habits  like  the  one 
above  descri]:)ed. 


Frequently  called  the  night-heron,  is  peculiarly 
aquatic,  has  legs,  wings,  and  neck  longer  than  his  body, 
and  sometimes  attains  the  height  of  Jive  feet.  He  is 
both  migratory  and  gregarious.  He  is  a  great  lisner- 
man  and  seems  satisfied  with  any  kind  of  fish  he 
can  catch.  He  makes  his  nest  of  sticks  upon  the  tall- 
est trees  and  when  disturbed  emits  a  loud,  piercing 
cry.  Sometimes  he  is  improperly  called  a  crane,  which 
bird  lives  near  the  seashore. 


This  bird,  which  is  called  the  great  diver,  is  scarcely 
noticed  by  any  of  our  ornithologists.  It  is  altogether 
aquatic  and  never  seen  upon  land.  Formerly  it  fre- 
quented our  large  ponds  and  was  in  the  habit  of  pass- 
ing from  one  pond  to  another.  Five  or  six  of  them 
would  make  their  passage  together,  flying  very  high 
and  emitting  a  distressing  cry  resembling  that  of  a  per- 
son shivering  with  cold.  It  can  swim  lifty  rods  under 
water,  and  so  intensely  acute  is  its  sight,  that  it  can, 
by  diving,  dodge  the  ball  of  a  flint-lock  rifle.  Its  food 
is  flsh  and  frogs.  Its  nest  is  built  of  coarse  grass  on 
some  bog  about  a  pond.      Its  color   is  bluish  on  the 



])ack  and  wings,  while  the  breast  is  nearly  white.  It 
is  smaller  than  a  goose  and  has  a  swan-like  neck.  Its 
feet  l)eing  webbed,  its  movements  are  very  graceful  in 
the  water. 


This  bird  is  occasionally  found  in  the  beech  woods 
and  in  other  parts  of  Pennsylvania.  The  beak  is 
strong,  decidedly  toothed,  and  the  upper  mandible  is 
curved  and  shuts  over  the  under  mandible,  which  is 
nearly  straight.  He  feeds  on  grasshoppers,  dragon- 
flies,  and  small  birds.  He  takes  his  prey  like  the  fly- 
catchers, by  darting  suddenly  upon  it  from  some  post 
of  observation,  and,  after  satisfying  his  hunger,  impales 
his  remaining  victims  on  thorns.  When  his  supply  of 
game  is  abundant,  he  leaves  his  stores  to  dry  up  and 
decay.  He  is  bold  and  fearless,  daring  even  to  attack 
the  eagle  or  hawk  in  defense  of  his  young.  In  size  he 
exceeds  the  kingbird.  His  tail  is  long  and  black,  edg- 
ed with  w^hite.  The  wings  are  black,  and  there  are 
stripes  of  black  running  backward  from  his  eyes.  The 
rest  of  his  plumage  is  of  a  lead  color,  the  breast  being 
paler  than  the  back. 


This  bird,  watchful  and  cunning,  is  too  well  known 
to  need  much  description.  He  is  found  everywhere 
and  he  understands  his  enemies  just  a1)out  as  well  as 
they  do  him.  He  incurs  the  curses  of  the  fanner  for 
pulling  up  his  corn  in  the  spring,  and  for  feasting  upon 
the  ripened  ears  in  the  fall.     Great  flocks  of  them  meet 

THE    WILD    TURKEY,  67 

together  in  the  spring  and  autumn,  and,  at  their  conven- 
tions, seem  to  deliberate  over  their  concerns  with  true 
legislative  solemnities,  intermingled  with  a  liberal 
amount  of  parliamentary  jabber  and  jaw.  The  character 
and  plumage  of  the  crow  are  both  black,  and  it  is  an  un- 
settled question  among  agriculturists  whether  he  is  a 
blessing  or  a  curse, — w^hether  he  is  more  sinned  against 
than  sinning.  It  must  be  admitted  that  being  omniv- 
orous he  destroys  the  larvae  of  many  injurious  insects 
and  beetles. 


These  birds,  never  very  numerous,  were  found  in 
our  original  forests  sixty  or  seventy  years  ago,  and 
were  shot  by  hunters  or  decoyed  into  pens  made  of 
poles  and  covered  over  on  the  top,  a  trail  of  wheat  be- 
ing strewn  upon  the  ground  into  the  pen.  The  turkey, 
with  his  head  down  followed  the  trail  into  the  trap,  and 
upon  raising  his  head  endeavored  to  escape  through  the 
spaces  between  the  poles,  not  lowering  his  head  to  see 
the  opening  at  wdiich  he  entered.  Many  were  caught  in 
this  way,  and  all  in  consequence  of  holding  their  heads 
too  high.  Finally  upon  the  invasion  of  the  forests  by 
the  ax  of  the  white  man,  being  of  a  shy  and  retiring 
nature,  they  left  for  the  more  undisturbed  forests  of 
western  Pennsylvania.  They  are  natives  of  America. 
Being  easily  domesticated  they  were  introduced  into 
Europe  as  early  as  1525.  The  nature  of  the  bird  may 
be  inferred  from  the  domesticated  kind,  though  it  is 
claimed  that  the  wild  bird  is  much  larger  than  the 
tame  one,  and  tliat  the  flesh  is  of  a  more  delicious  flavor. 



This  is  the  bird  called  a  partridge,  and  is  so  liardj 
as  to  live  in  oiu-  woods  through  our  long,  dreary  win- 
ters, when,  at  times,  it  burrows  in  the  snow.  The 
food  of  the  grouse  consists  of  seeds,  berries,  ^^^ld 
grapes,  and  the  buds  of  various  trees.  Their  nest  is 
made  upon  the  ground,  and  they  often  rear  a  brood 
of  twelve  or  fifteen  chicks  from  one  incubation.  Up- 
on what  the  young  are  fed  is  unknown.  The  male  is 
a  noble  looking  bird,  and  while  his  mate  is  sitting, 
(and  at  other  times,)  he  seeks  out  some  secluded  log, 
and,  by  the  flapping  of  his  wings,  produces  a  very 
peculiar  sound  called  "drumming."  They  are  de- 
stroyed by  hawks,  owls,  and  foxes,  but  their  most  re- 
lentless foe  is  the  hunter.  The  present  law  imposes  a 
penalty  of  ten  dollars  upon  any  person  who  shall  kill 
any  ruffled  grouse,  between  the  tirst  day  of  January 
and  the  first  day  of  October  in  any  year. 


Also  called  the  Virginia  partridge,  is  found  through- 
out the  Atlantic  States.  They  live  on  grain  and  in- 
sects. In  former  times,  when  the  farmers  stacked  out 
their  hay  and  grain,  they  were  quite  numerous.  The 
scarcity  of  food,  combined  with  the  severity  of  our 
winters,  has  made  them  very  scarce.  In  some  respects 
they  resemble  the  ruffled  grouse,  in  others  they  vary 
materially.  The  grouse  roosts  in  trees,  and  is  shy 
and  untamable.  The  quail  roosts  or  sits  on  the 
ground,   and,  if  unmolested,   will   feed    with   domes- 


tic  fowls,  and  it  is  believed  that  tliey  might  be  domes- 
ticated. Any  person  killing  the  quail  between  the 
lirst  day  of  January  and  the  lifteenth  day  of  October, 
in  any  year,  is  by  law  subject  to  a  penalty  of  ten  dol- 
lars. Why  not  interdict  the  killing  of  them  at  any 
time  ? 

When  calling  his  mate  the  male  has  a  peculiar 
whistle.  By  some  he  is  imagined  to  articulate  the 
words,  "  no  more  wet ; "  by  others,  the  words,  "  ah  1 
Bob  WJiite."  What  boy  is  there  that  has  lieard  his 
whistle  who  did  not  try  to  imitate  it  ? 

' '  The  school-boy  wandering  in  the  wood, 
To  pull  the  flowers  so  gay, 
Starts,  his  curious  voice  to  hear, 
And  imitates  his  lay." 


This  l)ird  resembles  the  English  snipe,  or  woodcock, 
though  it  is  less  in  size,  and  differently  marked.  In 
the  day-time  they  keep  in  tlie  woods  and  bushes,  but, 
towards  evening,  seek  wet  and  marshy  ground,  where 
they  find  their  food.  They  seldom  stir  about  until 
after  sunset.  It  is  then  that  this  bird  ascends  spirally 
to  a  considera1)le  height  in  the  air,  often  uttering  a 
quack,  till,  having  attained  his  utmost  height,  he  flies 
around  in  circles,  making  a  gurgling  sound,  and  in  a 
few  moments  descends  rapidly  to  the  ground.  If 
started  up  in  the  day-time,  his  flight  at  first  is  wal)- 
bling,  then  in  a  direct  line,  when  he  is  shot  by  tlie 


THE     WILD    DUCK. 

There  are  so  many  varieties  of  this  bird  that  it  is 
difficult  to  determine  what  is  the  name  of  the  kind 
that  is  found  in  our  rivers  and  ponds,  and  whicli  sixty 
years  ago  were  found  in  large  flocks,  in  the  Little 
Equinunk  pond,  from  which  circumstance  it  was  called 
"  Duck  Harbor."  It  is  one  of  the  largest  ponds  in 
the  county,  and  old  hunters  used  to  say  that  the  ducks 
often  resorted  there  in  immense  numbers.  Being 
shy  and  wary,  as  soon  as  they  were  annoyed  by  the 
hunters,  the  most  of  them  left  for  safer  quarters.  Their 
peculiarities  are  like  those  of  the  tame  kind.  The 
wood-duck,  however,  is,  in  some  respects,  unlike  all 
others.  It  formerly  lived  along  the  Middle  creek,  and 
perhaps  in  other  parts  of  the  county ;  unlike  other 
ducks,  it  builds  its  nest  in  hollow  trees  near  the  water, 
and  if  the  young  cannot  reach  the  water  with  ease, 
the  mother  carries  each  one  to  it  in  her  bill.  Audu- 
bon called  this  kind  the  most  ])eautiful  duck  in  the 


The  bro^vn  thrush,  or  brown  thrasher,  as  it  is  called 
in  New  England,  is  the  largest  of  all  the  numerous 
kinds  of  thrushes.  His  morning  song  is  loud,  cheer- 
ful, and  full  of  variety.  His  notes  are  spontaneous, 
not  imitative.  His  back  and  wings  are  brown  and  his 
breast  whitish,  mottled  wdth  dark  spots.  His  tail  is 
long  and  fan-shaped.  He  flies  low  from  one  thicket 
to  another-  This  bird  has  become  very  scarce,  and 
may  have  left  the  county  altogether. 



Is  classified  among  the  tlirushes,  and  is  often  called 
"robin-red-breast."  But  our  robin  is  larger  than  the 
English  robin-red-breast,  and  is  unlike  it  in  habits  and 
plumage.  Our  robin  builds  a  nest  of  mud  and  lines 
it  warmly,  locating  it  in  an  orchard  or  in  some  tree 
near  the  habitation  of  man,  its  four  or  live  eggs  being  of 
a  pale  blue.  During  the  incubation  of  the  female, 
and,  at  other  times,  the  male,  sitting  upon  some  chosen 
tree,  pours  forth  his  loud  and  long-continued  notes  of 
"cheer-up,  cheer-up,  cheer-up,"  producing  an  enliven- 
ing effect  upon  the  most  dejected  heart.  It  is  one  of 
our  earliest  birds,  and  is  among  the  last  that  departs 
for  warmer  climes. 


Is  a  solitary  l)ird  of  the  thrush  order,  never  leaving 
the  woods,  and  but  little  is  known  of  them.  Their 
notes  are  short  and  mournful,  but  not  often  repeated. 
Their  plumage  is  of  a  light  snuff  color.  All  the  thrush- 
es are  chiefly  insectivorous. 


Is  also  ranked  among  the  thrushes.  Their  nests  are 
built  in  low  bushes,  and,  when  holding  their  young, 
are  ably  defended  against  all  intruders.  Both  sexes 
are  of  a  uniform  slate  color.  Upon  coming  near  their 
nest,  they  emit  a  cry  which  resembles  the  mewing  of 
a  cat.  The  song  of  the  male  is  loud,  varied,  and 



These,  of  all  birds,  are  the  most  gregarious.  They 
liv  in  flocks  and  build  their  nests  near  each  other,  many 
of  them  on  the  same  tree,  and  thousands  of  them  in 
the  same  forest.  A  tract  of  land  called  "  The  Pigeon 
Roost,"  in  Berlin  township,  sixty  years  ago,  was  one 
of  their  favorite  places  of  rendezvous.  Then  they 
overspread  this  region  in  immense  flocks  of  thousands. 
They  lived  upon  the  beech-mast.  Since  that  time  they 
liave  steadily  decreased  in  numbers,  until  they  have 
almost  ceased  their  annual  visits.  Perhaps  the  great 
wheat  flelds  of  the  West  have  allured  them  thither. 
Their  rapidity  of  flight  and  ability  to  remain  unflag- 
gingly  upon  the  wing  for  many  consecutive  hours,  is 
wonderful.  Pio-eons  have  l>een  cauo-ht  in  Wavne  coun- 
ty  with  undigested  rice  in  their  crops,  Avhicli  they  must 
have  eaten  on  the  rice-flelds  of  the  South.  ^'  'Tis  true, 
'tis  strange;  but  stranger  'tis,  'tis  true."  Once  they 
were  caught  in  nets  1  )y  hundreds,  but  now  they  are  not 
caught  at  all. 


There  are  many  kinds  of  these  birds,  the  largest  of 
which  is  the  "  high-hole, "  so  called  from  his  ha])it  of 
seeking  a  higli  tree  with  a  dead  top,  in  which  he  makes 
a  hole  for  his  nest.  His  food  consists  of  insects  and 
gi'ubs,  which  he  digs  out  of  decayed  timber.  Like 
his  whole  tribe,  he  flies  by  alternate  risings  and  fallings. 
He  may  be  called  the  drummer  among  l)irds.  In  a 
still  morning  he  beats  a  reveille  upon  some  dead  tree, 


wlii(*h  can  l^e  heard  far  away  for  a  mile  or  more ;  then 
he  claps  his  head  close  to  the  tree  and  listens  for  the 
movement  of  any  grub  or  insect  that  he  may  have 
disturbed.  The  red-headed  woodpecker  is  a  gay,  frol- 
icsome bird,  living  upon  grubs,  cherries,  and  green  corn. 
Their  nests  are  built  in  some  hole  made  in  dead  trees. 
They  are  a  match  for  any  bird  in  a  iiglit.  There  is  a 
small  woodpecker  called  a  sap-sucker,  which  bores  holes 
in  apple-trees.  The  wliole  race  is  diminishing  in 


This  bird  is  a  favorite  every- where.  He  is  known  to 
almost  every  child.  His  reappearance  after  his  South- 
ern pilgrimage  is  li  ailed  as  the  herald  of  returning 
spring.  "  So  early  as  the  first  of  March,"  says  Wilson, 
"if  the  weather  be  open,  he  usually  makes  his  appear- 
ance about  his  old  haunts,  the  barn,  orchard,  and  fence 
posts.  Storms  and  deep  snows  sometimes  succeeding, 
he  disappears  for  a  time,  but  about  the  first  of  April 
is  again  seen,  accompanied  by  his  mate,  visiting  the  box 
in  the  garden,  or  the  hole  in  the  old  apple-tree,  the 
cradle  of  some  generations."  The  food  of  the  bluebird 
is  made  up  of  insects,  particularly  large  beetles,  fruits, 
and  seeds.  Its  song  is  short,  but  very  cheerful,  and  is 
most  frequently  lieard  in  the  calm,  pleasant  days  of 


As  the  bluebird  is  the  harbinger  of  spring,  the  swal- 
low is  the  harbinger  of  summer.     The  barn-swallow 



comes  in  May  and  immediately  commences  the  build- 
ing of  its  nest  in  and  about  barns  and  sheds,  which  is 
made  with  mud  and  lined  with  tine  grass,  feathers,  and 
hair.  It  is  not  unusual  for  twenty  or  thirty  of  them 
to  build  in  and  about  the  same  barn ;  and  every  opera- 
tion is  carried  on  with  great  order.  No  appearance  of 
discord  is  exhibited  in  this  affectionate  community. 
They  have  often  two  broods  in  a  season,  the  female 
laying  four  eggs  for  each  brood.  The  male  cheers  his 
mate  with  his  sprightly  twitter  during  her  period  of 
incubation.  The  activity  of  the  male  is  unremitting. 
Almost  constantly  on  the  wing,  he  catches  his  prey  in 
his  flight,  whicli  consists  wholly  of  winged  in- 
sects. The  flight  of  the  barn-swallow  is  rapid,  circuit- 
ous, and  varied  by  tlie  most  intricate  and  zigzag  evolu- 
tions. To  show  the  kindly  nature  of  the  swallow,  per- 
mit me  to  relate  that  I  once  knew  two  pair  of  swal- 
lows to  commence  their  nests  late  in  the  season,  in  a 
place  not  fifty  feet  from  my  door.  At  first  the  nests 
increased  slowly.  One  morning,  hearing  an  uncom- 
mon amount  of  twittering,  I  found  that  they  had  got 
up  a  bee  and  that  ten  or  a  dozen  w^ere  at  work  upon 
said  nests  which  w^ere  quickly  completed;  a  brood 
of  young  swallows  w^as  raised  in  each,  in  time  to  join 
the  great  convocation  which  took  their  departure  in 
August  for  a  Southern  clime.  Another  variety  of  these 
birds  is  the  chimney-swallow,  which  builds  and  breeds 
in  chimneys.  They  fly  very  high  in  \\\e  air.  Their 
wings  being  very  narrow  are  kept  in  a  (constant  flutter, 
and  as  they  do  not  descend  to  the  ground,  they  must 


feed  on  flies  and  insects  which  are  beyond  the  reach  of 
our  vision. 


This  bird  is  a  particular  favorite  wherever  he  makes 
his  home.  He  is  more  likely,  than  the  common  swal- 
low, to  make  his  nest  in  a  box;  indeed  something  like 
a  box  is  what  he  seeks  to  build  in.  At  any  rate  the 
summer  residence  of  this  agreeable  bird  is  always 
chosen  near  the  liabitations  of  man,  who,  be  he  black 
or  white,  civilized  or  savage,  is  generally  his  friend 
and  protector.  In  habits,  this  noble  bii-d  closely  re- 
sembles the  swallow,  excepting  that  tlie  martin  is  val- 
iant in  flght.  He  is  the  terror  and  common  enemy  of 
crowds,  hawks,  and  eagles,  uniting  with  the  kingbird  in 
attacking  them.  It  is  astonishing  with  what  spirit  and 
audacity,  this  bird  sweeps  around  his  enemy  and  in- 
flicts painful  blows  with  his  poniard  l)ill.  He  gives 
the  kingbird  a  beating  when  he  finds  him  in  the  vicinity 
of  his  premises.     He  is  migratory  and  insectivorous. 


This  bird  is  also  called  the  tyrant  fly-catcher.  These 
names  have  been  given  to  him  on  account  of  his  l)e- 
havior  in  breeding  time,  and  for  the  despotic  authority 
he  assumes  over  all  other  birds.  His  extreme  attach- 
ment to  his  mate,  nest,  and  young,  makes  him  suspi- 
cious of  every  bird  that  comes  near  his  chosen  abode, 
so  that  he  attacks  every  intruder  without  discrimina- 
tion. Hawks,  crows,  and  even  the  eagle  dread  an  en- 
countej*  with  him.     He  generally  comes  off  conqueror. 


LTpon  his  return  from  a  successful  combat,  he  mounts 
a  tree  near  his  nest  and  commences  rejoicing  with  a 
shrill,  rapid,  and  hilarious  twittering,  to  assure  his  mate 
that  she  is  safe  under  his  protection.  The  purple  mar- 
tin is  said  to  be,  in  a  square  fight,  more  than  a  match 
for  him.  TJie  general  color  of  tlie  kingbird  is  a  slaty 
ash,  the  throat  and  lower  parts  being  white.  He  is 
migratory  and  insectivorous,  and  the  orchard  is  his 
favorite  resort. 


This  noisy,  chattering,  restless,  quarrelsome  little 
bird  chooses  his  summer  abode  near  some  farm-house 
or  barn,  and  is  not  particular  as  to  the  place  where  his 
nest  shall  be  made,  but,  when  once  made,  the  place  is 
sacred  to  him.  He  is  a  bold,  saucy,  and  aggressive 
bird,  being  jealous  of  every  l)ird  that  builds  near  him, 
and  is  accused  of  tearing  to  pieces  the  nests  of  the 
bluebird  and  barn-swallow.  If  his  nest  is  built  in  a 
crevice,  he  lays  down  a  long  trail  of  little  sticks  at  each 
end  of  his  nest.  These  telegraphic  sticks  convey  intel- 
ligence of  the  approach  of  an  intruder.  The  song  of 
this  little  chatterer  is  lively  and  agreeable.  Children 
always  admire  the  little,  sociable  wren.  He  destroys  an 
immense  numl)er  of  flies  and  insects. 


This  bird  is  seldom  seen  or  heard  in  the  beech  or 
hemlock  woods.  They  prefer  high,  dry  '  lands,  and 
frequent  the  Delaware  and  the  open  woods.  They 
are  noted  for  their  staid  and  peculiar  song,  in  wliicli 

THE    COW-BIRD.  11 

they  indulge  during  the  cahn  and  warm  niglits  of 
June  and  July.  This  is  the  only  l)ird  that  breaks 
the  stillness  of  our  summer  nights,  save  the  l)oding 
owl.  They  seem  to  articulate  plainly  the  w^ords  by 
which  they  are  called.  Their  color,  in  the  upper 
part,  is  a  dark  brownish  gray,  streaked  and  slightly 
sprinkled  with  brownish  black;  cheeks  of  a  brow^n 
red;  quill  feathers,  dark  brown,  spotted  in  bars,  witli 
light  brown ;  tail  feathers,  white  at  the  tips,  under  parts, 
paler  than  the  upper,  and  mottled.  The  female  lays 
her  eggs  on  the  bare  ground,  and  when  they  are  hatch- 
ed, she  is  extremely  attentive  to  her  young. 

The  night-hawk,  though  resembling  the  whip-poor- 
will,  is  a  different  bird.  The  latter  is  altogether  noc- 
turnal, while  the  night-hawk  in  cloudy  weather  is 
often  abroad,  in  the  day-time,  chasing  its  insect  prey, 
sometimes  skimming  over  meadow  and  marsh,  and 
making  shrill,  squeaking  sounds  as  it  dashes  along.  It 
lays  its  eggs  on  the  ground.  It  is  migratory  and  in- 


This  bird,  although  larger  than  a  cat-bird,  some- 
what resembles  it.  Many  call  it  the  cuckoo,  although 
its  notes  are  altogether  unlike  those  of  the  English 
cuckoo,  which  distinctly  pronounces  its  name.  But 
the  notes  of  the  bird  that  we  are  describing  may  be 
represented  by  the  words  "cow,  cow,  cow,"'  quickly 
repeated,  consequently  it  is  called  cow-bird  in  every 
part  of  the  country.  Wilson  calls  this  bird  the  yel- 
low-billed cuckoo.     Like  tlie  Eno^lish  cucko(j,  this  bird 


deposits  its  eggs  in  the  nests  of  other  birds,  which 
sometimes  hatch  and  rear  the  alien  impostors,  to  the 
sreat  discomfort  of  their  own  hrood.  The  naturalist, 
Le  Yaillant,  from  evidence  collected  b)"  him,  became 
convinced  that  the  female  cow-bird  carries  the  eg^  in 
her  mouth  from  her  own  nest  to  that  of  another  bird. 
Perhaps  she  has  a  surplus  of  them,  for  it  is  a  fact  that 
the  cow-bird  l)uilds  a  simple,  flat  nest,  composed  of 
dry  sticks  and  grass.  They  rear  only  one  l)rood  in  a 
season.  The  young  of  the  cow-bird  have  been  found 
in  the  nests  of  the  robin,  blue-bird,  and  fly-catchers. 
The  cooing  of  this  bird  is  considered  an  indication  of 
rain.  The  Pennsylvania  Germans  call  it  the  rain- 

This  bird,  clad  in  blue  varied  witli  purple  and  white, 
and  barred  on  the  wings  and  tail  with  black,  when 
viewed  without  prejudice,  is  a  beautiful  tenant  of  the 
woods,  and  is  distinguished  as  a  kind  of  beau  among 
the  feathered  tribes.  He  makes  himself  conspicuous 
by  his  loquacity,  and  the  oddness  of  his  tones  and 
gestures.  In  early  times,  the  jay  gave  notice  by  his 
screams  and  squalling  to  all  the  beasts  that  the  hunter 
was  approaching.  We  are  glad  to  be  excused  from 
repeating  the  exact  language  that  was  sometimes  used 
in  imprecating  vengeance  upon  this  ''blue  devil,"  as 
the  hunters  called  him.  If  the  hunter  turned  upon 
him,  away  he  went  with  a  vehement  outcry,  flying  off 
and  screaming  with  all  his  might.  "  A  stranger,"  says 
Wilson,  "  might  readily  mistake  his  notes  for  the  re- 


peated  creakiDgs  of  an  ungreased  wheelbarrow."  The 
jay  builds  a  large  nest,  lining  it  with  fibrous  roots. 
The  eggs,  live  in  number,  are  of  a  dull  olive  color. 
He  is  omnivorous,  living  on  nuts  and  Indian  corn, 
then  on  caterpillars,  and  then,  at  other  times,  he  plun- 
ders the  nests  of  small  birds  of  their  eggs  and  young. 
He  is  becoming  scarce,  and  no  one  will  mourn  over 
his  extinction, 


Larger  than  the  robin,  is  a  shy,  agreea})le  bird,  that 
comes  up  from  its  Southern  home  and  stays  from  two 
to  three  months  and  returns.  Its  back  and  wings  are 
marbled  with  brown  and  gray,  and  its  breast  is  light 
olive,  sprinkled  with  brown  spots.  The  nest  is  made 
in  tall  grass  and  is  so  well  concealed  that  it  is  seldom 
found.  Its  notes  are  pleasant,  but  without  variety. 
Farmers  consider  it  harmless  and  insectivorous. 


Is  small  and  graceful  with  a  soft,  silken,  dun-colored 
plumage.  The  feathers  on  the  head  are  elevated  into 
a  beautiful  crest  of  a  bright,  brownish  gray.  It  is 
generally  known  as  the  cherry  bird,  and  is  sure  to  be 
on  hand  as  soon  as  strawberries  and  cherries  are  ripe. 
It  is  a  peculiarity  of  these  birds  to  fly  in  close,  compac-t 
flocks  of  twenty  or  tliirty  in  a  flock,  and  for  all  to  light 
upon  the  same  tree.  Where  the  red  cedar  is  found, 
these  birds  feed  upon  its  berries.  About  the  10th  of 
June  they  disperse  over  the  country  in  pairs  to  breed. 


and  spread  through  tlie  Middle  and  Western  States. 
They  utter  nought  but  a  lisping  sound. 


Fifty  years  ago  this  bird  was  scarcely  seen  or  known 
in  the  beech-woods.  In  consequence  of  the  increasing 
heat  of  our  summers  it  is  multiplying  in  numbers.  It 
derives  its  name  from  the  brilliant  orange  and  black 
colors  of  the  coat  of  arms  of  Lord  Baltimore,  In 
former  times  it  was  called  the  hang-bird  from  the  hang- 
ing and  pensile  position  of  its  nest.  This  beautiful 
creature  arrives  among  us  about  the  first  of  June,  and 
departs  early  in  August.  In  plumage  it  somewhat  re- 
sembles the  dark-winged  tanager,  and  like  it  is  very 
sensitive  to  cold.  It  exhibits  wonderful  ingenuity  in 
constructing  its  long,  pouch-like  nest  in  the  forked  ex- 
tremity of  some  high  tree.  To  be  justly  admired,  the 
nest  must  be  seen.  The  position  chosen  by  the  oriole 
for  its  pensile  nest  is,  no  doubt,  prompted  by  instinct 
as  a  means  of  security  against  squirrels,  snakes,  and 
other  enemies.  Besides  insects  it  feeds  on  strawber- 
ries, cherries,  and  other  fruits.  Its  notes  are  a  clear, 
mellow,  iiute-like  wliistle  repeated  at  short  intervals  in 
a  plaintive  tone,  and  are  extremely  musical.  The  late 
Mrs.  II.  G.  Otis,  some  years  ago,  took  to  Boston  an 
oriole's  nest,  which  was  constructed  with  magical  skill, 
and  sold  it  at  a  fair  for  live  dollars.  The  nest  was  built 
in  a  liigli  elm  upon  lier  premises  in  Bethany. 

First  appear    al)out   the  twentieth   of    October   in 


flocks  of  twenty  or  thirty,  flying  about  very  leisurely 
and  searching  for  food.  When  deep  snows  cover  the 
ground,  they  collect  about  barns,  stables,  and  even 
about  the  farm-houses,  and  become  almost  tame,  gath- 
ering up  crumbs  and  appearing  lively  and  grateful. 
They  retire  north w^ards  in  April.  Dr.  Kane  speaks  of 
them  as  being  very  abundant  in  high  latitudes,  where 
they  make  their  nests  upon  the  ground.  Their  length 
is  five  inches,  and  their  general  (;olor  slate-gray,  the 
lower  part  of  the  breast  being  nearly  white.  There  is 
anotlier  larger  bird,  called  tlie  snow^-bunting,  which 
only  appears  in  small  flocks,  in  the  depth  of  winter, 
commonly  before  a  snow-storm.  They  frequent  barn- 
yards and  hay -stacks  in  search  of  hay-seed.  The  color 
of  these  birds  is  of  a  yellowish  gray.  They  probably 
come  from  and  return  to  the  Arctic  regions.  They 
are  timorous,  suspicious  birds. 


Is  found  almost  every-where  in  the  Northern  States, 
among  the  large  trees,  in  thick  forests,  but  is  seldom 
known  or  called  by  its  proper  name.  It  is  a  small 
bird  about  five  or  six  inches  in  length,  with  a  wdiite 
breast,  the  back  and  wings  being  rufous-brown  and 
gray.  It  l)reeds  in  holes  which  it  finds  or  makes  in 
old  trees,  and  lives  upon  beech-nuts,  chestnuts,  and 
hazel-nuts,  wliich  it  can  open  with  its  strong  pointed 
bill.  Any  man  who  has  been  much  in  the  woods 
must  have  observed  a  bird  that  can  run  swiftly,  head- 
foremost, down  a  tree.     That  bird  was  a  nut-hatch. 



He  must  have  noticed  tliat  the  same  bird  was 
in  the  liahit  of  running  in  (drcles  around  a  tree, 
searching  in  the  seams  of  the  hark  for  insects. 
Naturalists  declare  that  this  bird  is  of  an  untamable 
disposition  and  will  not  endure  (-ontinement.  It  has 
been  known  to  batter  up  its  bill  in  its  attempts  to  es- 
cape from  a  cage,  and  after  days  of  painful  struggles, 
to  die  wdth  exhaustion  and  vexation.  There  is  a  variety 
of  this  bird  called  creeper.  Among  them  is  a  very 
small  one  called  the  phelje-bird,  which  will  some- 
times come  and  repeat  its  name  from  some  tree  near 
a  dwelling-house. 

There  is  another  creeper,  called  "cocheek,"  which 
is  seldom  seen,  but  is  sometimes  heard  in  the  woods, 
most  frequently  in  June,  repeating  in  a  very  high, 
ioud  key  "cocheek,  cocheek,  cocheek,"  very  rapidly 
for  a  dozen  or  more  times,  and  the  sounds  can  be 
lieard  eighty  rods  away.  Some  have  supposed  that 
tlie  noise  is  made  by  a  squirrel,  but  I  know  to  the 
contrary  from  my  own  observation. 


Tliis  is  the  only  species  of  the  genus  found  in  the 
original  Thirteen  States,  though  there  are  scores  of  dif- 
ferent kinds  in  America.  It  is  found  only  on  this  con- 
tinent. It  needs  no  lengthy  description,  as  it  cannot 
l)e  mistaken  for  any  other  bird.  It  comes  to  the  North 
only  in  the  summer  months.  It  is  tlie  smallest  and 
one  of  the  most  brilliant  of  the  feathered  race.  No 
1)ird  excels  its  powers  of  flight.      Its  long  and  narrow 


wings  are  admirably  adapted  for  aerial  progression. 
Its  flight  from  flower  to  flower  resembles  that  of  a  bee, 
l)nt  is  much  more  rapid.  It  can  suspend  itself  in  one 
place  for  several  seconds  so  steadily  that  its  wdngs  can 
scarcely  be  seen,  while  it  thrusts  its  long  l)ill  into  the 
flowers,  to  inhale  their  nectared  sweets.  When  it 
alights,  it  prefers  some  small  twig.  The  ground  is 
never  its  resting  place.  It  feeds  not  only  upon  the 
nectar  of  flowers  but  also  on  insects.  In  describing  this 
bird,  naturalists  have  exhausted  all  their  skill.  Buifon, 
the  French  ornithologist,  obtained  these  birds  at  great 
expense  and  domesticated  them,  and  his  description 
of  tliem  is  inimitable. 


This  bird  is  a  representative  of  the  song  flnches  of 
the  Northern  States.  It  is  the  first  singing  bird  in  the 
spring,  and  is  heard  through  the  summer  and  autumn. 
It  will  sit  upon  the  branches  of  a  small  tree  and,  per- 
haps, for  a  whole  hour,  repeat  its  short  and  enlivening 
notes.  It  builds  its  nest  on  the  ground,  in  general,  but, 
sometimes,  strange  to  say,  in  trees  five  or  six  feet  from 
the  ground.  Its  eggs  are  of  a  cream-color,  speckled 
with  brown.  The  male  and  female  are  nearly  alike  in 
color.  The  upper  part  of  the  head  is  of  an  iron-rust 
hue,  mixed  with  dark-brown;  back  gray,  neck  and 
breast  spotted  with  brow^n,  under  parts  white,  tinged 
with  gray.  There  are  other  familiar  kinds  of  finches 
as  the  field,  tree,  w^hite-throated,  and  chipping-sparrow. 
The  latter  is  a  very  small  bird,  which  keeps  about  the 


kitchen  yard  unci  tamely  comes  near  the  door-steps  for 
gram  or  scattered  crum])s.  It  builds  its  nest  by  the 
side  of  a  stone,  year  after  year,  if  not  molested.  It 
picks  out  the  down}^  seed  of  the  thistle,  and  destroys 
many  worms,  especially  the  cabbage-worm.  Its  notes 
are  short  but  agreeable.  The  English  sparrows  which 
have  been  recently  naturalized,  wxre  imported  into  New 
York  and  Philadelphia  to  destroy  the  worms  and  cat- 
erpillars that  were  destroying  the  foliage  of  the  decor- 
ative trees  in  their  public  parks.  They  effected  wdiat 
they  were  expected  to  do.  These  birds  have  increased 
wonderfully  and  spread  into  all  our  large  cities  and 
towns,  and,  though  our  climate  is  too  cold  for  them, 
yet  they  contrive  to  live,  for  they  are  l)old,  active,  and 
full  of  light.  They  do  not  go  into  the  farming  dis- 
tricts, nor  invade  the  forests,  but  confine  themselves  to 
towns  and  cities,  where  they  work  as  petty  scavengers 
in  the  streets.  These  birds  did  not  come  here  of  their 
own  free-will,  but,  like  the  negroes,  w^ere  forced  into 
the  country.  But  a  loud  complaint  is  now  made  that 
these  sparrows  are  saucy  and  aggressive  and  that  they 
are  dispossessing  and  driving  out  our  native  birds,  and 
the  inquiry  is  being  made.  How  shall  we  get  rid  of 
them?  The  devilish  proposition  has  been  made  to 
poison  them  all!  It  must  be  admitted  that  these  birds 
partake  of  the  nature  of  the  people  of  the  island  from 
wdiich  they  came ;  which  people  have,  by  their  warlike 
craftiness  and  enterprise,  by  fair  means  and  foul,  con- 
quered, colonized,  and  taken  possession  of,  by  force  of 
arms,  large  portions  of  the  globe.     It   little    becomes 


us,  the  descendants  of  men  who  drove  out  and  destroy- 
ed the  Aborigines,  to  bhime  and  persecute  the  little 
bii'ds  for  doing,  in  their  line,  what  we  excuse  our  fore- 
fathers for  doing. 


This  is  the  bird  that  every  body  knows  by  the  name 
of  chickadee.  It  ranges  through  the  whole  width  of 
the  American  Continent  from  latitude  sixty-five  degrees 
to  the  Southern  districts  of  the  United  States,  being 
stationary  throughout  the  year.  "Small  families  of 
chickadees,"  says  Nuttall,  "are  seen  chattering  and 
roving  the  woods,  busily  engaged  in  gleaning  their 
multifarious  food  with  the  nut-hatchers  and  creepers, 
altogether  forming  a  busy,  active,  and  noisy  group, 
whose  manners,  food,  and  habits,  bring  them  together 
in  a  common  pursuit.  Their  diet  varies  with  the  sea- 
son. In  the  month  of  September  they  leave  the  woods 
and  assemble  familiarly  in  our  orchards  and  gardens, 
and  even  enter  thronging  cities  in  quest  of  that  sup- 
port which  their  native  forests  now  deny  tliem."  But 
what  more  than  any  thing  else  endears  these  little  birds 
to  us  is  the  fact  that  when  "winter  spreads  its,  latest 
gloom,  and  reigns  tremendous  o'er  the  conquered  year," 
the  chickadees  prove  themselves  no  summer  friends ; 
they  stay  with  us,  cheering  ns  by  chanting  their  sweet 
notes,  picking  up  crumbs  near  the  houses,  searching 
the  weather-boards  for  spiders  and  the  eggs  of  destruc- 
tive moths,  especially  those  of  the  canker-worm,  which 
they  greedily  eat  in  all  stages  of  its  existence.     The  lar- 


vae  of  no  insect  can  escape  their  searching  sight.  AVhen 
the  woodman,  in  the  winter  or  spring,  fells  tlie  forest 
timber,  the  chickadees  will  be  there  to  cheer  him  with 
their  presence  and  their  song.  They  can  hear  the  fall 
of  the  tree  a  great  distance,  and  are  very  soon  upon 
the  spot,  searching  among  the  broken  and  decayed 
Avood  for  insects  and  the  larvae  of  everj  kind  of  ])eetle. 
In  descril)ing  the  l)ird,  suffice  it  to  say,  that  the  top  of 
the  head,  the  back  of  the  neck,  and  the  throat  are  vel- 
vet black ;  the  back  is  lead-colored  with  a  little  white 
on  the  front  of  the  neck.  They  roost  in  the  hollows 
of  decayed  trees,  where  they,  also,  liatch  their  young. 
After  a  brood  is  reared,  the  whole  family  continues  to 
associate  together  tlirough  the  succeeding  autumn  and 
winter.  Where  is  the  man  or  woman  reared  in  the 
country  that  does  not  remember  how  in  childhood 
days  he  or  she  was  captivated  by  the  dress  and  song  of 
the  little  chickadee  ? 


There  are  several  varieties  of  this  bird,  one  of  which 
is  called  the  cardinal  or  smnmer  red-bird.  This  kind 
is  very  shy  and  timorous,  and  he  seems  to  realize  that 
his  dazzling,  crimson  plumage  exposes  him  to  scrutiny 
and  observation.  He,  therefore,  takes  up  his  abode 
in  the  deep  recesses  of  tangled  forests,  and  very  little 
is  known  about  him.  In  Western  Pennsylvania  and 
Ohio  this  bird  is  quite  common,  often  building  its 
nest  in  large  orchards,  and  visiting  cherry-trees  in 
search  of   fruit.     The  black-winged  tanager  is  a  l)ird 


oi  still  greater  beauty.  The  whole  body  is  of  a  deep 
crimson.  The  mngs  are  black  and  the  tail  is  dark 
purple,  excepting  the  ends  of  the  feathers,  which  are 
tipped  and  dotted  with  white.  The  whole  form  of 
this  l)ird  is  symmetrical  and  faultless.  There  are 
many  persons  who  declare  that  they  have  seen  this 
bird,  but  none,  perhaps,  that  have  seen  him  for  many 
years.  He  is  doubtless,  so  far  as  plumage  and  symme- 
try are  concerned,  the  most  beautiful  bird  that  ever 
lived  in  our  woods ;  and  no  being  less  than  an  omnipo- 
tent God  could  have  made  a  bird  of  such  transcendent 


Also  called  goldlinch,  very  much  resembles  the 
domestic  canary.  In  tlie  spring  they  gathei*  in  flocks 
and  bask  and  dress  themselves  in  the  sunshine.  If 
there  is  any  such  thing  as  pure  sublunary  happiness, 
they  appear  to  enjoy  it.  Their  song  is  weak,  but, 
when  many  of  them  join  in  concert,  the  mingling  of 
their  notes  produces  an  agreeable  harmony.  They 
seem  to  take  great  delight  in  washing  themselves  by 
flying  through  any  small  column  of  falling  water. 
Tlieir  flight  is  not  in  a  direct  line,  but  in  alternate  ris- 
ings and  sinkings.  In  the  early  part  of  June  they 
associate  in  large  flocks  to  feed  upon  the  seeds  of  the 
sweet-scented  vernal  grass  which  seems  to  be  their 
favorite  food.  Their  nests  are  built  in  small  trees, 
being  constructed  with  great  neatness  and  skill  and 
lined  with  some  soft,  downy  substance.  This  hand- 
some ])ird  does  not  appear  to  be  decreasing  in  mmi- 


hers.     It  is  too  small  to  invite  the  destructive  cruelty 
of  the  huntsman. 

Tliere  is  anotlier  l)ird  which  is  called  the  summer- 
yellovv-bird,  which  is  about  live  inches  in  length,  with 
an  upper  plumage  of  greenish-yellow,  the  wings  and 
tail  deep  brown,  edged  wdth  yellow.  Formerly  this 
bird  frequented  gardens  and  orchards,  built  a  cosy 
nest  and  lined  it  wdth  down.  Its  plumage  was  showy, 
l)ut  its  song  was  short  and  weak.  This  bird  has  dis- 
appeared, being  too  sensitive  to  bear  our  cold,  chilling 


This  bird  appears  in  every  part  of  the  connti'y  at 
different  times.  Formerly  they  committed  great  havoc 
among  the  fields  of  midze.  Less  complaint  has  been 
made  about  them  in  late  years.  Transient  flocks  of 
them  are  seen  every  spring  and  fall.  The  walk  of 
this  bird  is  stately  and  dignified.  The  red-winged 
variety  built  its  nest  among  alders,  hatching  out  five 
or  six  at  a  brood.  This  latter  kind  was  also  very 
fond  of  Indian  corn.  They  all  have  but  one  simple 
note  which  they  often  repeat  and  which  sounds  like 
the  word  "  check." 


The  bobolink  is  classified  among  the  blackbirds, 
being  mostly  l)lack,  i-elieved  by  a  stripe  of  white. 
The  song  of  the  male,  Avhich  is  loud,  varied,  and  re- 
peated generally  upon  the  wing,  while  he  hovers  over 
the  field,  where  his  mate  is  attending  to  the  duties  of 


incubation,  has  a  gushing  joyousness  which  the  most 
skillful  mimic  cannot  imitate.  Tlie  female  is  a  little 
brown  bird,  with  one  simple  note,  and  makes  her  nest 
in  the  grass.  Tlieir  stay  at  the  North  is  very  short; 
on  leaving  they  go  to  Chesapeake  bay  and  are  there 
called  reed-birds ;  thence  to  the  rice  fields  of  the 
South,  where  they  are  called  rice-birds,  and,  on 
becoming  fat,  are  killed  in  great  numbers. 


This  is  a  timorous,  high-stilted,  little  water-bird  that 
in  summer  runs  along  the  shores  of  our  ponds,  making 
a  piping  sound,  and  belongs  to  the  order  of  sandpipers. 
He  swdms  and  dives  well  and  is  very  graceful  in  the 
water,  but  when  on  land  is  constantly  rocking  his  body 
backw^ards  and  forwards,  dipping  his  head  downwards, 
from  which  motion  he  has  been  called  the  dipper. 
Although  we  have  searched  for  the  nest  of  this  sliy 
bird,  we  never  found  one. 

There  are  probably  some  other  birds  that  are  tran- 
sient visitors  among  us,  such  as  the  flicker,  the  scrap- 
ing-thrush, and  cross-bill.  Even  the  mocking-bird  has 
been  seen  in  Lebanon  township.  The  greater  part  of 
the  l)irds  that  come  among  us  in  the  summer  months, 
stay  just  long  enough  to  build  their  nests,  hatch,  and 
rear  their  young  and  then  are  away.  They  come,  in 
all  prol)ability,  to  escape  from  the  snakes,  squirrels, 
and  l)h'ds  of  prey  which  are  so  abundant  in  Southern 
climes.    The  vivid,  l)ewitching  greenness  of  our  forests 



lias,  no  (loiil)t,  great  attractions  for  tliem.  Our  En- 
gl i  si  i  and  Irish  people  assert,  and,  no  donbt,  truthfully, 
that  in  their  native  islands  the  hirds  of  song  exceed 
ours  in  numbers  and  melody,  but  that  the  American 
birds  surpass  theirs  in  the  beauty  of  their  plumage. 

How  delightful  is  the  scene,  when  we  can  say:  "The 
winter  is  past,  the  flowers  appear  upon  the  earth:  the 
time  of  the  singing  of  birds  is  come,  and  the  voice  of 
the  turtle  is  heard  in  our  land." 

Since  writing  the  foregoing,  we  have  had  the  pleas- 
ure of  seeing  an  interesting  collection  of  the  skins  of 
divers  quadrupeds  and  birds  prepared  and  preserved 
by  that  ingenious  taxidermist,  Lewis  Day,  Esq.,  of 
Dyberry.  All  the  preparations  have  a  life-like  appear- 
ance. Among  the  quadrupeds  are  a  bhick  Maryland 
marmot,  a  large  hedge-hog,  and  two  martens;  and 
among  the  l)irds  are  some  rare  and  beautiful  specimens, 
all  killed  in  Wayne  c<3unty ,  as  follows :  A  large  Amer- 
i(^an  shrike,  by  some  called  the  butcher-bird ;  a  cardi- 
nal gross-beak,  a  rare  bird  in  this  latitude;  a  strange, 
tall  ])ird,  with  long  legs  and  ^\it\i  a  longer  neck,  of  a 
mottled  gray,  in  slang  language  called  a  "  shikepoke," 
Mud  not  very  distin(;tly  described  by  any  of  our  orni- 
thologists, resembling  in  plumage  and  sliape  the  bird 
known  in  England  as  the  l)ittern ;  a  black-winged  taiia- 
ger ;  a  meadow-lark ;  a  bird  of  the  sandpiper  order, 
{jailed  a  "tip-up" ;  a  small  black  auk,  which  must  have 
wandered  from  its  ocean  home.  But  strangest  among 
them  all  is  a  white  woodpecker,  a  hrsns  naturoe.  The 
liead  of  this  bird  is  ornamented  with  a  crest  of   long, 

FISH.  9 1 

slender  featliers  of  a  rich  carmine  color,  and,  were  it 
not  for  its  plumage,  it  would  be  at  once  recognized  as 
an  ivory-billed  woodpecker.  In  Mr.  Day's  collection 
are  many  other  rare  specimens.  Such  is  his  love  of 
the  beautiful  in  nature,  that  we  feel  assured  he  will 
make  further  additions  to  his  stock  of  rare  curiosities. 

What  we  have  written  about  birds  has  been  done  in 
part  to  incite  our  young  people  to  study  the  nature  and 
habits  of  these  light  tenants  of  tlie  air,  which  we  con- 
sider the  most  interesting  creatures  in  animated  nature. 

If  there  be  any  one  that  is  indifferent  to  the  songs 

of  the  birds,  to  that  person,  male  or  female,  will  apply 

the  words  of  Shakespeare : 

"The  man  that  hath  no  music  in  himself, 
Nor  is  not  moved  with  concord  of  sweet  sounds, 
Is  fit  for  treasons,  stratagems,  and  spoils ; 
The  motions  ol  his  spirit  are  dull  as  night, 
And  his  affections  dark  as  Erebus  ; 
Let  no  such  man  be  trusted." 


THE  Ush  for  which  the  settlers  had  the  most  reason 
to  l)e   thankful  was  the  trout,  which  enlivened  all 
the  streams  from  the  Paupack  to  the  StarruccM,  and 


wliicli,  in  the  spring  and  summer  months,  afforded  an 
abundance  of  cheap  and  wholesome  food.  The  man 
that  went  fishing  fifty  or  sixty  years  ago,  if  he  had 
any  skill  or  industry,  did  not  throw^  away  his  time,  if 
he  attached  any  value  to  twelve  or  twenty  pounds  of 
the  most  l)eautiful  fish.  As  a  rule  this  fish  was 
more  abundant  in  the  smaller  than  in  the  Ijigger 
streams,  where  they  were  larger  in  size,  often  attain- 
ing a  weight  of  one  or  two  pounds.  The  trout  could 
ascend  any  water  however  swift  and  any  falling  col- 
unni  of  water  which  was  not  deflected  or  broken  by 
falling  on  rocks.  Hence  they  ascended  the  several 
falls  of  the  Paupack.  This  the  eels  coidd  not  do, 
and,  consequently,  there  were  none  above  those  falls. 
If  there  are  any  there  now,  they  have  been  carried  up 
within  fifty  years.  Ephraim  Killam,  formerly  of  Pal- 
myra, Pike  county,  used  to  tell  how  he,  standing  in 
one  place,  had  caught  forty  pounds  of  trout  in  one 
hour,  from  and  above  a  large  mass  of  drift-wood  in 
the  Paupack.  But  saw-dust  from  the  saw-mills,  the 
liquor  from  the  tanneries,  the  droughts  of  our  sum- 
mers, and  the  more  destructive  fish-hooks  have  almost 
effected  the  extinction  of  this  beautiful  and  valuable 
fish.  A  few  of  them,  small  in  size,  and  smaller  in 
quantity,  may  yet  be  caught  in  small  brooks  and 
mill-ponds,  early  in  the  season. 

Before  the  introduction  of  pickerel  into  our  ponds, 
thirty  or  forty  years  ago,  perch  were  alnmdant,  were 
easily  caught,  and  the  flesh  was  hard  and  of  an 
agreeable   flavor.     In    some    of   the   ponds    tliey  yet 

FISH.  93 

abound;  but,  in  general,  tlieir  numbers  have  been 
greatly  diminished  hj  the  voracity  of  the  pickerel. 
Perch  and  sunlish  are  rarely  found  in  running  streams. 
Catfish  are  found  in  almost  every  pond,  and,  if  the 
water  is  pure,  are  a  good  fish.  Eels  are  found  in  all 
the  large  streams  except  the  Paupack.  Chubs,  suck- 
ers, and  mullet  abound  in  some  streams  and  ponds. 
Seventy-five  years  ago  shad  ascended  the  Delaware  to 
Deposit,  and  were  caught  below  there,  at  the  mouth 
of  Shadpond  brook.  Joseph  Atkinson,  Sen.,  used  to 
tell  of  seeing  them  caught  at  Paupack  Eddy,  and 
Esquire  Spangenberg,  of  seeing  them,  in  spawning 
places,  between  the  mouth  of  the  Dyberry  and  the 
Henwood  bridge. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  enterprise  and  experi- 
ments of  A.  W.  McKown,  Esq.,  w^lio,  at  much  trouble 
and  expense,  has  introduced  the  northern  black-bass 
into  several  of  our  large  ponds,  will  succeed  in  and 
satisfy  liis  expe(!tations.  Any  fish  that  can  hold  their 
own  against  the  voracity  of  the  pickerel,  will  be  a 
valuable  addition.  It  is  contended  that  the  fecundity 
of  the  bass  is  wonderful,  that  its  flesh  is  of  an  agreea- 
ble flavor,  and  that  it  is  not  so  easily  caught  as  to  in- 
vite the  unskillful  to  pursue  it  to  extinction.  These 
are,  if  true,  very  important  recommendations.  The 
pickerel  in  many  of  our  ponds  have  eaten  up  all  the 
other  flsli  and  even  de^'oured  their  own  progeny,  thus 
leaving  the  ponds  destitute  of  all  fish  of  any  value. 



THE  most  dreaded  and  venomous  of  all  tlie  snakes 
in  the  Middle  States  is  the  rattlesnake.  It  is  often 
ionnd  along  the  high,  dry,  open  woods  of  the  Dela- 
,  ware  and  Lackawaxen  ri^'ers,  and  on  the  Moosic 
m'omitain ;  but  never  in  the  beech,  hemlock,  and  ash 
woods — at  least  we  never  found  one  in  the  interior  of 
the  beech  woods.  Popular  belief  assigns  to  the 
leaves  of  the  ash-tree  properties  most  repugnant 
and  fatal  to  this  snake.  If  the  leaves  of  the  ash 
have  such  an  effect  upon  this  reptile,  the  matter  should 
]>e  inquired  into  by  scientific  and  medical  men.  Rye 
whiskey,  applied  externally  and  internally,  is  pro- 
nounced to  be  a  sure  antidote  for  the  bite  of  tliis 
snake.  The  philosophy  of  the  matter  is,  that  the 
patient  must  take  more  poison  than  the  snake  had  in 
him.  The  dose  for  an  adult  is  one  quart  of  pure 
whiskey,  but,  as  this  can  seldom  be  found,  one  pint 
of  adulterated  whiskey  will  do. 

The  black,  water,  green,  and  garter  snakes,  and  spot- 
ted adder  or  milk  snake  are  not  venomous,  and  it  is 
thought  by  many  that  they  ought  not  to  be  killed 
wantonly,  as  they  destroy  many  liurtful  vermin. 




riIHE  insects  which  abound  in  Wayne  connty  are 
J-  tliose  usually  found  in  the  Middle  States,  in  the 
same  latitude,  and  consist  of  bees,  wasps,  hornets,  but- 
terflies, moths,  ants,  crickets,  flies,  grasshoppers,  beetles, 
etc.  These  are  so  well  known  that  no  particular  de- 
scription of  them  is  necessary.  The  honey-bee  is  the 
only  one  of  special  interest,  owing  to  the  large  amount 
of  honey  produced  annually  in  the  county  and  to  its 
l)eing  an  important  contribution  to  the  resources  of 
the  people. 


Thomas  Jefferson,  in  his  ''Notes  on  Virginia,"  in- 
forms us  tliat  the  early  settlers  at  Jamestow^n  brought 
over  lioney-bees  from  England ;  and  that  previous  to 
tliat  time,  they  were  unknown  in  America.  The  bees, 
lie  says,  spread  in  advance  of  the  English  settlements 
with  amazing  rapidity.  They  were  a  great  w^onder  to 
the  Indians,  who  called  them  "the  white  man's  fly." 
There  is  a  kind  of  stingless  bee  in  Guatemala,  in  Cen- 
ti-al  America,  which  lays  up  its  honey  in  long,  thick, 
opaque  cells  closed  at  both  ends.     But  tlie  honey  lias 


not  tlie  flavor,  nor  the  (^ells,  the  beauty  of    those  pro- 
(hiced  by  the  European  honey-bee.     The   pioneers   in 
Northern  Pennsylvania  fonnd  tlie  bees  in  advance  of 
them.     I  have  heard  my  father  say  that,  in  1803,  he 
found  fourteen  bee-trees  which  averaged  eiglity  pounds 
of  honey  to  each  tree.     The  hollow    trees  which    the 
l)ees  cleared  out  and  iitted  for  tlieir  abode,  seem  to  be 
peculiarly  iitted  for  them.    Like  tlie  Indians  they  seem- 
ed to  deliglit  in  the  great,  glorious,  primitive  forests. 
In  early  times  at  least  one  quarter  of  the  settlers  kept 
bees.    But  as  the  country  was  cleared  up,  and  the  maple 
and  basswood  were  cut  down  they  became  less  profita- 
ble and  prolific,   and  were  infested  by  a.  white  miller, 
that  laid  its  eggs  in  and  under  the    bottoms  of   the 
hives,  whi(?h,  in  tlieir  gnat  or    worm    state    surroimd 
themselves  with  a  web  and  devour  the  young  and  the 
combs.     The    first    settlers   kept  their   bees  in  straw 
hives,  which  have  been  superseded  by  hives  made  of 
wood.     The   keeping   of   l>ees   in    Wayne    county  is 
made    a  speciality  at  the  present  time.     Among  the 
persons  who  are  devoted  to  the  business  are  Sydney 
Coons,  of   Lebanon,  William    Manaton,  of    Clinton, 
Mortimer  E.  Lavo,  whose  apiary  is   in    Mount  Pleas- 
ant, George  Leonard,  of  Salem,  Jacol)  Sclioonover,  of 
Dyberry,    George    Wild,   of    Paupack,    and    others. 
Some  keep  them   merely  to  have  h(mey  for  their  own 

And  here  we  are  prompted  to  inquire,  from 
whence  does  the  honey-bee,  including  all  its  orders, 
derive  its  ability  ;md  wisdom  wherewith  to  govern  a 


community  of  thousands,  directing  some  to  gather 
bee-bread,  others  to  build  the  cells,  others  to  feed  the 
young,  and  others  to  guard  and  ventilate  the  hive, 
all  carried  on  without  discord  or  confusion  ?  Is  not 
the  conviction  forced  upon  us  that  they  are  under  the 
impulsive  teaching  of  a  God-given  instinct  ? 


THE  Penn  family,  during  the  Revolution,  were  ac- 
cused of  l)eing  adherents  of  the  British  Govern- 
ment, and  of  withholding  from  the  cause  of  liberty 
that  aid  which  they  might  have  contributed  thereto. 
Consequently  the  General  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania, 
on  the  27th  day  of  November,  1779,  passed  "  an  act 
for  vesting  the  Estates  of  the  late  Proprietaries  of 
Pennsylvania,  in  this  Commonw^ealth ; "  in  the  pream- 
l)le  wliereto  it  is  set  forth,  "  that  the  claims  heretofore 
made  by  the  late  Proprietaries  to  the  whole  of  the 
soil  contained  within  the  charter  from  Charles  II.  to 
William  Perm,  cainiot  longer  consist  with  the  safety, 
liberty,  and  happiness  of  the  good  people  of  this 
Commonwealth,  who,  at  the  expense  of-  much  blood 
and    treasure,   have  bravely  rescued    themselves    and 



their  possessions  from  the  tyrannv  of  Great  Britain, 
and  are  now  defending  themselves  from  the  inroads  of 
tlie  savages."  The  act  did  not  eoniiscate  the  lands  of 
tlie  Proprietaries  within  the  lines  of  manors,  nor  em- 
l)race  the  pnrchase-money  dne  for  lands  sold  lying 
within  surveyed  manors.  Tlie  manors,  in  legal  ac- 
ceptation, were  lands  surveyed  and  set  apart  as  the 
private  property  of  the  Proprietaries. 

The  titles  to  all  lands  sold  and  conveyed  by  William 
Penn  or  his  descendants  were  confirmed  and  made 
valid.  But  the  title  to  all  lands  in  the  Common- 
wealth, which  had  not  heen  surveyed  and  returned 
into  the  land-office,  on  or  before  tlie  4th  of  July,  1776, 
was  by  said  act  vested  in  the  State.  Said  act  pro- 
vided that  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  thous- 
and pounds,  sterling  money,  slioidd  be  paid  out  of  the 
treasury  of  this  State  to  the  devisees  and  legatees  of 
Thomas  Penn,  and  Richard  Penn,  late  Proprietaries, 
and  to  the  widow  and  relict  of  said  Thomas  Penn,  in 
such  proportions  as  should  thereafter,  by  the  Legisla- 
ture, be  deemed  ecpiitable  and  just,  upon  a  full  inves- 
tigation of  their  respective  claims.  No  part  of  said 
sum  was  to  be  paid  within  less  than  one  year  after 
the  termination  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain ;  and 
no  more  than  twenty  thousand  pounds,  nor  less  than 
fifteen  thousand  pounds  should  be  payable  in  any  one 
year.  The  land-office  was  begun  by  William  Penn, 
and,  although  changes  have  been  made,  from  time  to 
time,  in  tlie  method  of  accpnring  title  to  vacant  lands, 
yet  many  features  of  the  office,  as  it  was  in  his  day, 
remain  to  the  present  time. 


A  land-office  by  and  under  the  act  of  9tli  of  April, 
1781,  was  created  under  the  Commonwealth,  its  offi- 
cers consisting  of  a  secretary  of  the  land-office,  receiv- 
er-general, and  surveyor-general.  Many  acts  of  As- 
sembly which  were  afterwards  passed,  enlarged,  de- 
fined, or  limited  the  powers  and  duties  of  these  officers. 
By  an  act  of  the  29th  of  March,  1809,  the  office  of 
receiver-general  was  abolished,  and  his  duties  were 
discliarged  by  the  secretary  of  the  land-office ;  and  by 
the  act  of  the  17th  of  April,  1843,  this  latter-named 
office  was  discontinued,  and  the  duties  pertaining 
thereto  were  performed  by  the  surveyor-general.  By 
the  Constitution  of  1874,  this  office  is  noM'  under  the 
charge  of  the  secretary  of  Internal  Affairs.  It  would 
be  impossible  without  much  expense  and  research,  to 
name  all  the  lands  in  Wayne  county  that  v*^ere  grants 
under  the  Proprietaries.  The  following  are  admitted 
to  belong  among  them,  viz:  The  Proprietaries'  Man- 
or, in  Berlin,  1,001  acres;  Safe  Harbor,  (Equinunk), 
2,222  acres ;  Shehocking  Manor,  in  Buckingham,  520 
acres;  Elk  Forest,  in  Old  Canaan,  11,526  acres;  on 
the  Paupack,  in  Wayne  and  Pike  counties,  12,150 
acres;  in  Lebanon,  the  Amsterdam  and  Rotterdam 
Manor,  2,770  acres;  the  Damascus  Manor,  4,390  acres; 
the  Jonas  Seely  tract  in  Berlin,  of  8,373  acres,  and 
many  other  tracts  not  embraced  in  said  Manors.  In 
short,  all  lands  embraced  in  warrants  issued,  surveyed, 
and  returned  into  the  land-office,  before  the  4th  day  of 
July,  1776. 

An  act  for  opening  the  land-office  for  granting  and 


disposing  of  the  unappropriated  lands  \Adtliin  this  State 
passed  April  1st,  1784,  provided,  ''that  the  land-office 
shall  be  opened  for  the  lands  already  purchased  of  the 
Indians  on  the  1st  day  of  July  next,  at  the  rate  of  ten 
pounds  for  every  hundred  acres,  with  the  usual  fees  of 
granting,  surveying,  and  patenting,  excepting  such 
tracts  as  shall  be  surveyed  westward  of  the  Allegheny 
mountains,  etc.  Every  applicant  for  lands  shall  pro- 
duce to  tlie  secretary  of  the  land-office,  a  particular  de- 
scription of  the  lands  applied  for,  with  a  certificate 
from  two  justices  of  the  peace  of  the  proper  county, 
specifying  whether  the  said  lands  be  improved  or  not, 
and  if  improved,  how  long  since  the  said  improvement 
was  made,  that  interest  may  l)e  charged  accordingly. 
The  quantity  of  land  granted  to  any  one  person  shall 
not  exceed  four  hundred  acres,"  etc.  The  prices  of 
iniimproved  land  were  different  at  various  periods  un- 
der the  several  purchases  made  of  the  Indians.  From 
the  1st  of  July,  1784,  to  April  3d,  1792,  the  price  of 
unimproved  wild  lands  was  $26.66|  per  hundred  acres 
in  Wayne,  Pike,  Susquehanna,  and  other  counties.  By 
act  of  April  3d,  1792,  the  price  of  unimproved  lands 
was  fixed  at  $6.66f  per  hundred  acres.  The  latter- 
named  act  was  repealed  by  act  of  29th  of  March,  1809, 
since  which  time  the  price  of  lands  in  the  above-nam- 
ed counties  has  been  $26,66|  per  hundred  acres.  The 
laws  passed  relative  to  State  lands  were  numerous. 
Under  said  laws  the  surveyor-general,  or  the  officer 
acting  in  that  capacity,  was  authorized  to  appoint  a 
deputy-surveyor  in  each  and    every  county.     George 


Palmer,  of  Easton,  was  the  depiitj-surveyor  appointed 
for  Wayne  and  Pike  counties,  and  most  of  the  State 
lands  were  surveyed  and  located  by  him  in  said  coun- 
ties, and  were  made  before  there  were  any  permanent 
settlements.  As  the  greater  part  of  the  names  of  the 
eleven  or  twelve  hundred  persons  named  as  warrantees 
on  our  county  maps,  are  strange  and  unknown,  it  has 
been  supposed  that  many  of  those  names  were  fictitious, 
which  supposition  is  erroneous.  The  persons  named 
were  those  that  made  the  original  applications.  Some 
of  the  lands  were  taken  up  by  tlie  early  settlers. 
Witness  the  names  of  Evans,  Skinner,  Thomas,  Little, 
Smith,  Allen,  Hays,  Land,  and  others  in  Damascus, 
and  of  Seely,  Torrey,  Woodward,  Brown,  Bingham, 
Day,  Brink,  Ball,  Scudder,  Moore,  Taylor,  and  many 
other  well-known  names,  in  other  parts  of  the  county. 
The  law  allowed  the  applicant  to  take  up  four  liundred 
acres,  with  an  allowance  of  six  per  cent,  for  roads,  but 
in  consequence  of  inaccuracies  in  surveys,  the  law  or 
practice  of  the  land-department,  allowed  ten  per  cent, 
surplusage.  After  the  estal)lishment  of  the  land-office 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Commonwealth,  many  per- 
sons were  deluded  by  the  belief  that  it  w^ould  be  profit- 
able for  them  to  take  up  a  tract  of  land  for  their 
own  use,  or  for  their  children,  or  for  the  purpose  of 
speculation.  But  lands  taken  up,  from  1780  to  1800, 
were  not  in  demand,  and  could  not  be  sold  at  a  profit ; 
and  many,  who,  at  the  time  when  they  took  up  tracts, 
designed  to  settle  upon  them,  on  a  view  of  the  hard- 
ships to  be  endured  in  a  region    destitute  of   roads, 


schools,  and  churches,  were  deterred  from  carrying 
then'  original  designs  into  execution,  and  at  last  sold 
out  their  wild  possessions  to  the  large  land-holders,  or 
suffered  their  lands  to  l)e  sold  for  taxes.  The  land- 
department  suffered  applicants  to  take  up  lands  with- 
out paying  the  purchase-money,  or  fees,  or  granted 
^varrants  on  which  only  a  part  was  paid.  Such  lands 
])eing  located,  surveyed,  and  returned  by  the  deputy- 
surveyor,  were  subject  to  taxation,  and  lia])le  to  be  sold 
every  other  year  for  taxes.  Hundreds  of  tracts  were 
thus  sold  biennially.  In  the  beginning  and  during  the 
progressive  settlement  of  the  county,  the  greater  part 
of  the  wild  lands  were  held  and  sold  bv  laro:e  land- 
owners.  Jason  Torrey  w^as  the  agent  of  the  following 
named  persons  and  their  executors,  viz :  Henry  Drink- 
er, Thomas  Shields,  Edward  Tilghman,  Mark  Wilcox, 
Samuel  Baird,  L.  Hollingsworth,  Wm.  Bell,  Heirs  of 
James  Hamilton,  Thomas  Stewardson,  George  Yaux, 
Thomas  Cadwalader,  Thomas  Astley,  and  several  othei* 
persons,  not  large  owners.  From  well-authenticated 
evidence  it  appears  that  Jason  Torrey,  who  was  a  na- 
tive of  Willi amstown,  Mass.,  came  into  Mount  Pleas- 
ant, in  1793,  when  scarcely  twenty  years  of  age ;  while 
working  there  for  Jirah  Mumford,  Samuel  Bidrd,  of 
Fottstown,  Pa.,  came  to  Kellogg's  and  at  once  appre- 
hending the  natural  ability  of  the  young  man,  engaged 
him  in  assisting  to  survey  some  land  on  the  Lackawax- 
en  and  some  other  parts  of  northern  Pennsylvania. 
Samuel  Baird  was  the  deputy-surveyor  of  Luzerne 


From  the  experience  tlins  afforded  him,  Mr.  Torrey 
became  an  expert  and  ready  sm-veyor.  Patronized  by 
Mr.  Baird,  the  above  named  land-holders  committed 
the  care  and  sale  of  their  lands  in  Wayne  and  Pike 
counties  to  Mr.  Torrey,  they,  however,  in  all  cases, 
lixing  the  prices  and  the  conditions  under  which  their 
respective  lands  should  be  sold.  The  implicit  confi- 
dence which  they  reposed  in  him  was  never  withdrawn. 
He  re-surveyed  and  re-marked  the  old  tracts,  and  sub- 
divided them  into  lots  to  suit  the  convenience  of  pur- 
chasers. He  made  his  siuweys  with  great  care  and  ac- 
curacy, and  though,  as  in  duty  bound,  he  looked  well 
to  the  interests  of  his  employers,  yet  he  was  ever  just 
to  the  purcliaser,  always  giving  him  full  measure,  and 
taking  pains  to  be  well  assured  that  the  lands  he  sold 
had  been  duly  patented,  so  that  the  purchaser  should 
be  in  no  danger  of  being  involved  in  litigation  about 
his  title.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  Jason  Torrey  knew 
more  about  the  titles  and  the  location  of  lands  in 
Wayne  and  Pike  counties  than  any  man  then  living, 
and  he  made  more  sales  than  all  other  agents  combin- 
ed. He  compiled  and  published  a  map  showing  by 
numbers  the  location  and  quantity  of  every  warrantee 
in  Wayne  and  Pike  counties,  which  map  has  been  of 
indispensable  service  to  assessors,  and  to  the  commis- 
sioners of  said  counties,  and  to  all  persons  desirous  of 
knowing  the  location  of  unseated  lands.  In  1827,  Ja- 
son Torrey  gave  up  the  agency  of  the  greater  part  of 
the  lands  which  had  been  committed  to  his  care,  and 
it  was  given  to  Henry  P.  Stilley,  who  was  a  relative 


of  some  of  the  large  owTiers,  and  came  from  Philadel- 
phia, to  obtain  a  knowledge  of  matters  relative  to  the 
surveys  and  sales,  and  spent  six  years  in  the  office  of 
Jason  Torrey,  l)efore  he  became  familiar  with  the 
manner  in  which  the  l>iisiness  liad  formerly  been  done. 
Mr.  Stilley  lived  pretty  fast,  and  found  use  for  all  the 
money  that  he  obtained  from  the  sale  of  lands,  and 
(consequently  paid  nothing  over  to  the  owners.  This 
led  to  his  dismissal  from  all  liis  agencies,  and  in  1831, 
John  D.  Taylor,  who  had  been  a  clerk  in  tlie  office  of 
G-eneral  Thomas  Cadwalader,  of  Philadelphia,  was  sent 
to  Wayne  county  to  take  the  agency  for  Cadwalader 
and  several  others.  Mr.  Taylor  remained  in  the  county 
some  five  or  six  years,  attending  to  tlie  duties  connect- 
ed with  his  agencies,  but,  not  finding  \\\q  business  sat- 
isfactory, he  gave  it  up  and  removed  fi'om  the  county. 
As  early  as  1835  some  of  the  owners  placed  their 
lands  under  the  agency  of  Hon.  John  Torrey,  of  Hones- 
dale,  and  after  the  removal  of  Mr.  Taylor,  nearly  all 
the  unsold  lands,  which  had  been  under  Jason  Torrey's 
care,  were  added  to  John  Torrey's  agency,  without  any 
solicitation  from  him  or  his  father,  and  the  justice  and 
al^ility  exercised  by  him  as  a  land-agent,  have  never 
been  disputed. 

The  Shields  lands,  in  Le])anon,  Oregon,  Berlin,  and 
Damascus,  and  the  Manor  of  Amsterdam  and  Rotter- 
dam were  run  north  10  degrees  west  or  north,  12  J 
degrees  west,  while  the  lands  in  Salem,  North  Ster- 
ling, in  most  of  South  Canaan,  and  in  part  of  Cherry 
Kidge  were  run  nortli  50  degrees  west,  and   in  other 


parts  of  the  county,  in  divers  other  directions.  Sam- 
uel Baird  may  have  laid  a  few  warrants,  but  George 
Palmer,  as  l)efore  said,  originally  surveyed  and  located 
most  of  the  lands  in  Wayne  county,  and  his  work  was 
well  done.  Anthony  Crothers  was  his  successor.  It 
is  contended  that  he  never  came  into  the  county,  and 
that  all  his  pretended  surveys  were  made  ])y  sub-dep- 
uties, or  made  by  his  own  fireside,  and  were  called 
"chamber  surveys.""  At  any  rate  they  were  many  of 
them  found  to  be  very  inaccurate.  The  north  assumed 
by  the  original  surveyors  was  not  the  true  polar  north, 
but  had  a  western  declination  therefrom,  of  about  two 
and  a  half  degrees.  This,  however,  would  have  made 
but  little  difference,  if  they  had  always  run  their  lines 
upon  the  same  meridian,  at  all  times,  and  in  all  parts 
of  the  county,  for  then  the  variation  would  have  been 
nearly  alike,  upon  every  survey.  That  they  did  not 
always  adopt  tlie  same  meridian  is  well  known  to  all 
surveyors,  who  find  the  variation  upon  some  lines  to 
be  four  and  a  quarter  degrees,  upon  others  to  be  three 
degrees,  and  then  upon  others  to  be  only  one  and  a 
half.  The  present  declination  of  the  needle  is  now, 
according  to  the  finding  of  Lewis  S.  Collins,  Esq.,  our 
county-surveyor,  seven  degrees  west  of  the  polar  north. 
It  was  once,  if  it  is  not  now,  a  common  l^elief ,  that 
the  large  land-owners  realized  great  fortunes  from,  the 
sale  of  their  wild  lands,  which  was  not  the  case.  If  to 
the  price  paid  for  the  lands,  were  added  the  yearly 
taxes  for  forty  or  fifty  years,  and  the  compensation 
made   to   agents  for  watching    said  lands,  and  finally 



surveying  and  selling  them,  the  lands  cost  their  own- 
ers more  than  they  realized  from  them,  and  sometimes 
double.  Hon.  James  Wilson,  judge  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  the  United  States,  owned  more  lands  in 
Wayne  county  tlian  any  other  man.  He  died  in 
1798,  and  liis  lands  were  sold  under  a  mortgage,  and 
liis  heirs  found  his  estate  diminished,  rather  than  en- 
larged, by  his  land  investments. 

Judge  Wilson's  lands  upon  the  Paupack  were  pur- 
chased by  Samuel  Sitgreaves,  of  Easton,  Pennsylva- 
nia, who  sold  them  to  the  settlers  at  a  very  low  price. 
Other  lands  taken  up  by  Wilson,  in  Sterling,  Salem, 
Canaan,  and  other  parts  of  the  county,  fell  into  the 
hands  of  Tliomas  Cadwalader  and  Edward  Tilghman, 
of  Pliiladelpliia.  Henry  Dnnker,  of  the  same  city, 
owned  tlie  most  oi  the  lands  in  Dyberry  and  many 
tracts  in  Manchester  and  Buckingham.  It  will  be 
understood  that  the  person  who  obtained  a  warrant 
was  called  tlie  warrantee.  Upon  paying  the  State 
treasurer  the  legiil  price  of  the  land,  and  the  office 
fees,  84.50,  the  w^arrant  was  sent  to  the  county-sur- 
veyor, whose  business  it  was  to  survey  the  land  within 
six  months,  make  a  draft  and  description,  and,  upon 
being  paid  for  his  services,  make  a  return  to  the  land- 
department.  Then  the  warrantee,  upon  paying  $10 
to  the  land-department,  would  receive  a  patent  for  his 
land.  Then,  if  he  had  the  first  warrant,  the  first  sur- 
vey, and  the  first  patent,  the  title  was  secure.  The 
land-department,  for  many  years  past,  has  required 
the  applicant  for  a  warrant    to    make  oath  before  a 


justice  of  the  peace,  of  the  proper  county,  touching 
the  condition  of  the  lands  as  to  its  improved  or  unim- 
proved state,  and  proving  the  same  by  a  disinterested 
witness,  on  his  oath  made  before  two  justices  of  the 
peace.  The  act  of  April,  1850,  provided  for  the  elec- 
tion in  that  year  and  every  third  year  thereafter,  of 
one  competent  person,  being  a  practical  surveyor,  to 
act  as  county-surveyor.  The  ottice  is  now  merely 

Samuel  Meredith  owned  the  Amsterdam  and  Kotter- 
dam  Manor,  in  Lebanon,  and  many  tracts  in  Mount 
Pleasant  and  Preston,  wliich,  upon  his  death,  descend- 
ed to  his  heirs  or  devisees,  and  Thomas  Meredith,  his 
son,  took  charge  of  the  lands.  Calvely  Freeman, 
Esq.,  was  his  surveyor.  In  1830,  Mr.  Meredith  mov- 
ed to  Luzerne  county,  and  Mr.  Meylert,  a  French- 
man, took  charge  of  the  Meredith  lands,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Michael  Meylert. 

The  Elk  Forest  Tract,  in  Old  Canaan,  became  the 
property  of  Joseph  Fellows,  of  Greneva,  N.  Y.,  who 
made  Hon.  ]^.  13.  Eldred  his  agent,  who  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Hon.  Wm.  H.  Dimmick,  Sen.  Moses  Kil- 
1am,  Esq.,  divided  the  tract  into  one  liundred  or  two 
hundred  acre  lots.  In  different  parts  of  the  county 
land  lines  were  run  without  any  general  uniformity  as 
to  direction.  In  the  greater  part  of  Scott,  North 
Lebanon,  and  Elk  Forest,  the  lines  were  run  upon  a 
meridian  assumed  to  be  north  and  south ;  in  Mount 
Pleasant,  north  five  or  ten  degrees  west,  with  corres- 
ponding right  angles ;    in  parts  of   Buckingham  and 


Preston,  north  twentj-iive  degrees  west.  Sometimes 
warrants  were  issued  Avhicli  were  never  delivered  to 
the  deputy  county-surveyor.  In  other  cases  war- 
rants were  hiid,  but  the  warrantees,  failing  to  pay  the 
costs  of  surveying,  no  returns  of  the  surveys  were  made 
to  the  land-office.  Sometimes  the  surveyors  made  re- 
turns of  surveys  without  going  upon  the  land,  by 
naming  some  well-known  starting  point  and  giving 
courses  and  distances.  Tliese  were  called  "chamber 
surveys,"  which  often  interfered  with  former  or  subse- 
quent actual  surveys.  Where  the  title  to  lands  was 
in  the  Commonwealth,  the  sale  of  the  lands  for  taxes 
of  any  kind  gave  the  purchaser  no  title.  The  titles 
to  the  lands  sold  by  the  aforesaid  land-holders  or  their 
agents,  have  never  been  successfully  disturbed. 


UPON  the  erection  of  Wayne  county,  Thomas  Mif- 
flin, governor  of  Pennsylvania, under  the  provisions 
of  the  Constitution  of  1790,  appointed  four  judges,  viz : 
Samuel  Preston,  first  associate  judge;  John  Pyerson, 
second  associate;  Samuel  C.  Seely,  third  associate;  and 
John  Biddis,  fourth  associate  judge.     These  held  the 


first  court  at  Milford,  in  the  house  of  George  Buchan- 
an, September  10th,  1798.  At  September  sessions, 
1803,  Richard  Brodhead  took  the  phice  of  Samuel 
Preston,  resigned.  At  May  sessions,  1804,  the  judges 
presiding  were  Richard  Brodhead,  John  Biddis,  and 
John  Brink.  The  hitter  had  been  appointed  to  supply 
the  phice  of  Samuel  C.  Seely,  resigned.  At  May  ses- 
sions, 1806,  John  Spayd,  the  iirst  president  judge,  of- 
ficiated, assisted  by  Richard  Brodhead  and  John  Brink, 
his  associates.  At  April  sessions,  1810,  Robert  Porter, 
president  judge,  took  his  seat  upon  the  bench  and  pre- 
sided until  and  including  August  sessions,  1813.  Jolm 
B.  Gibson,  as  president  judge,  first  presided  at  Novem- 
ber sessions,  1813,  and  continued  until  and  including 
April  sessions,  1816,  and  resigned.  Thomas  Burnside 
took  his  seat  as  president  judge  at  August  sessions, 
1816,  and  continued  until  April  sessions,  1818,  and 
resigned.  The  said  John  B.  Gibson  and  Thomas  Burn- 
side  were  sul)sequently  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  the  State. 

David  Scott,  as  president  judge,  first  presided  at 
August  sessions,  1818,  and  continued  to  oliiciate  until 
February  sessions,  1838,  when,  in  consequence  of  ap- 
proaching deafness,  he  resigned.  His  decisions  were 
held  in  high  respect  by  the  people  and  the  Bar,  as  be- 
ing the  calm  and  honest  convictions  of  a  jurist  who 
always  intended  to  dispense  impartial   justice  to  all. 

William  Jessup  took  his  seat  as  president  judge  at 
April  sessions,  1838,  and  continued  as  such  until  Feb- 
ruary sessions,  1849,  when  his  commission  expired  un- 


der  tlie  Constitution  adopted  in  1838.  He  was  a  man 
of  ability  and  discharged  liis  duties  to  the  satisfaction 
of  the  public. 

Nathaniel  B.  Eldred,  as  president  judge,  commenc- 
ed his  first  judicial  labors  in  Wayne  county,  at  May 
sessions,  1849,  and  officiated  until  and  including  May 
sessions,  1853,  when  he  resigned,  haying  received  the 
appointment  of  naval  collector  of  Philadelphia  under 
President  Pierce.  Geo.  R.  Barrett  was  appointed  in 
his  place,  and  officiated  as  president  judge,  at  Septem- 
])er  sessions,  1853.  James  M.  Porter  was  elected  presi- 
dent judge  in  1853,  took  his  seat  at  December  ses- 
sions, and  served  imtil  and  including  February  ses- 
sions, 1855,  when,  having  been  struck  with  paral- 
ysis, he  resigned.  His  legal  knowledge  challenged  the 
admiration  of  all  jurists.  His  decisions  and  rulings 
were  submitted  to  without  cavil,  dispute,  or  exceptions. 
Thomas  S.  Bell  was  appointed  to  supply  the  place  of 
Judge  Porter,  and  presided  at  May  and  September 
sessions,  1855. 

In  1855,  Greorge  E..  Barrett  was  elected  president 
judge,  and  after  a  term  of  ten  years'  service  was  re- 
elected in  1865,  and  officiated  until  September  ses- 
sions, 1871,  having  resigned  in  time  to  have  a  successor 
elected  in  that  year. 

Samuel  S.  Dreher  was  elected  president  judge  in 
1871,  first  presiding  at  December  sessions,  1871,  and 
continuing  until  and  including  December  sessions, 
1874,  wdien  the  district  having  been  divided  by  an 
act  of   Legislature,  he  remained  as  president  judge  in 


that  district  in  which  he  resided.  His  commission  ex- 
pired mider  the  provisions  of  the  Constitution  of 
1874,  so  far  as  this  county  was  concerned. 

C.  P.  Waller  was  elected  in  1874,  and  was  inducted 
into  office  as  president  judge  of  Wayne  and  Pike 
counties,  January  1st,  1875,  to  serve  for  ten  years. 

Under  the  Constitution  of  1790,  the  judges  of  all 
the  com-ts  were  appointed  by  the  governor,  wliich  of- 
fices they  could  hold  during  good  behavior,  and  from 
wliicli  they  could  be  removed  only  by  impeachment  or 
by  the  governor,  on  the  address  of  two-thirds  of  each 
branch  of  the  Legislature.  Justices  of  the  peace  w^ere 
in  like  manner  appointed  to  hold  their  offices  during 
good  behavior. 

The  amended  Constitution  of  1 838  continued  the  ap- 
pointing power  of  the  governor,  subject  to  the  consent 
of  the  Senate,  and  as  to  the  Judiciary,  providing  that 
judges  of  the  Supreme  Court  should  hold  their  offices 
for  the  term  of  fifteen  years.  The  president  judges  of 
the  several  courts  were  to  hold  their  offices  for  the  term 
of  ten  years,  and  the  associate  judges  to  hold  theirs 
for  five  years,  upon  condition  that  all  of  said  judges 
should,  during  their  respective  terms,  behave  them- 
selves w^ell,  though  subject  to  removal  by  impeachment 
or  by  the  governor  as  aforesaid.  In  1850,  the  Consti- 
tution w^as  amended,  and  provided  for  the  election  of 
the  judges  by  the  people. 

Nathaniel  B.  Eldred  was  the  first  president  judge 
elected  by  tlie  people,  1851,  and  James  Mumford  and 



Thomas  H.  R.  Tracy  were  the  iirst  associate  jiulges 
then  elected. 

John  Brodhead  served  from  May,  1810,  to  Aug.,  1814. 

John  Brink  '' 

Samuel  Stanton  '' 

^  Al)isha  Woodward  " 

Moses  Thomas  " 

Isaac  Dimmick  " 

James  Manning  " 

Moses  Tyler  " 

Virgil  Grenell  " 

Oliver  Hamlin  " 

James  Mnmford  " 

Paul  S.  Preston  '' 

John  Torrey  '^ 

Thos.  H.  R.  Tracy  '' 

Pliineas  Howe  " 

James  R.  Dickson  '' 

Rodney  Harmes  " 

J3utler  Hamlin  " 

Wm.  R.  McLaury  " 

Isaiah  Snyder  '' 

Phineas  Arnold  '' 

F.  W.  Farnham  .  '^ 

Otis  Avery  " 

John  O'Neill 

Henry  Wilson  ' 

Giles  Green  ' 

Otis  Averv  re-elected 

May,  1810,  to  Aug.,  1814. 
Dec,  1814,  to  Aug.,  1815. 
Dec,  1814,  to  Jan.,  1829. 
Nov.,  1815,  to  Jan.,  1840. 
Jan.,  1830,  to  Aug.,  1833. 
Nov.,  1833,  to  Aug.,  1841. 
Sept.,  1840,  to  Sept.,  1845. 
Nov.,  1841,  to  Sept.,  1846. 
Nov.,  1846,  to  May,  1850. 
Dec,  1846,.  to  Sept.,  1856. 
May,  1850,  to  Feb.,  1851. 
May,  1851,  to  Sept.,  1851. 
Dec,  1851,  to  Sept.,  1856. 
Dec,  1856,  to  Sept.,  1861. 

1856,  to  Dec,  1860. 

1861,  to  Sept.,  1861. 

1861,  to  Sept.,  1866. 

1861,  to  Sept.,  1866. 
Dec,  1866,  to  Sept.,  1871. 
Dec,  1866,  to  Sept.,  1871. 
Feb.,  1872,  to  Sept.,  1872. 
Dec,  1872,  to  Sept.,  1877. 
Dec,  1872,  to  Dec,  1875. 
Feb.,  1876,  to  Sept.,  1876. 
Feb.,  1876,  now  serving. 
Dec,  1877,  "    " 




Tlie  Constitution  of  Pennsylvania.,  adopted  in  1790, 
provided  that  sheriffs  and  coroners,  at  the  time  of  the 
election  of  Representatives,  should  l)e  chosen  by  the 
citizens  of  each  county,  and  that  two  persons  should 
be  chosen  for  each  office,  one  of  whom  for  each  re- 
spectively should  be  appointed,  by  the  governor,  they 
to  hold  their  offi(?es  for  three  years  and  until  a  suc- 
cessor should  l)e  duly  qualified,  if  they  should  so  long 
behave  themselves;  but  no  person  was  to  be  twice 
chosen  or  appointed  sheriff  in  any  term  of  six  years. 
The  election  of  two  persons  for  the  office  of  sheriff 
was  made  void  by  the  Constitution  of  1838. 

Thomas  Mifflin,  governor,  in  1798,  appointed  Rich- 
ard Brodhead  sheriff,  who  served  to  1801,  after  which 
time,  the  following-named  persons  were  chosen: 

Daniel  W.  Dingman, 






Abraham  Mulford, 





Abisha  Woodward, 





Matthew  Ridgway, 





Silas  Kellogg, 





Salmon  Jones, 





Solomon  Moore, 





Oliver  B.  Brush, 





Joseph  Miller, 





Paul  S.  Preston, 





Lucius  Collins, 





Josepli  Miller, 





Lucius  Collins, 







Richard  Lancaster, 






Jolm  Mcintosh, 



William  F.  Wood, 



Oliver  Stevenson 



Thomas  E.  Grier, 



James  B.  Eldred, 



Wm.  Turner, 



Robert  S.  Dorin, 



Jeremiah  F.  Barnes 



Robert  S.  Dorin, 



John  H.  Ross, 



E.  Mallory  Spencer, 



Perry  A.  Clark, 


Joseph  Atkinson, 





These  officers,  under  the  Constitution  of  1790,  were 
appointed  by  the  governors  to  hold  their  offices  for 
three  years,  but  there  was  no  constitutional  restraint, 
preventing  their  reappointment.  Generally  one  and 
the  same  person  held  all  the  offices,  bnt  that  was  op- 
tional witli  the  governor.  Under  the  Constitution  of 
1838,  the  said  officers  were  elected  l)y  the  people. 
Whenever  vacancies  should  occur  they  were  to  be 
tilled  ])y  the  governor,  until  another  general  election. 
John  Brodhead  was  appointed  prothonotary,  clerk  of 
the  courts,  and  register  and  recorder,  who,  with  John 
Coolbaugh,  held  the  said  offices  until  1808,  ten  years. 
Eliphalet  Kellogg,held  said  offices  from  1808  to  1817. 
Thomas  Meredith,         "  "       1817  to  1820. 


Sheldon  Norton,  held  said  offices  from  1820  to  1823. 

/  John  K.  Woodward,  "  "  1823  to  1827. 

Solomon  Moore,  "  "  1827  to  1831. 

George  B.  Wescott,  "  "  1831  to  1835. 

PaurS.  Preston,  "  "  1835  to  1838. 

Leonard  Graves,  "  "  1838  to  1841. 

Abram  Swart,  "  "  1841  to  1845. 

P.  G.  Goodrich,  "  "  1845  to  1848. 

Kufus  M.  Grenell,  "  "  1848  to  1851. 

John  Mcintosh,  "  "  1851  to  1857. 

William  F.  Wood,  "  "  1857  to  1860. 

John  K.  Jenkins,  "  "  1860  to  1863. 

J.  W.  Brown,  "  "  1863  to  1866. 

William  H.  Ham,  "  ''  1866  to  1869. 

J.  J.  Curtis,  "  "  1869  to  1875. 

Charles  Menner,  ^'  "  1875  to  1878. 

Charles  Menner,  re-elected  in  1878  for  three  years. 


Under  the  Constitution  of  1790,  the  governors  of 
the  State  saw  lit  to  appoint  and  commission  one  per- 
son clerk  of  the  several  courts  and  register  and  recor- 
der, but  some  of  tliem  deviated  from  the  practice. 
Hence  Governor  Shulze,  in  February,  1824,  commis- 
sioned James  Manning  register  of  wills,  and,  in  1827, 
recommissioned  him  register  and  added  thereto  the 
office  of  recorder  of  deeds,  etc.,  and,  in  1830,  Governor 
Wolf  commissioned  him  as  recorder.  In  January, 
1833,  the  last  named  governor  commissioned  Isaac 
P.    Olmstead    recorder,    who   held    said    office    until 


the  fall  of  1885,  when  Governor  Ritner  con- 
ferred all  of  said  offices  upon  Paul  S.  Preston, 
who  held  the  same  until  1838,  when  a  new  Con- 
stitution w^as  adopted  and  David  R.  Porter  elected 
governor.  The  amended  Constitution  provided  for 
the  triennial  election ,  l)y  the  people,  of  prothonotaries, 
etc.,  and  registers  and  recorders.  By  an  act  of  Assem- 
]>ly,  passed  under  the  requirements  of  said  Constitution, 
in  October,  1839,  one  person  was  to  he  elected  clerk 
of  the  several  courts,  and  one  person  register  and  re- 
corder, for  and  in  Wayne  county.  John  Belknap  was 
appointed  register  and  recorder  by  Governor  Porter, 
for  one  year,  after  which  the  following  named  persons 
were  elected  to  hold  said  offices  of  register  and  recor- 
der for  three  years  each: 

John  Belknap  in  1839.  Wm.  G.  Arnold  in  1860. 
Thos.R.Mumfordin  1842.  Michael  Eegan  in  1863. 
H.  B.  Beardslee  in  1845.  Thos.  Hawkey  in  1866. 
James  R.  Keen  in  1848.  A.  R.  Howe  in  1869. 
Curtis  S.  Stoddard  in  1851.  Charles  Menner  in  1872. 
"  ''         in  1854.     Peter  S.  Barnes  in  1875. 

Wm.  G.  Arnold     in  1857.     Francis  West       in  1878. 



THIS  was  one  of  the  original  townships  established 
in  1798.  It  then  included  all  of  Lebanon,  Oregon, 
and  a  part  of  both  Dyberry  and  Berlin.  It  still  re- 
mains the  largest  township  in  the  county.  Its  history 
is  interesting,  for  there  the  first  settlement  was  made. 
It  is  bounded  north  by  Manchester,  east  by  the  Dela- 
ware river,  w^est  by  Berlin,  Oregon,  and  Lebanon,  and 
south  by  Berlin.  It  is  as  large  as  Dyberry,  Lebanon, 
and  Oregon  townships  combined.  The  main  streams 
are  Calkin's  creek,  which  discharges  into  the  DelaAvare, 
at  Milanville;  Cash's  creek,  which  empties  into  said 
river,  at  Damascus  village;  and  Hollister's  creek  in  the 
north-eastern  part  of  the  township.  The  natural  ponds 
are  the  Duck  Harbor,  (partly  in  Lebanon,)  Laurel  Lake, 
Cline,  Swago,  and  Groram  ponds,  with  some  others  of 
less  size.  The  most  of  the  land  has  a  south-eastern 
declivity,  is  not  broken  by  high  hills,  to  any  great  ex- 
tent, and  is  of  a  good  quality,  excepting  a  part  in  the 
north-eastern  portion  (mlled  Conklin  hill,  and  a  strip 
commencing  below  Milanville  and  extending  down- 
ward back  of  the  Delaware  to  Big  Eddy. 

The  information  which  can,  at  present,  be  ol)tained, 
relative  to  the  first  settlements  made  by  tlie  whites  up- 


on  the  Delaware  river,  in  Wayne  county,  llie  exact 
date  of  their  settlement,  their  conflicts  with  the  In- 
dians, the  time  when  their  battle^  were  fought,  and  the 
causes  that  occasioned  the  same,  is  limited  and  obscure, 
all  the  actors  in  these  scenes  liaving  been  dead  many 
years.  It  is,  therefore,  impossible  to  make  statements 
wholly  free  from  errors,  as  history,  tradition,  and  frag- 
mentary family-records  are  not  withont  their  contra- 
dictions. Chapman,  in  his  "Ilistory  of  Wyoming," 
says:  "In  the  snnmier  of  1757,  the  Delaware  Com- 
pany commenced  a  settlement  at  Cushetnnk,  on  the 
Delaware  river,  which  appears  to  ha\'e  been  the  first 
settlement  established  within  the  limits  of  the  Con- 
necticut charter,  west  of  the  province  of  New^  York; 
for,  althongh  there  appears  to  have  been  a  small  fort 
bnilt  at  the  Minisinks  on  the  same  river,  in  1670,  that 
same  fort  was  soon  afterwards  abandoned,  in  conse- 
quence of  some  difficulties  with  the  Indians  who  refused 
to  sell  the  lands."  The  Minisinks  was  the  Indian  name 
applied  to  all  the  river  lands  between  the  Water  Gap 
and  Port  Jervis,  if  not  to  the  mouth  of  the  Lackawax- 
€m;  and  the  said  abandoned  fort  was  built  near  Strouds- 
burg,  and  sul)sequently  called  Fort  Penn. 

By  a  manuscript  written  by  Nathan  Skinner,  giving 
in  part  a  history  of  the  Skinner  family,  it  appears  that 
Joseph  Skinner,  (grandfather  of  Nathan  Skinner,) 
came  from  Connecticut  to  Damascus  in  1755.  He 
had  eight  sons,  viz  :  Daniel,  Benjamin,  Timotliy,  John, 
Abner,  Haggai,  Calvin,  and  Joseph;  and  two  daugh- 
ters, Martha  and  Huldah.     Daniel  Skinner  was  the 


father  of  the  said  Kathan  Skinner,  who  proceeds  with 
his  narrative  as  follows:  "At  what  exact  time  father 
came  to  Damascus,  we  are  not  at  present  able  to  say ; 
but  we  find  bv  a.  certain  writins:,  that  he  was  at  the 
place  where  the  late  George  Bush  lived,  on  the  4:th 
of  September,  1755,  which  place  w^as  called  "Ack- 
liake."  Joseph  Skinner,  Sen.,  was  one  of  the  tw^elve 
hundred  Yankees  that  made  the  great  Indian  purchase, 
July  11th,  1754,  under  which  purchase  and  another 
under  a  section  of  the  colony  of  East  New  Jersey,  the 
Skinner  family  came  into  the  county  to  seek  their 
fortunes  and  make  settlements.  Daniel  Skinner,  Sen., 
purchased  of  his  father,  twenty-five  acres  of  the  Ack- 
hake  place,  for  five  pounds,  New  York  currency.  He 
assisted  in  laying  out  a  town,  the  centre  of  which  was 
about  six  miles  from  the  river,  near  the  Conklin  place, 
now^  owned  by  Stephen  Pethick;  and  in  selecting  a 
location  for  a  meeting-house  and  parsonage,  William 
Reese  was,  I  presume,  the  surveyor."  From  said  man- 
uscript and  other  records,  it  appears  that  the  other  set- 
tlers, locating,  about  the  same  time,  in  the  vicinity, 
were  Simeon   Calkin,  Moses    Thomas,  Sen.,  Bezaleel 

V  Tyler,  Kobert  Land,  an  Englishman,  Nathan  Mitchell, 
John  Koss,  John  Smith,  Irwin  Evans,  James  Adams, 
Jesse  Drake,  and  Nicholas  Conklin,  a  German    from 

\)  Orange  county,  N.  Y.  The  following  named  persons 
are  mentioned  in  old  records  as  having  lived  at  an  early 
day  at  Cushetunk,  or  Damascus,  viz:  F.  Clark,  Abra- 
liani  Russ,  Francis  Little,  Brandt  Kane,  an  Irishman, 
Josiah  Parks,  William  Monnington,  Derrick  Lukens, 


Jonathan  Li]lie,  and  others.  The  most  of  the  fore- 
going located  on  the  west  side  of  tlie  Delaware.  The 
narrativ^e  continues:  "Timothy  Skiimer  and  Simeon 
Calkin  ])uilt  a  saw-mill  and  grist-mill  on  Calkin's  creek, 
nearly  opposite  the  north  end  of  Beach's  tannery,  at 
Milanville.  Said  Calkin  and  Moses  Thomas,  Sen.,  and 
their  sons  built  a  fort,  or  block-house,  at  the  month  of 
the  creek,"  in  1755.  In  or  about  the  year  1759,  as 
nearly  as  can  be  as(*.ertained,  Joseph  Skinner,  Sen., 
was  shot  in  the  head  and  killed  at  Taylor's  Eddy, 
abont  one  mile  above  Cochecton  l)ridge.  It  was  sup- 
posed that  he  was  killed  l>y  some  lurking  savage  of 
the  northern  tribes,  who  were  jealons  of  the  encroach- 
ing whites.  The  murder  was  not  charged  to  the  Cushe- 
tunk  Indians,  who  seemed  to  be  well  disposed  toward 
the  wliites.  Chapman  says,  page  69 :  "The  settlement 
at  Cushetunk  continued  to  progress.  In  1760,  it  con- 
tained tliirty  dwelling-houses,  three  large  log-houses, 
one  grist-mill,  one  saw-mill,  and  one  block-house."  The 
extent  of  Cushetunk  has  not  been  very  well  detined. 
If  it  contained  thirty  dwelling-houses,  it  must  have  in- 
cbided  all  the  settlers  on  both  sides  of  tlie  Delaware 
from  Big  Island  to  and  near  Calkin's  creek.  But  to 
resume  the  history  of  Daniel  Skinner:  "After  settling 
at  Ai^khake,  he  went  as  a  sailor  to  the  West  Indies 
and  learned  the  value  of  pine  timber  for  masts  and 
spars  for  sliips.  Having  a  quantity  of  good  pine  on 
his  land,  he  pnt  several  sticks  into  the  Delaware  river 
to  make  a  trial  of  floating  them  down  to  Philadelphia. 
He  followed  them  with  a  canoe,  but  they  soon   ran 


aground  on  islands  or  stuck  on  rocks.  He  abandoned 
this  method  and  tried  a  different  one.  He  next  put 
into  the  river  six  large  ship-masts  of  equal  length, 
through  each  end  of  which  he  cut  a  mortise  of  about 
four  inches  square,  and  into  this  lie  put  what  lie  called 
a  spindle  of  white  oak,  to  lit  the  mortise.  In  the  ends 
of  this  he  inserted  a  pin  to  keep  them  from  slipping. 
The  lumber  thus  put  together  he  called  a  raft,  and  to 
each  end  of  it  he  pinned  a  small  log  crosswise,  and  in 
the  middle  of  this  he  fastened  a  pin,  standing  perpen- 
dicular, about  ten  inches  above  the  cross-log,  on  which 
he  hung  an  oar  fore  and  aft.  It  being  thus  rigged,  he 
hired  a  very  tall  Dutchman  to  go  on  the  fore  end,  and 
with  this  raft  arrived  safely  in  Philadelphia,  where 
he  sold  it  at  a  good  round  price.  This  was  the  first 
raft  ever  constructed  and  run  dowm  the  Delaware, 
which  occurred  in  1764.  Shortly  after  he  made  a  larg- 
er raft  on  w^hich  Josiah  Parks  went  as  fore  hand. 
Being  allured  by  Skinner's  suc(?ess,  others  soon  em- 
liarked  in  the  same  business,  and,  after  a  time,  rafting 
became  general  on  the  Delaware  from  the  Cook  House, 
(Deposit,)  to  Philadelphia.  Daniel  Skinner,  having 
constructed  and  navigated  the  first  raft,  was  styled 
"  Lord  Hiffh  Admiral"  of  all  the  raftsmen  on  the  Dela- 
ware,  and  Josiah  Parks  was  named  '^  Boatswain."  These 
honorary  titles  they  retained  during  their  lives." 

It  seems  to  have  been  well  known  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Proprietary  claimants  that  Cuslietunk  lay  in  the 
territory,  in  dispute  between  Connecticut  and  Pennsyl- 
vania, for  we  are    assured  ])y    history,  that    William 



Allen,  chief-justice  of  the  province,  by  warrant  dated 
June  4th,  iTtU,  commanded  the  sheriff  of  Northamp- 
ton county,  to  arrest  Daniel  Skinner,  Timothy  Skinner,  Z- 
Simeon  Calkin,  John  Smith,  Jedediah  Willis,  James 
Adams,  Ervin  Evans,  and  others,  for  intruding  upon 
the  Indian  lands  al)out  Cushetunk  without  leave.  None 
of  said  intruders,  liowever,  were  ever  disturbed  or  ap- 
prehended. The  lands  in  said  warrant  called  Indian 
lands  had  been  purchased  July  lltli,  1754,  of  the  Six 
Nations,  with  the  consent  of  the  Cushetunks,  by  tlie 
Delaware  Company. 

In  the  fall  of  1763,  after  the  Delaware  Indians  had 
broken  up  the  settlement  of  the  whites  in  the  Wyom- 
ing Yalley,  uneasy,  straggling  bands  of  savages,  con- 
ceived the  plan  of  driving  away  the  settlers  a]>out 
Cushetunk.  The  people  along  the  Delaware  learned 
of  the  sad  fate  of  their  brethren  from  some  of  the  fugi- 
tives, and  were  warned  to  prepare  for  an  attack.  Be- 
ins  thus  forewarned,  the  women  and  children  were 
placed  in  the  block-house  or  fort,  and  the  men  made 
preparations  to  defend  their  fort  and  sustain  a  siege. 
The  Indians  delayed  making  an  attack,  Init  were  seen 
skulking  a])out  in  the  woods.  Suddenly  appearing 
before  the  fort,  they  surprised  and  killed  Moses 
Thcmias,  Sen.,  and  Ililkiali  Willis,  who  were  outside 
of  the  fort.  The  daughters  of  said  Thomas,  one  of 
which  was  only  seven  years  old,  took  the  places  of  the 
fallen  men,  and  held  their  muskets  in  the  loop-holes. 
The  beseiged  taunted  the  savages,  telling  them  to  do 
their  worst,  which  they  did  by  several  attempts  to  burn 



the  fort.  Tlie  whites  f()iii2:ht  with  such  resohition  that 
they  repulsed  their  invaders  and  left  many  of  them 
dead  in  sight  of  the  besieged.  The  Indians  killed 
some  cattle,  burned  the  grist-mill,  the  saw-mill,  and 
some  dwelling-houses.  The  Cushetunk  Indians  con- 
demned this  unprovoked  attack  upon  the  whites,  and 
promised,  in  case  of  another  invasion,  to  assist  the  set- 
tlers. Gleaning  from  Skinner's  notes,  we  learn  that 
Daniel  Skinner,  doubting  the  probability  of  holding- 
land  under  the  Connecticut  title,  in  May,  17T5,  ob- 
tained a  patent  of  Hichard  Fenn  for  140  acres,  on 
which  he  built  a  house ;  and  he  and  Bezeleel  Ross 
bought  the  Hollister  place  and  built  a  saw-mill  on  Hol- 
lister  creek.  This  creek  was  so  named  because  two 
brothers  by  the  name  of  Hollister  settled  in  early  days 
at  or  near  the  mouth  of  the  stream.  Having  friends 
among  the  Wyoming  settlers,  they  left  and  took  an 
active  part  in  the  bloody  struggles  enacted  in  that  Val- 
ley, and  both  found  an  early  grave. 

In  the  spring  of  1777,  Mrs.  Land,  the  wife  of 
Robert  Land,  an  Englishman,  who  was  a  justice 
of  the  peace  under  the  colonial  government,  learn- 
ing that  a  scouting  party  was  to  come  up  the  river,  her 
husband  being  from  home,  took  her  infant  child,  then 
three  months  old,  and,  in  company  with  her  oldest 
son,  aged  nineteen,  drove  their  cattle  into  the  Avoods 
to  keep  them  out  of  the  way.  She  and  her  son  did 
not  return  that  night.  The  Indians  came  up  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Delaware  in  the  night,  crossed  over 
and  came  to  the  house  of  Land  early  in  the  mornina" 


while  the  children,  Abel,  aged  seventeen,  Rebecca, 
aged  about  fifteen,  Phebe,  thirteen,  and  Robert,  ten, 
were  asleep.  An  Indian  went  to  the  bed  wliere  the 
girls  slept  and  awoke  them  by  tickling  their  feet  with 
the  point  of  a  spear.  A  certain  chief  of  the  Tiisca- 
roras,  known  by  the  name  of  Captain  John,  had  often 
been  at  their  house,  and  seemed  to  be  very 
friendly;  the  elder  girl,  Rebecca,  supposing  him 
to  be  the  Captain,  held  out  her  hand  and 
said,  "How  do  you  do,  Captain  John?"  The  Indian 
asked  her  if  she  knew  Captain  John.  She  told  him 
she  did,  but  that  she  saw  she  was  mistaken.  The  in- 
genuous innocence  of  the  girl  touched  the  heart  of  the 
savage.  He  told  her  that  they  were  Mohawks,  and 
had  come  to  drive  her  people  from  the  country,  and 
that  she  might  put  on  her  clothes  and  go  as  soon  as 
possible  and  warn  the  people  so  that  they  might  es- 
cape before  they  were  all  killed.  She  crossed  the  river 
in  a  canoe,  went  to  Kane's,  where  she  found  them  all 
dead,  except  one  little  girl,  who  w^as  alive  in  a  bunch 
of  bushes,  wallowing  in  her  blood,  she  hav^ing  been 
scalped.  Seeing  this  she  ran  up  the  river  to  Nathan 
Mitchell's  and  gave  the  alarm,  and  then  returned  home. 
In  the  mean  time  the  Indians  had  bound  her  brother 
Abel  and  taken  him  with  them  without  doing  any 
other  mischief.  They  went  up  Calkin's  creek  and  were 
met  by  a  body  of  Cushetunk  Indians,  who  were  friends 
to  the  whites  and  to  the  cause  of  liberty.  They  used 
all  their  endeavors  to  bring  Abel  back  with  tliem,  but 
not  succeeding  they  left  them,  after  learning  that  they 


had  killed  a  very  tall  man,  (Kane)  and  his  wife  and 
children.  The  Cushetunks  hurried  to  the  river  to 
make  report  and  arrived  at  Land's  about  the  same 
time  that  Mrs.  Land  and  her  son  John  came  out  of  the 
woods.  John  and  these  Lidians,  together  with  what 
whites  and  other  Indians  they  could  muster,  went  in 
immediate  pursuit  and  overtook  the  Mohawks  at  Ogh- 
quaga,  where  they  found  them  drawn  up  in  order  of 
battle.  At  last  the  belligerents  came  to  a  parley,  and 
the  Mohawks  agreed  that  after  Abel,  who  had  been 
very  boisterous,  had  been  punished  by  running  the 
gauntlet,  he  might  go  back.  Abel  having  submitted 
to  that  barbarity,  he  and  his  party  returned  to  the 

The  unprovoked  murder  of  Brant  Kane  and  his 
family,  he  being  a  quiet  and  worthy  man  who 
had  come  from  Ireland  to  find  a  peaceful  home,  so 
shocked  and  alarmed  many  of  the  settlers,  that  they 
immediately  crossed  the  river  with  tlieir  families,  took 
to  the  woods,  and  wandered  in  cold  and  hunger  to  the 
settled  parts  of  Orange  county,  N.  Y.  Among  these 
were  Kathan  Skinner  and  his  eldest  son,  Garrett 
Smith  and  wife,  the  wife  and  child  of  Nathaniel 
Evans,  and  -others.  Tradition  says  that  Mrs.  Evans, 
being  belated,  swam  the  Delaware  river  with  her  in- 
fant and  joined  the  fugitives.  In  substance  Skinner 
further  says :  "Joseph  Ross,  having  been  commission- 
ed by  Col.  Whooper  to  take  charge  of  the  Indians, 
whose  chief  was  called  'Manoto,"  some  of  the  whites, 
having^  the  o-ood  will  of    the  Mohicans,  concluded  to 


stay  and  go  on  with  their  farming.  But  in  the  autumn 
of  the  same  year,  another  scouting  party,  mostly  com- 
posed of  marauding  whites,  made  a  descent  upon  the 
people,  took  their  crops,  bm*nt  down  the  new  house 
built  by  Daniel  Skinner,  shot  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Handa,  and  took  Nathan  Mitchell  prisoner."  Skinner 
further  says:  "This  party  came  up  the  Delaware  on 
the  east  side,  and  from  Ten  Mile  River  upward,  plun- 
dered all  that  came  in  their  way  without  opposition 
until  they  came  in  sight  of  Big  Island,  where  they  dis- 
covered a  party  retreating  before  them,  who  continued 
their  retreat  to  the  upper  end  of  Boss's  where  the  set- 
tlers made  a  stand  and  sent  word  to  their  pursuers  that 
they,  the  whites  and  friendly  Indians,  should  retreat 
no  further.  The  marauders  came  to  a  stand  at  Nathan 
Skinner's  new^  house,  which  they  plundered  and  burnt, 
and  then  retreated  dow^n  the  river,  on  their  way  treach- 
erously capturing  John  Land  and  a  man  named  Davis. 
Land  was  shamefully  maltreated  by  his  captors,  and  he 
and  Davis  were  shackled  and  handcuffed  and  thrown 
into  prison  to  answer  to  the  charge  of  disloyalty,  of 
which  charge  they  w^ere  afterwards  acquitted.  Nathan 
Mitchell  escaped,  but  when  or  how,  tradition  saith  not. 
This  raid  was  made  and  participated  in,  it  w^as  said, 
by  persons  who  professed  to  be  ardently  attached  to 
the  cause  of  liberty.  This  charge  is  made  by  Skinner 
in  his  narrative,  but  he  is  cautious  in  mentioning  names. 
That  there  were  bitter  dissensions  about  the  titles  to 
lands  in  and  about  Damascus,  like  those  that  harrassed 
the  settlers  in  Wyoming,  scarcely  admits  of   a  doul)t. 


To  determine  who  were  the  iiiiworthy  and  wicked 
parties  that  originated  and  perpetrated  said  enormities 
cannot  now  be  done,  but  the  raid  gave  rise  to  mutual 
charges  and  recriminations  and  to  political  antipathies 
which  have  descended  down  to  the  present  day. 

After  the  massacre  at  Wyoming,  in  1778,  the  dis- 
astrous result  of  which  was  speedily  made  known  to 
those  living  about  Cochecton,  many  of  the  settlers,  sup- 
posing that  their  lives  would  be  taken  by  the  northern 
Indians,  who  were  emboldened  by  their  recent  successes, 
sought  safety  in  concealment  or  flight.  Some,  how- 
ever, determined  that  they  would  not  leave  the  country ; 
among  whom  were  the  Tylers,  Thomases,  John  Land, 
and  Nathan  Mitchell.  The  latter  old  veteran  could 
never  be  frightened  away,  and  many  of  the  settlers 
came  back  in  the  spring  of  1779.  In  this  year  the 
Indians  became  unusually  aggressive,  and  a  body  of 
them  from  the  north  made  a  descent  upon  the  settle- 
ments alono;  the  DelaAvare  river  about  Minisink.  A 
company  of  Pennsylvania  militia  marched  to  the  Dela- 
ware for  the  protection  of  the  settlements,  and,  on  the 
22d  day  of  July,  1779,  was  attacked  by  a  body  of 
one  hundred  and  forty  Indians  on  a  hill  nearly  opposite 
the  mouth  of  the  Lackawaxen,  and  between  forty  and 
fifty  of  the  militia  were  killed  or  taken  prisoners,  among 
whom  were  Captain  Bezaleel  Tyler  and  Moses  Thomas, 
the  father  of  the  late  Judge  Thomas.  About  every 
man  capal)le  of  bearing  arms  a])out  Cochecton  and 
upon  the  Lackawaxen  and  Paupac'k,  participated  in 
that  battle. 


Tlie  l)attle  and  massacre  at  Wyoming  having  pro- 
duced a  great  sensation  among  the  Ameri(?an  people, 
General  Sullivan,  witli  an  army  of  two  thousand  and 
five  hundred  men,  was  sent,  in  the  summer  of  1779, 
to  drive  the  British  and  Indians  from  that  Valley,  and 
to  lay  waste  the  Indian  country  along  the  north-western 
frontier.  He  arrived  in  Wyoming  on  the  22d  day  of 
July,  and  from  thence  ascended  the  Susquehanna  river, 
liaving  his  provisions  and  army  baggage  conveyed  by 
one  hundred  and  twenty  boats  and  two  thousand 
horses.  General  Sullivan  found  the  enemy,  of  about 
one  thousand  men,  collected  near  IS^ewton,  on  the  Tioga 
river,  strongly  entrenched  behind  a  breastwork.  On 
the  29th  of  August,  he  attacked  and  drove  them  from 
their  defences  across  the  river,  whence  they  precipitate- 
ly fled.  He  then  marched  into  the  Indian  country  and 
destroyed  thirteen  of  their  villages  and  all  their  crops 
and  orchards  as  far  as  to  the  Genesee,  and  then  return- 
ed by  the  way  of  Tioga  Point  to  Wyoming,  and  thence 
to  Easton.  After  the  defeat  of  the  militia  at  Lackawax- 
eTi,  the  few  settlers  remaining  at  Damascus  expected 
that  the  Indians  would  visit  them  and  destroy  all  their 
buildings  and  cattle,  but  they  were  happily  disappoint- 
ed. A  few  were  seen  skulking  about,  but  they  did 
but  little  damage.  They  had  learned  of  tlie  impending 
expedition  of  Sullivan  into  their  country,  and  they  re- 
treated in  fear  and  dismay.  Tlie  danger  of  Indian 
raids  being  now,  in  a  great  measure,  removed,  the  in- 
hal)itants  returned  to  their  possessions  at  Cocheeton 
and  Damascus,  where  the  settlements  again  flourished. 


With  unl)onnded  delight  thiy  long-suffering  people 
hailed  the  prospect  of  security  and  peace.  For  twenty- 
live  years  they  had  dwelt  in  the  midst  of  alarms,  sub- 
ject at  all  times  to  the  torch,  the  hatchet,  and  the 
scalping  knife  of  the  Indians. 

The  following  named  persons  were  actors  in  the 
foregoing  history,  or  were  subsequently  distinguished 
in  the  annals  of  the  township : 

Captain  Bezaleel  Tyler,  who  fell  at  the  battle  at  Lack- 
awaxen,  and  was  from  New  England.  His  sons  were, 
1st,  Bezaleel  Tyler,  father  of  Amos  Tyler;  2nd,  Sam- 
uel Tyler,  father  of  Wni.  Tyler,  of  Eock  Run;  3rd, 
John  Tyler,  father  of  Judge  Moses  Tyler.  This  John 
Tyler  married  a  Calkin,  by  whom  he  had  twenty-one 
children.  If  I  am  rightly  informed  all  the  said  sons  of 
Captain  Tyler  were  soldiers  in  the  American  Kevolu- 
tion.  So  numerous  are  the  Tylers  in  and  about  Da- 
mascus that  we  have  not  time  and  space  to  enumerate 
them.  They  have  ever  been  prominent  in  the  entei*- 
prises  and  politics  of  the  township. 

Simeon  Calkin  was  one  of  the  first  settlers,  who, 
witli  Timothy  Skinner,  built  a  saw-mill  and  grist-mill 
near  the  mouth  of  Calkin's  creek,  in  1755,  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-five  years  ago.  Oliver  Calkin  w^as, 
as  I  suppose,  his  son.  Daniel  Skinner,  called  the 
"Admiral,"  married  Sarah  Calkin,  a  daughter  of  Olive)' 
Calkin.  It  is  a  name  much  respected  in  Damascus 
and  Cochecton. 

Natlian  Mitchell  lived  at  first  on  the  east  side  of 
the  Delaware.     He,  or  a  son  of  his,  lived  many  years 



jifterward.s  in  Biickingliani.  He  was  the  father  of 
xlbraliain  Mitchell,  who  owned  and  cleared  up  the 
farm  now  owned  by  Samuel  K.  Yail,  Esq.,  of  Leba- 
non. In  Damascus  and  elsewhere  liis  descendants  are 
too  numerous  to  mention  with  the  particularity  they 

Moses  Thomas,  Sen.,  was  killed,  as  aforesaid,  at  tlie 
mouth  of  Calkin's  creek,  in  1763.  He  had  a  son  who 
WTiS  killed  at  the  battle  at  Lackaw^axen,  whose  name 
was  Moses;  and  the  late  Judge  Thomas  was  a  grand- 
son of  the  said  Moses  Thomas,  Sen.  We  have  tried 
to  obtain  more  information  concerning  this  family, 
hut  have  not  succeeded. 

Robert  Land  was  an  Englishman  and  a  justice  of 
the  peace  under  tlie  colonial  government,  and  a  man 
of  pluck  and  eiiterpi-ise,  wliile  his  wife  was  a  woman 
of  unconnnon  endui-ance  and  alulity.  His  son,  John 
Land,  married,  lived,  and  died  in  tlie  township.  Ont^ 
r)f  tlie  daughters  of  the  latter,  l)y  tlie  name  of  Maxa- 
inilia,  was  the  wife  of  John  Burcher. 

Jesse  Drake  married  the  widow  of  Moses  Thomas, 
who  was  killed  at  Lackawaxen.  He  had  two  sons, 
Jesse  and  Charles,  and  two  daughters;  one  daughter, 
named  Christiana,  intermarried  with  Jonathan  J^illie, 
and  the  other,  Martha,  intermarried  with  James 

Nicholas  Conklin,  of  Dutch  descent,  from  the  North 
river,  was  one  of  the  lirst  settlers  who  located  on  the 
York  State  side.  He  had  three  sons,  John,  Elias, 
and  William.     Tlie  latter  lived  and  died  at  Big  Island, 

TO  WNSIUPS—nA  MA  AC  US.  131 

but  the  others  sokl  out  to  Stephen  Mitcliell  and  re- 
moved to  Susqueh.anna  county. 

Benjamin  Conklin  located  on  the  Cochectoii  and 
Great  Bend  turnpike  road,  six  miles  west  of  Damas- 
cus bridge,  and  kept  a  tav^ern  and  the  turnpike  gate, 
so  that  the  place  was  known  far  and  near  as  the 
"  Gate  Hovise."  He  had  fifteen  children,  of  whom 
only  two  now  live  in  the  county,  Benjamin  Conklin, 
at  Four-story  hill,  and  Sally,  the  wife  of  Amos  T. 

Jonathan  Lillie  located  on  the  Daniel  Dexter  place. 
Jesse  and  Calvin,  his  sons,  are  now  living.  Col.  Cal- 
vin Skinner  married  a  daughter  of  said  Jonatlian 

Simeon  Bush  was  an  original  settler,  and  liad  three 
sons.  He  made  an  assessment  of  Damascus,  in  1801, 
when  there  w^ere  but  thirty-seven  taxables.  George 
Bush,  one  of  the  sons,  was  a  man  of  mark  and  was 
once  a  Member  of  Assembly.  He  married  a  daugh- 
ter of  Reuben  Skinner.  The  other  sons  were  John 
and  Eli,  and  all  have  gone  to  a  better  land,  leaving 
families  behind  them. 

John  Ross,  better  known  as  Captain  John  Ross,  an 
old  veteran  soldier,  had  a  son  named  John,  who  had  a 
son  named  Bezaleel,  he  being  the  father  of  John  R. 
Ross,  deceased,  who  was  elected  sheriff  in  1870. 

Daniel  Skinner,  known  as  "Admiral"  Skinner,  of 
whom  much  has  been  said,  lived  and  died  on  the 
Judge  Taylor  place.  The  names  of  his  children  were 
Reuben,  Daniel,  Joseph,  AVilliam,  and  Kathan.     Dan- 


iel  Skinner,  Jr.,  had  one  son,  Ini,  who  died  leaving 
one  son.  Said  Joseph  Skinner  died  at  Skinner's  flats, 
leaving  a  family,  and  William  Skinner  died  at  the 
same  place,  leaving  six  sons. 

Reuben  Skinner  located  upon  or  near  his  father's 
place.  He  married  a  widow  from  Long  Island,  whose 
maiden  name  was  Mary  Polly  Chase.  He  organized 
the  first  Masonic  Lodge  in  the  county,  at  Ackhake, 
and  named  it  St.  Tammany's  Lodge.  In  1801  he  was 
assessed  as  owning  two  honses,  twenty  acres  of  im- 
proved land,  and  'ci  slave,  valued  at  fifty  dollars,  and  as 
being  a  merchant,  inn-keeper,  and  justice  of  the  peace, 
all  of  which,  including  a  span  of  horses  and  two  cows, 
was  valued  at  $552.  He  liad  one  son,  Daniel  ().  Skin- 
ner, late  of  Honesdale,  deceased,  and  three  daughters 
— Anna,  wife  of  George  Bush,  Huldah,  wife  of  Jacol) 
B.  Yerkes,  and  Nancy,  wife  of  George  Kinney. 

William  Monnington,from  Philadelphia,  of  Swedish 
descent,  settled  at  an  early  day  upon  the  north  l>ranch 
of  Calkin's  creek.  His  sons  were  Israel,  James,  and  Na- 
than, all  worthy  and  industrious  farmers.  Judge  Thom- 
as married  the  only  daughter,  Rebecca  Monnington. 

Derrick  Lukens  emigrated  from  Germantown,  near 
Philadelphia.  His  sons  were  John  N.,  Daniel,  Titus,  and 
Derrick.  He  had  several  daughters,  one  of  whom  was 
the  wife  of  the  Rev.  Isaac  Brown.  Her  name  was 
Mary,  and  another  named  Margaret  was  the  wife  of 
Col.  Brush,  who  was  the  facetious  and  able  sheriff  of 
Wayne  county ;  after  his  death  she  married  Stephen 
Mitcliell.      John    N.    Lukens    for    many    years    kept 

TO  WNSHIPS—I)A  MA  SC  US.  133 

a  tavern  on  the  turnpike  between  Damascus  bridge  and 
Tyler  Hill. 

Da\dd  Young  first  settled  opposite  Big  Island  in 
New  York  State.  He  was  assessed  in  Damascus  in 
1801  and  in  1810,  and  afterwards  kept  a  public  house 
therein.  He  subsequently  bought  the  Yerkes  saw-mill, 
situated  on  Calkin's  creek,  at  Milanville,  where  he  was 
killed  by  the  caving  in  of  a  bank.  He  was  a  man  whose 
loss  was  widely  regretted.  He  had  four  sons,  George, 
Charles,  Thomas,  and  Moses  T.  The  latter-named, 
who  lives  in  Damascus,  is  the  only  survivor. 

Kathan  Skinner,  as  aforesaid,  was  a  son  of  "Admiral'' 
Skinner,  and  was  a  man  of  good  natural  and  acquired 
abilities.     He  was  a  surveyor  and  for    many  years    a 
justice  of  the  peace.  His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Oliver     «^> 
Calkin.     He    wrote  the    account  of   Damascus  from  ' 

which  we  have  quoted.  His  sons  were  Col.  Calvin 
Skinner,  Albro  Skinner,  (the  surveyor),  Oliver  Skinner, 
Irvin  Skinner,  Charles  C.  Skinner,  and  Heli  Skinner. 
Irvin  Skinner  lives  in  Indiana,  and  his  daughter  Zillah 
is  the  wife  of  Wm.  Stephens,  of  Illinois. 

Thomas  Sliields.  At  what  time  he  removed  from 
the  city  of  Philadelphia  to  Damascus,  it  is  difficult  to 
ascertain ;  but,  by  the  old  records,  it  appears  that  at 
December  sessions,  1799,  Thomas  Sliields  was  indicted 
for  assault  and  battery  upon  the  body  of  William  Skin- 
ner, of  which  charge  he  was  acquitted.  Let  it  be  re- 
membered that  the  man  who  in  tliose  days  was  not  in- 
dicted for  selling  liquor  without  a  license  or  of  assault 
and  battery,  was  destitute  of  popularity.      In  1801   he 


was  assessed  as  owner  of  two  houses,  three  mills,  thirty- 
four  acres  of  improved  land,  and  4,356  acres  of  unim- 
proved land,  all  valued  at  $938.00,  his  county  tax  be- 
ing only  $9.38,  and  in  1803  as  owner  of  21,457  acres 
unimproved  lands.  He  l)uilt  two  saw-mills  and  a  grist- 
mill on  Cash's  creek,  and  as  the  Cochecton  and  Great 
Bend  turnpike  road  was  not  then  made,  all  the  irons 
i-equired  for  said  mills  were  l)rought  up  the  Delaware 
river  in  Durham  boats.  In  1810  he  built  the  iirst 
Baptist  church  in  Damascus  and  left  it  to  that  denomi- 
nation. Being  a  man  of  wealth  and  enterprise,  he 
largely  contributed  to  the  prosperity  of  the  place.  He 
went  back  to  Philadelphia,  but,  at  what  date,  we  are 
unable  to  ascertain.  He  came  into  the  county  to  dis- 
pose of  his  wild  lands. 

Dr.  Freeman  Allen  was  the  first  physician  and  sur- 
geon in  Damascus,  and  Dr.  Calkin  the  first  in  Cochec- 

Dr.  Luther  Appley,  who  was  from  Philadelphia, 
studied  medicine  and  surgery  under  Dr.  Allen,  and 
practiced  many  years  with  success.  For  his  first  wife 
he  married  Phebe  Land,  daughter  of  John  Land.  His 
second  wife  was  Mary  E.  Effinger,  a  lady  from  Phila- 
delphia, who,  as  his  widow,  now  resides  in  Honesdale. 
He  left  four  sons,  William  S.,  Theron,  Luther,  and 
Mark  Appley.  Dr.  William  S.  Appley  became  noted 
in  his  profession.  He  practiced  far  and  near  along  the 
P]rie  railroad.  In  consequence  of  liis  temerity  he  lost 
a  leg  on  said  road.    He  is  dead  and  Dr.  Theron  Appley 

is  still  practicing.  Luther  and  Mark  are  farmers  and 


Alexander  Rutledge,  a  native  of  Ireland,  settled,  in 
1803,  on  the  road  leading  from  the  Union  settlement 
to  the  old  gate  house  or  Conklin  place.  His  sons,  who 
settled  near  him,  were  Alexander,  Christopher,  Ed- 
ward, and  John. 

Charles  Irvine,  a  patriot  who  fled  from  Ireland,  at 
an  early  day  settled  in  Damascus  and  married  a  daugli- 
ter  of  Oliver  Calkin,  of  Cochecton.  His  son,  Charles 
Irvine,  was  a  long  time  a  merchant  at  Damascus  vil- 
lage, and  is  well  known  through  tlie  county  as  having 
been  a  jury  commissioner. 

George  Brown  was  assessed  in  1806  as  a  farmer. 
If  I  am  rightly  informed  he  was  the  father  of  Isaac 
Brown,  a  Baptist  clergyman,  whose  wife  was  a  daugh- 
ter of  Derrick  Lukens. 

John  Boyd  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1794,  and 
came  to  Wayne  county  in  1808,  and  finally  settled  on 
Damascus  manor.  He  had  seven  children,  two  of 
whom  are  living:  in  A¥arren  county,  and  two  in  Wa^aie. 
Thomas  Y.  Boyd,  one  of  them,  bought  "The  Tymer- 
son  Mills"  many  years  ago.  He  is  a  large  manufac- 
turer and  dealer  in  luml)er.  He  twice  represented  tlie 
county  in  the  Legislature. 

The  settlement  of  the  northern  part  of  the  town 
took  place  later  tlum  the  middle  and  southern  part 
and  was  made  by  the  Conklins,  Tylers,  Keeslers, 
Brighams,  Sutliffs,  Kellams,  Rutledges,  and  others. 
At  Galilee  is  a  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  a  post- 
office,  and  several  fine  buildings,  sufficient  to  form  the 
nucleus    of    a  village.     Southward  of   Galilee,  niauy 


years  ago,  Neal  McCollnni  bought  lauds  aud  cleared 
up  a  valuable  farui.  Plis  family  produced  some  of 
the  most  valuable  articles  of  douiestic  manufacture 
ever  exhil)ited  at  the  fairs  i)f  the  Wayne  County  Ag- 
i-icultural  Society.  Mr.  McCollum  and  his  wife,  wh(> 
were  most  worthy  people,  died  some  years  ago,  since 
which  tlieir  ingenious  and  industrious  daughters,  Catli- 
eriue  and  Mary,  have  prematurely  followed  them. 

Jonathan  Dexter  was  assessed,  in  1802,  as  owning 
two  hundred  acres  of  wild  land.  The  Dexters,  it  is 
said,  were   from  New  England. 

Branningville  took  its  name  from  J.  1).  Branning, 
who  built  up  the  place.  W.  I).  Guinnip  now  resides 
there.  It  has  a  good  school,  with  a  thickly  settled 
neighborhood  about  it.     It  is  a  very  pleasant  place. 

Darbytown  takes  its  name  from  N.  S.  Darby,  wdio 
built  a  tannery  tliere. 

In  1801,  Solomon  Decker,  Keuben  Decker,  and  J(j- 
seph  Decker  were  assessed  as  farmers  that  had  made 
respectable  improvements.  Tliere  were  other  early 
settlers  wliose  history  we  have  failed  to  obtain,  the 
family  names  being  Dexter,  Guinnip,  Branning,  Bm*- 
(^hers,  Bol)erts,  Noble,  Perry,  Yerkes,  etc. 

fl;d)ez  Stearns,  a  son  of  Joseph  Stearns,  one  of  the 
first  settlers  in  Mount  Pleasant,  about  18 —  took  up 
land  and  made  a  farm  on  tlie  nortli  side  of  the  nortli 
branch  of  Calkin's  creek,  at  the  Great  Falls,  where 
John  Leonard  erected  a  noted  saw-mill,  subsequently 
occupied  l>y  Wood,  Boyd  fSz  Lovelass.  Under  great 
disadvantages    he    obt:dned    a    good    education     and 


took  all  the  means  in  liis  power  to  educate  his  chil- 
dren. He  had  six  children,  namely,  David  W.,  Polly, 
Harriet  E.,  Lanrette,  Irene,  and  Frances.  The  primi- 
tive settlers  being  mostly  lumbermen  located  upon 
the  alluvial  lands  along  the  river  which  they  deemed 
the  only  kind  of  soil  fit  for  cultivation ;  hence,  the 
progress  of  the  town  was  for  many  years  retarded. 
At  length  it  was  ascertained  that  the  lands  distant 
from  the  river,  though  difficult  to  clear,  were,  after  a 
few  years  of  cultivation,  capable  of  producing  larger 
crops  than  the  river  flats.  This  led  to  the  taking  up 
of  the  lands  remote  from  the  river,  where  were  found 
some  of  the  best  lands  in  the  county,  in  conlirmation  of 
which,  attention  is  directed  to  the  farms  of  Asil  Dann, 
William  Hartwell,  T.  J.  Crocker,  and  a  score  of  others 
in  the  township.  Several  attempts  have  been  made  to 
divide  the  township,  but  the  division,  whenever  un- 
dertaken, has  been  voted  down.  The  old  Cochecton 
and  Great  Bend  turnpike  road  divides  the  township 
into  about  equal  parts,  but  it  does  not  suit  the  people 
as  a  division  line.  Having  a  descending  navigation 
for  lumber  l)y  the  river,  and  access  to  the  depots  on 
the  Erie  railroad  at  Narrowsburgh  and  Cochecton, 
this  township  has  facilities  to  market  not  exceeded  by 
any  of  the  river  townships.  The  principal  trading 
places  are  Damascus  village,  situated  where  the  old 
turnpike  road  crosses  the  Delaware  river  over  a  splen- 
did toll-l)ridge,  and  Cochecton,  a  village  located  on 
the  New  York  side,  just  opposite,  and  clustered  along 
the  Erie  railroad,  which  road  skirts  the   base  of    the 


138  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

liills,  leaving  a  broad  flat  between  it  and  the  river. 
Cocliecton  is  one  of  the  pleasantest  villages  on  the  Del- 
aware, and  its  early  history  is  inseparably  connected 
with  that  of  Damascus. 

Damascus  Village.  Before  the  division  of  the 
towns! lip  into  two  election  districts,  the  elections  w^erc 
held  at  Damascus  village,  where  the  physicians  were 
located,  the  chief  merchants  traded,  the  most  noted 
hotel  afforded  entertainment,  and  where  the  first 
academy  in  the  county  was  started,  and  the  first  Bap- 
tist church  built.  Here  Walter  S.  Yail  and  Charles 
Irvine,  tlie  most  popular  merchants  in  their  day,  lived 
and  traded,  and  were  succeeded  by  Philip  O'Keilly, 
(once  the  urbane  and  favorite  clerk  of  Capt.  Murray, 
of  Honesdale,)  who,  as  one  of  the  firm  of  T.  &  P. 
O'Heilly  continues  in  the  same  pursuit  at  the  present 
time.  There  are  several  other  mercliants  in  the  vil- 
lage. Here  now^  is  the  old  Baptist  church  and  cemetery 
kept  in  excellent  order,  and  a  Methodist  Episcopal 
church  and  parsonage.  From  the  beautiful  residences 
of  Charles  Irvine  and  Mark  Appley,  situated  on  the 
road  leading  to  Milan ville,  is  one  of  the  most  enchant- 
ing views  of  the  New^  York,  Lake  Erie  and  Western 
Railroad,  and  of  the  trains  of  cars  passing  up  and  down 
upon  the  road  on  tlie  opposite  side  of  the  river,  that 
can  be  seen  in  Wayne  county. 

MiLANviLLE.  This  village  was  the  chosen  residence 
of  Nathan  Skinner,  Esq.,  and  his  family,  and  is  sitnatied 
near  the  mouth  of  Calkin's  creek.  Its  locality  is 
memorable  in  tlie  early  annals  of  the  town  as  the  place 


where  the  most  desperate  battle  was  fought  with  the 
Indians.  Many  years  ago  Eli  Beach,  Esq.,  built  a  large 
tannery  there  which  greatly  increased  the  population 
and  importance  of  the  place.  Mr.  Beach  died  some 
years  since.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  one  of 
the  oldest  and  most  noted  tanners  in  the  county,  a  man 
whose  merits  would  have  been  appreciated  and  whose 
U)ss  would  have  been  deeply  deplored  in  any  com- 
munity. The  tannery  is  now  successfully  carried  on 
by  Hon.  J.  Howard  Beach,  late  Member  of  the  As- 
sembly, and  other  sons  of  the  late  Eli  Beach,  deceased. 
About  one  hundred  rods  below  the  village  are  the 
Cochecton  falls,  which  are  the  most  dangerous  obstruc- 
tion in  the  Delaware  between  Hancock  and  Lacka- 

Tyler  Hill.  This  village  owed  its  first  importance 
to  the  enterprise  of  the  late  Israel  Tyler.  It  has  been 
much  improved  within  a  few  years.  Its  shops  and 
stores  afford  most  of  the  conveniences  needed  in  a  vil- 
lage. The  buildings  display  taste  and  neatness,  and 
the  private  residences  of  David  Fortnam  and  William 
A.  Smith  are  very  beautiful. 

Most  of  the  timber  having  been  removed  from  the 
forests  of  Damascus,  the  people  have  wisely  turned 
their  attention  to  agriculture.  In  1878  there  were  801 
taxables  in  the  township ;  the  valuation  of  property  for 
county  purposes  was  $672,582,  and  the  amount  of  coun- 
ty tax  was  $3,362.91.  There  are  twenty -one  common 
schools,  one  Baptist  church,  three  M.  E.  churches,  one 
Roman  Catholic  church,  and  one  Union  church. 


Precedence  is  given  to  Damascus  because  it  lias  a 
larger  area  than  any  other  township,  and  from  the  fact 
that  there  the  first  settlement  was  made,  the  lirst  In- 
dian battle  fought,  the  first  mills  built,  the  first  raft 
constructed,  the  first  justices  of  the  peace  appointed, 
the  first  schools  established,  the  first  Masonic  Lodge 
instituted,  the  first  turnpike  road  made,  the  first  store 
started,  the  first  church  and  academy  erected,  and  the 
first  bridge  built  across  the  Delaware  river  in  Wayne 


THIS  township  was  taken  oif  from  Damascus  in  1819. 
It  is  bounded  north  by  Buckingham  and  Manches- 
ter, east  by  Damascus,  south  by  Oregon  and  Dyberry, 
and  west  by  Mount  Pleasant.  The  principal  streams 
are  the  Dyberry,  and  its  east  and  west  branches,  and 
Biff  brook.  These  streams  are  lined  on  both  sides  bv 
steep  hills,  which  are  rough  and  rocky,  and,  excepting 
some  flats,  the  land  near  the  streams  is  uncultivatable. 
In  the  eastern  part  is  a  high,  conical  elevation,  called 
''Hickory  Hill,"  about  which  there  is  some  good  land. 
The  north-eastern  part  of   the   town  is    composed  of 


hilly  and  rocky  land,  and  is  unlit  for  cultivation.  The 
chief  ponds  are  the  Upper  and  Lower  Woods  ponds, 
so  called  because  John  Wood  owned  tlie  land  about 
them;  the  Latourette  pond;  the  Nilespond;  the  Rose 
pond,  which  was  named  after  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Rose,  w^ho  built  a  cabin  near  the  pond,  upon  the  now 
excellent  and  valuable  farm  of  Sidney  Coons;  and 
Duck  Harbor  pond,  about  one-half  of  which  is  in  this 
township.  The  greater  part  of  the  population  is  to  be 
found  along  the  old  Cochecton  and  Great  Bend  turn- 
pike road,  and  on  the  roads  leading  from  Riley ville  to 
Dyberry,  and  along  the  road  passing  through  Middle 

Beginning  on  said  turnpike  where  the  line  on  the 
east  side  of  the  township  crosses  the  road  and  going 
west,  the  first  old  settled  place  is  the  farm  of  Samuel 
K.  Vail.  Adam  Kniver  commenced  on  the  place  where 
Walter  S.  Vail  now  li^^es,  and  Joseph  Thomas  on  the 
farm  of  Samuel  K.  Yail.  Kniver  and  Thomas  left  and 
John  C.  Riley  kept  tavern  there  awhile ;  then  Abram 
Mitchell  bought  the  whole  land  of  Thomas  Meredith  and 
lived  there  many  years,  when  the  farm  was  bought  by 
Walter  S.  Yail,  Sen.,  who  sold  it  to  his  brother,  Sam- 
uel K.  Yail.  Walter  S.  Yail,  Sen.,  w^as  a  noted  mer- 
chant at  Damascus  for  many  years,  and  a  man  much  es- 
teemed for  his  probity  and  fair  dealing.  Kathaniel 
Yail,  a  brother  of  his,  many  years  ago,  represented  us 
in  the  Legislature.  Passing  along,  we  come  to  the 
road  which  on  the  right  leads  to  Equinunk.  Here  we 
find  the  store  of  Samuel  K.  Yail,  the  only  one  in  the 


township,  and  a  church,  called  the  "  Union  church." 
In  this  store  is  kept  the  Rileyville  post-office.  Pass- 
ing onward  sixty  rods  we  come  to  the  buildings  erect- 
ed by  John  C.  Kiley,  consisting  of  a  large  tavern 
house,  and  a  store,  now  unused.  Riley  commenced 
here  about  sixty-five  years  ago  and  cleared  up  a  large 
farm  amd  kept  a  licensed  tavern  from  1819  to  1836, 
and  sometimes  kept  a  store  running.  This  is  Riley- 
ville.  Riley  was  succeeded  by  William  Handell. 
Then  the  whole  place  was  purchased  by  Francis  Blair, 
who  sold  it  to  Patrick  Shanley,  its  present  owner. 
The  road  from  Dyberry  intersects  the  turnpike  at  this 
place.  A  half  mile  onward  is  the  Lebanon  Presby- 
terian church.  Next  are  tlie  farm  and  premises  for- 
merly occupied  by  John  Lincoln,  Esq.,  who  w^as  an 
early  settler  from  New  England.  The  premises  are  now 
owned  by  Hiram  Wright,  who  married  a  daughter  of 
John  Lincoln.  A  house  of  entertainment  and  then  a 
licensed  tavern  was  kept  by  Mr.  Lincoln  or  Wright 
for  several  years.  It  had  the  reputation  of  being  the 
best-kept  tavern  on  the  road.  Next  is  the  farm  taken 
up  and  improved  by  William  Adams,  who  was  orig- 
inally from  Delaware  county,  N.  Y.  He  was  a  supe- 
rior natural  penman,  and  was  the  standing  assessor 
of  Lebanon,  while  he  lived  in  the  to\\Ti.  He  was  the 
first  assessor  in  Manchester  township,  after  its  erec- 
tion in  1828,  soon  after  which,  he  settled  upon  his 
Lebanon  farm.  Being  engaged  in  lumbering,  he  lost 
largely  by  an  unusual  flood  in  the  Delaware.  George 
W.  Adams  and  Henry  Adams,  of    Dyl^erry,  are  his 


sons,  and  Clayton  Yale  married  his  daughter.  The 
farm  is  now  occupied  by  the  widow  of  Patrick 
Mc  Guire. 

Seth  Yale,  a  son  of  Esquire  Yale,  comes  next.  He 
married  a  daughter  of  John  Douglas.  All  the  im- 
provements on  the  farm  were  made  by  him. 

Next  comes  Shieldsboro',  now  owned  by  Elias  Stan- 
ton. Kobert  Shields,  son  of  Thomas  Shields,  the 
great  landholder  in  Wayne  county  and  who  in  earlier 
days  lived  in  Damascus,  in  or  about  1835,  (date  un- 
certain) built  a  good  dwelling-house  and  barn  and 
erected  a  saw-mill  at  this  place,  and  sent  up  his  sons, 
Thomas  M.  and  William  J,  Shields,  from  Philadeh 
phia  to  take  charge  of  the  premises,  supplying  them 
with  costly  musical  instruments,  a  large  library  with 
globes  and  maps,  and  every  needed  convenience.  But 
with  all  this  they  were  not  content.  As  desert-wan- 
dering Israel  longed  for  the  leeks,  onions,  and  flesh- 
pots  of  Egypt,  so  did  these  men  long  for  the  crash, 
flash,  and  dash  of  the  city  from  whence  they  came. 
After  years  of  contention  and  discontent,  they  returned 
to  their  former  home.  Since  that  time  the  place  has 
had  a  number  of  occupants.  The  next  very  old  place 
was  taken  up  by  John  Yale  about  1810,  but  was  paid 
for  by  his  son,  Seth  Yale,  who  was  always 
called  Esquire  Yale.  His  wife  was  a-  daughter 
of  James  Bigelow,  who  was  one  of  the  first 
settlers  in  Mount  Pleasant.  She  was  an  excellent, 
resolute,  industrious  woman.  They  had  to  battle 
with  all  the  difiiculties  and  sufl^er  all  the  perplexities 


incident  to  pioneer  life  in  an  unbroken  wilderness, 
l)iit  tliey  nnflinchingly  withstood  them  all.  Their 
works  were  herculean  and  amazing.  He  had  to  pro- 
vide for  a  large  and  increasing  family,  and  she  to  card, 
spin,  and  weave  the  fabrics,  or  procure  it  to  be  done, 
wherewith  to  (clothe  her  family.  He,  with  his  sons, 
cleared  up  a  large  farm  and  erected  good  buildings 
thereon.  Prompted  by  necessity  and  a  love  of  danger- 
ous and  excitin":  adventures,  he  became  a  o;reat  hunter. 
Once,  in  early  winter,  upon  a  very  cold  day,  he  shot 
and  killed  an  otter  on  the  ice  at  tlie  Lower  Woods 
pond.  Laying  down  his  gun,  he  put  on  his  mittens 
and  went  to  get  his  game.  Before  reaching  it  he  broke 
through  the  ice  where  the  water  was  deep.  He  could 
not  get  upon  the  ice.  Again  and  again  his  attempts 
were  unavailing,  as  it  would  continue  to  break  under 
him.  He  w^is  so  far  from  home  that  his  calls  for  help 
could  not  be  heard,  and  benumbed  with  cold  his  strength 
began  to  fail  him.  Finally  he  resolved  to  make  his 
last  final  eifort  to  escape.  Throwing  his  wet  mittens 
upon  the  glare  ice  as  far  off  as  he  could  reach  them 
in  that  dreadful  condition,  he  waited  until  they  froze 
fast,  then,  having  something  to  take  hold  of,  he  drew 
himself  out  upon  the  ice,  and  then  rolled  over  and  over 
imtil  lie  reached  the  shore.  But  he  would  have  that 
otter.  He  broke  down  small  dead  trees,  made  a  bridge 
upon  the  ice,  and  went  out  and  saved  it.  Once  his 
faithful  dog,  which  would  have  risked  its  life  for  the 
safety  of  its  master,  was  missing,  and  the  Esquire,  mis- 
trusting that  it  had  broken  through  the  ice  in  that 


same  pond,  upon  going  tliitlier  found  it  to  \)Q  a  fact. 
With  great  difficulty  he  got  the  dog  out,  which  was 
unable  to  go  or  stand.  Though  the  day  was  cold,  the 
Esquire  took  off  his  coat  and  wrapped  it  around  tlie 
animal,  which  w^as  a  large  one,  and  carried  him  home, 
a  distance  of  a  mile  and  a  quarter,  tlius  saving 
its  life.  He  was  once  a  commissioner  of  the  county 
and  for  many  years  a  justice  of  the  peace.  It  was  al- 
ways his  aim  to  promote  peace. 

''Was  there  a  variance?  enter  but  his  door, 
Balked  were  the  courts,  and  contest  was  no  more." 

Esquire  Yale  had  six  sons  and  three  daughters. 
Norman  and  Clayton  E.  Yale  lived  in  the  homestead 
house  on  the  north  side  of  the  road,  and  John  E.  and 
Ezra  Yale  in  separate  houses  built  by  themselves  on 
part  of  the  old  farm  lying  south  of  the  road.  Franklin 
removed  to  Susquehanna  county.  Seth  has  been  men- 
tioned. Eliza  is  the  wife  of  Gilbert  P.  Bass.  Try- 
phena  married  Fanton  Sherwood,  and  Mary  died  un- 
married. Esquire  Yale  died  in  Honesdale  some  years 
ago,  and  his  wife  survived  him  but  a  few^  years. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  road,  on  the  hill  above  the 
Yale  farm,  lives  Charles  Bennett,  son  of  Joseph  Ben- 
nett, of  New  England  descent.  Originally  Peter 
Latourette,  a  blacksmith,  commenced  on  the  place  and 
then  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  said  Joseph  Bennett,  who 
lived  and  died  there.  On  the  north  side  of  the  road 
the  land  was  taken  up  about  1817,  by  Hugh  Gammell, 
the  grandfather  of  Hon.  A.  B.  Gannnell,  of  Bethany. 
Hugh,  for  a  second  wife,  married  a  woman  by  the  name 



of  Gillett,  and  GMinmell  and  her  brotlier,  named  Elijah 
Gillett,  owned  the  plac^e  too^ether.  Gannnell  died  there 
and  Mr.  Gillett  and  Mrs.  Gammell  sold  out  their  in- 
terest in  the  farm  and  she  went  and  lived  with  Aaron 
Gillett,  a  relative  of  their's  in  Salem,  and  Elijah  Gil- 
lett returned  to  Connecticut.  Most  of  the  place  is  now 
owned  1)y  Hora(^e  W.  Gager,  who,  })eing  an  enterpris- 
ing farmer,  has  nnich  enhanced  its  value.  Going  on- 
ward on  the  south  side  of  the  road  extending  westward 
for  eighty  oy  ninety  rods,  lie  the  old  farms  of  Edward 
Wheateraft,  Jr.,  and  of  Edward  Wheatcraft,  Sen. 
Now  both  are  owned  by  Gates  Douglas.  Edward 
Wheatcraft,  Sen.,  was  born  in  Frederick,  Maryland. 
According  to  old  records  he  Avas  the  first  settler  in 
West  Lebanon,  he  having  bought  one  hundred  acres  of 
land  and  Iniilt  a  (^abin  in  1803.  His  land,  cal)in,  and 
four  head  of  cattle,  were  valued  that  year  at  $95.00, 
and  his  tax  was  eighty-five  and  a  half  cents.  He  paid 
for  his  land  in  money  realized  mostly  from  the  sale  of 
maple  sugar.  His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  John  S. 
Rogers.  They  had  one  son  and  three  daughters.  Mrs. 
John  Latourette  was  one  of  the  daughters.  Then  be- 
low^ and  north  of  the  old  turnpike  lies  the  George 
Parkinson  farm,  the  f]"ont  part  of  which  is  owned  by 
C.  H.  S(nidder.  Parkinson  was  taxed  as  owning  eleven 
hundred  acres  of  land.  It  is  probaV)le  that  he  began 
in  1804.  He  was  an  Englishman,  and  by  trade  a  wea- 
ver, but  turned  his  attention  to  <*arpenter  and  mill- 
Avright  work.  He  is  renieml)ered  as  having  been  m 
very  ingenious  workman,  and  was  the  chief  architect 


employed  by  Judge  Wilson  to  build  a  linen  factory  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Paupack.  Finding  that  Wilson  was 
likely  to  fail,  he  took  his  pay  for  his  work  in  land. 
In  1810  he  was  licensed  to  keep  a  public  house,  and 
he  or  his  son  continued  in  the  business  many  years. 
This  house  was  known  from  Newburg  to  Itha(!:a  as  the 
Cold  Spring  Tavern.  Parkinson,  finding  the  town  to 
he  settling  up  rapidly,  built  a  saw-mill  and  grist-mill 
on  the  outlet  of  the  Lower  Woods  pond,  below  a  fall 
about  eighty  rods  from  it.  In  a  year  or  two  both  mills 
burnt  down,  No  grist-mill  has  since  been  built  in  tlie 

Benajah  Carr,  in  or  about  1811,  took  up  the  farm 
south  of  the  Parkinson  place,  cleared  the  same,  and  in 
1845  sold  it  to  Charles  H.  Scudder  and  removed  to 

The  next  place  westward  on  the  north  side  of  the 
road  was  taken  up  about  1814  by  David  Gager,  who 
was  a  native  of  Windham  county.  Conn.  His  wife's 
name  was  Polina  Bingham.  They  had  children,  of 
whom  Rufus  H.  Gager,  of  Mount  Pleasant,  Horace 
W.  Gager,  of  Lebanon,  and  E.  B.  Gager,  of  Tanners 
Falls,  are  now  living  in  the  county.  Mr.  Gager  and 
his  sons  cleared  up  a  good  farm,  and  he  died  on  the 
place.  It  is  now"  owned  by  Robins  Douglas.  Mr. 
Gager  used  to  tell  of  the  hard  times,  l)efore  the  war 
closed  in  1815;  how  that  leather  was  hardly  to  be  had 
at  any  price;  that  pork  was  twenty -five  cents  a  pound, 
and  that  he  had  given  four  dollars  for  half  a  l)ushel 
of  salt. 


The  next  settler  on  the  west  of  David  Gager  was 
Joseph  Bass,  who  came  in  with  Gager  from  the  same 
place.  His  wife  was  a  sister  of  David  Gager.  There 
were  fonr  sons:  Jason  G.,  Thomas  H.,  John  W.,  and 
Gilbert  P.  Bass.  The  latter,  wlio  lives  upon  and  owns 
the  old  homestead,  is  the  only  surviving  meml)er  of 
the  family.  There  were  three  daugliters,  one  the  wife 
of  Charles  Kennedy,  one  the  wiie  of  Jolm  Graham, 
and  another  the  wife  of  John  Spafford. 

The  lands  on  the  sonth  side  of  the  road  opposite  the 
said  Gager  and  Bass  farms  were  mostly  taken  np  at 
an  early  day  by  John  Lincoln  and  Elisha  Lincoln,  who 
sold  tliem  after  a  few  years,  since  Avhich  time  they 
have  changed  owners  several  times.  Fhilo  Bass,  Esq., 
son  of  Gilbert  P.  Bass,  and  postmaster,  now  owns  the 
front  part  of  the  Elisha  Lincoln  lot. 

Silas  Stevens,  from  Vermont,  about  1810,  took  up 
the  land  north  of  the  old  turnpike,  and  in  1812  com- 
menced keeping  tavern,  Avhich  business  he  continued 
the  most  of  his  life.  The  said  lands  on  the  north  side 
of  said  road  and  one  hundred  acres  on  the  south  side 
thereof  w^ere  purchased  by  Bobins  Douglas.  Stevens 
had  a  large  family,  some  of  whom  are  dead  and  the 
others  non-residents. 

John  Douglas  was  a  native  of  Vermont  and  settled 
on  the  south  side  of  the  road  in  or  about  1810.  Lie 
had  one  son,  Bobins  Douglas,  and  three  daughters ;  one 
was  married  to  Jacol)  Stalker,  one  to  John  Butledge, 
and  the  other,  who  is  the  only  surviving  meml:>er  of 
the  family,  is  the  wife  of  Seth  Yale.    Bobins  Douglas 


succeeded  to  the  property  of  his  father.  He  was  an 
excellent  farmer,  and  a  man  much  esteemed  by  his 
neighbors.  He  left  sev^en  children,  all  residing  in 
Le])anon  excepting  Mrs.  Sally  Holgate,  of  Damascus. 
Peter  Latourette,  a  blacksmith  from  Orange  county, 
N.  Y.,  first  began  in  the  town,  on  the  turnpike  oppo- 
site Hugh  Gammell's,  and  about  1887  removed  ti> 
the  farm  now  occupied  by  his  grandson,  George  La- 
tourette, Avhere  a  small  improvement  had  been  made 
by  one  Perkins.  Devoting  the  rest  of  his  working 
days  to  farming,  he  cleared  up  much  valuable  land. 
He  had  three  sons,  Jacob,  John,  and  Samuel :  Jacob 
Latourette,  a  w^ealthy  farmer  in  Orange  county,  N. 
Y.,  now  deceased ;  John  Latourette,  who  took  up  land 
half  a  mile  north  of  his  father's,  and,  with  his  sons, 
cleared  up  a  large  and  valuable  farm,  and  built  the 
best  house  in  the  town.  Failing  health  induced  him 
to  sell  his  farm  and  buy  a  smaller  place,  and  he  and 
liis  wife  now  live  in  the  house  formerly  occupied  by 
James  Bolkcom,  deceased,  in  East  Lebanon.  They 
liave  four  sons  now  living  in  the  county,  namely, 
Jackson,  Nelson,  Lorain,  and  Elijah.  Samuel  Latour- 
ette lives  westward  and  adjoining  the  said  John  La- 
tourette's  place,  and  lias  demonstrated  that  farming- 
can  be  made  remunerative  in  Wayne  county  by  due 
tact  and  industry.  For  nearly  one  mile  along  and 
upon  botli  sides  of  the  road  from  Tanners  Falls  to 
Cold  Springs,  the  lands  were  cleared  up  and  cultivated 
by  the  Latourettes,  excepting  tlie  farm  of  James  Get- 
tings  that  lies  westward  and  partly  adjoining  the  farm 


of  Peter  Latourette.     It  was  known  as  the  Latourette 

Galen  Wilmartli  l>e<2;an  in  early  life  upon  lands  sit- 
uated on  the  east  side  of  the  road  leading  from  Cold 
Springs  to  Equinunk,  about  three-(piarters  of  a  mile 
north  of  Cold  Springs,  where  he  cleared  a  farm  and 
raised  a  family.  His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Peter 
Latourette.  Finally  he  sold  out  to  Michael  Moran, 
who,  for  several  years,  carried  on  his  trade  there,  as  a 
cooper.  The  farm  now  belongs  to  Patrick  Lestrange. 
Some  of  the  family  of  Galen  Wilmarth  may  be  living, 
i)ut  he  and  his  son,  John,  have  gone  to  a  better  land. 
On  the  same  road  northward,  in  184^^,  Thomas  Moran 
]>egan  in  the  woods  upon  a  tract  of  good  land,  and 
cleared  up  a  valuable  farm.  He  was  a  strong,  pow^er- 
ful  man,  but  he  died  when  l>ut  little  past  the  meridian 
of  life.  His  son,  Thomas,  is  now  in  possession  of  the 
farm.  Patrick  Rodgers  and  Patrick  Mc  Kenny  live 
northward  on  the  same  I'oad.  D.  Murphy  owns  a 
good  farm  on  the  northern  part  of  the  old  Parkinson 

Going  southward  from  the  old  turnpike,  on  the 
Middle  Lebanon  road,  we  come  to  the  farm  once  the 
property  of  Josiah  Belknap,  who  began  tliere  proba- 
]>ly  forty-five  years  ago;  the  property  is  now  owned 
I)y  some  of  his  family. 

Jehiel  Justin  has  occupied  his  farm,  or  a  part  of  it, 
for  forty  years  or  more.  When  we  first  knew  the 
place,  a  part  of  it  was  occupied  by  William  Handell. 
Justin  and   his  wife  were  from   Connecticut.     Their 


ingenuity  in  making  and  man nfactn ring  for  them- 
selves the  chief  necessities  of  life  sufficiently  attests 
their  New  England  origin.  Mrs.  Justin  is  so  skilled 
in  the  art  of  making  sage  cheeses  that  they  are  es- 
teemed as  rare  luxuries.  Al)iel  Brown  also  owns  a 
part  of  the  old  Handell  farm.  The  excellent  farm  of 
Jackson  Latourette  was  taken  up  by  George  Mitchell 
and  his  brother.  When  they  owned  the  place  it  pro- 
duced the  best  oats  that  we  ever  saw.  The  farm  is 
still  in  good  hands. 

James  Robinson  took  up,  probably  forty  years  ago, 
the  farm  upon  which  liis  son,  Franklin,  now  lives. 
He  was  an  Enoflishman  of  learniui!^  and  culture.  John 
K.  Robinson  was  his  son,  and  Matthias  Ogden  mar- 
ried one  of  his  daughters,  Martin  Kimble  one,  and 
Nelson  Latourette,  the  youngest.  John  R.  Robinson 
lives  upon  the  farm  first  taken  up  by  William  Pulis, 
who  made  some  improvement  upon  it  and  then  sold 
it  and  removed  to  the  West.  Rol)inson  has  made 
many  improvements  upon  every  part  of  the  place, 
erected  a  good  house,  and  Iniilt  one  of  the  largest  and 
best  barns  in  the  county.  His  orchard  is  large  and 
contains  a  great  variety  of  choice  fruit.  Henry  Brown 
was  proba))ly  the  first  settler  in  Middle  Lebanon,  be- 
tween fifty  and  sixty  years  ago.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the 
war  of  1812.  His  first  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Rich- 
ard Nelson.  He  had  three  children,  namely,  Ezra, 
Sarah  Ann,  and  Elizal)eth.  Ezra  Brown  lived  near 
by  and  died  many  years  before  his  father.  Alonzo 
Hubbard  married  Sarah  Ann,  and  Frederick  Hub])nrd 


married  Elizabeth,  wlio  is  now  a  widow  and  the  only 
one  of  tlie  family  surviving.  Henry  Brown  was  a 
member  of  the  Methodist  Church,  and  during  for- 
ty years  of  acquaintance  Ave  never  lieard  any  one  speak 
disparagingly  of  him. 

Abraham  Bennett,  a  native  of  Orange  county.  N.  Y., 
l)etween  iifty  and  sixty  years  ago,  purchased  and 
cleared  up  a  farm  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  upon 
which  the  farms  of  Milton  Bolkcom,  H.  E.  Gager,  and 
Brice  Blair  are  kx^ated.  Industry,  economy,  and  fair 
dealing  were  the  prevailing  traits  of  his  character. 
Brice  Blair,  of  Irish  des(^ent,  has  a  large  farm  lying 
east  and  northeast  of  the  Bennett  farm,  and  Henry  E. 
Gager  owns  the  farm  formerly  the  property  of  James 
Blair.  Milton  Bolkcom  lives  upon  and  owns  the  farm 
on  whicli  he  began  when  he  was  a  young  man. 

Lewis  Sears  lived  many  years  upon  the  farm  now 
owned  by  Stewart  Lincoln.  Lewis  Sears,  Jr.,  was  his 
son,  and  tliere  are  several  of  his  cliildren  living  in  the 

Virgil  Brooks,  who  owns  a  large  farm  upon  which 
he  l>egan  when  a  young  man,  was  a  son  of  Capt.  Homer 
Brooks,  of  I)y berry,  in  wliich  town  Yirgil  was  born. 
His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Al)ram  Mitc^hell.  Many 
years  ago  Mr.  Brooks  liad  the  misfortune  to  lose  his 
dwelling-house  and  all  its  contents  by  lire.  At  tliat 
time  there  were  few  if  any  tii-e  insurance  policies  is- 
sued in  tlie  (jounty,  consequently  his  property  was 
not  insured. 

The  Bolkcom  family.     In  <u'  about  1815,  William, 


James,  and  Daniel  Bolkconi,  brothers,  from  Massaelin- 
setts,  took  up  lands  contiguous  to  each  other.  Tlie 
A'ieinity  in  which  they  located  has  ever  been  known  as 
tlie  Bolkcom  Settlement.  Having  an  opportunity  to 
select  the  best  lands,  they  did  not  fail  to  do  so.  Wil- 
liam Bolkcom,  who  died  many  years  ago,  confined  all 
his  efforts  to  the  clearing  up  and  cultivation  of  his 
lands.  One  of  liis  daughters  married  Stephen  M. 
Fulis,  who  now  owns  the  old  homestead.  Daniel 
W.  Bolkcom,  son  of  William  Bolkcom,  owns  the  old 
farm  Urst  taken  up  by  Conrad  Pulis,  upon  the  Dy- 
berry.  D.  W.  M.  Bolkcom,  son  of  Daniel  Bolkcom, 
owns  the  farm  cleared  up  by  his  father  and  the  farm 
once  owned  by  James  Bolkcom,  excepting  a  lot  and 
house  purchased  by  John  Latourette.  James  D. 
Bolkcom  and  Lafayette  Bolkcom,  sons  of  James 
Bolkcom,  are  still  living  in  the  county.  Robins  Doug- 
las married  for  his  first  wife  Hannah  Bolkcom,  a  sis- 
ter of  these  brothers.  James  Bolkcom,  many  years 
before  his  death,  lost  his  dwelling-house  and  its  con- 
tents by  fire,  w^ith  no  insurance.  The  loss  bore  heav- 
ily upon  him,  at  his  advanc^ed  stage  of  life.  The  Bolk- 
com brothers  were  successful  farmers  and  most  excel- 
lent citizens. 

Ephraim  Pulis,  son  of  Conrad  Pulis,  of  Dyberry, 
when  a  young  man,  took  up  the  farm  upon  which  his 
widow  and  son,  Spencer,  now  live.  He  was  a 
commissioner  of  the  coimty,  for  many  years  a  justice 
of  the  peace,  and  was  active  in  promoting  the  cause 
of  education  and  all  projects  which  promised  to  bene- 


154  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

lit  the  coniinunity.  He  died  of  consumption,  leavinij; 
a  widow  and  three  children.  A.  K.  Bishop  lives  upon 
an  old  farm,  formerly  owned  by  Aner  K.  Treat. 
Bishop  married  a  daughter  of  Oliver  White,  who  lived 
on  the  south-west  side  of  the  First  Factory  pond. 
After  the  death  of  White,  Bishop  lived  for  a  while 
upon  tlie  place  and,  upon  his  removal  to  Lebanon, 
sold  the  premises  to  John  Blake. 

Osborn  Mitchell  lives  upon  a  part  of  the  property 
once  owned  bv  Georoje  W.  Hamlin.  Mitc-hell  mar- 
ried  Emily,  the  youngest  daughter  of  Richard  Nel- 
son, and  was  the  son  of  Abram  Mitchell. 

Fifty  years  ago  Lester  Spaiford  was  assessed  as 
having  tifty- three  acres  of  land,  John  Spafford  as  hav- 
ing a  like  quantity,  Seymour  Spaiford  as  owning  one 
hundred  and  six  acres,  and  David  Spaiford  iifty. 
But  they  have  all  departed,  there  l)eing  not  one  of  the 
name  left  in  the  town.  At  that  time  there  ^vere  but 
forty-iive  resident  taxables,  as  we  learn  from  an  as- 
sessment, made  by  Stephen  J.  Partridge,  one  of  them 
being  John  D.  Graham,  w^ho  was  assessed  as  having 
one  liundred  acres  of  land,  being  the  Patrick  Coffee 
place,  east  of  Yale's. 

Li  1825  Lewis  Payne  was  assessed  as  having  two 
hundred  and  ninety  acres  of  land.  Had  he  taken  up 
iifty  acres  he  might  have  paid  for  them.  It  used  to 
be  his  boast  that  he  would  die  rich  or  very  near  it. 
William  Ridd  and  others  now  o\y\\  the  lands,  excel- 
lent in  quality,  upon  which  Payne  failed  to  get  rich, 
as  he  had  promised  to  do. 


Jacob  Stalker,  who  was  assessed  in  the  same  year 
as  owning  one  hundred  and  twenty  acres  of  land,  mar- 
ried a  daughter  of  John  Douglas.  His  sons,  Asa  and 
David,  and  two  daughters  are  still  living.  Jesse  Bel- 
knap paid  taxes  on  fifty-three  acres  of  land ;  Horace 
Belknap,  on  thirty-three  acres;  and  David  Belknap, 
on  thirty-seven  acres.  All  had  houses,  neat  cattle, 
and  other  taxable  property.  These  individuals  have 
all  passed  away. 

Linus  Hamlin,  from  New  England,  forty  years  ago 
])egan  and  cleared  up  a  farm,  which,  upon  his  death, 
descended  to  his  son,  George  W.,  who  improved  the 
land  and  erected  new  buildings  and  built  a  costly 
saw-mill  upon  Big  brook  and  a  circnlar  saw-mill  fur- 
ther up  tlie  stream.  G.  W.  Hamlin  linally  failed  and 
the  most  of  his  lands  fell  into  the  hands  of  Messrs. 
Weiss,  Knapp,  and  Jenkins,  of  Honesdale. 

There  are  many  other  worthy  residents  in  tlie  town 
who  have  not  ])een  mentioned,  as  the  design  was  to 
notice  only  the  old  and  original  settlers.  Girdland 
will  be  noticed  under  Oregon  tow^nship. 

For  many  long  years  the  early  settlers  had  to 
1  )attle  with  difficulties  and  to  submit  to  grievous  pri- 
vations, a  recital  of  which  will  be  found  in  another, 
part  of  this  work.  After  the  completion  of  the  Co- 
checton  and  Great  Bend  turnpike  road,  in  1811,  the 
Lebanon  people  had  facilities  for  obtaining  salt,  leather, 
and  other  indispensable  articles,  which  were  not  en- 
joyed by  the  people  in  other  parts  of  the  county. 

Most  of   the  original  settlers  were  from  New  Eng- 


land,  and  were  a  people  who  considered  it  their  duty 
to  educate  their  children  to  the  best  of  their  alnlity. 
When  we  take  into  consideration  that  they  liad  no 
high  schools  in  Lebanon,  it  must  be  conceded  that  the 
families  of  Yale,  Douglas,  Gager,  Bass,  Lincoln,  and 
others  were  as  well  educated  as  are  tlie  children  of 
the  present  day  in  our  common  schools.  Lebanon 
now  has  four  schools  and  supports  a  part  of  a  school 
in  Girdland.  There  are  no  manufacturing  estab- 
lishments. Agriculture,  that  preservative  art  of  all 
arts,  is  the  sole  dependence  of  the  people.  There  is 
yet  much  good  land  unimproved  in  the  township,  the 
most  of  which  belongs  to  Coe  F.  Young,  Esq.,  of 


UPON  the  separation  of  Pike  from  Wayne  county, 
Palmyra  was  divided  into  two  parts,  the  Wallen- 
paupack  l)eing  the  dividing  line.  From  the  part  of 
Palmyra  left  in  Wayne  county,  Paupack  has  since  been 
erected,  leaving  the  township  one  of  the  smallest  in 
the  county.  It  is  now  bounded  north-west  by  Cherry 
Ridge  and  Texas,  north  bv  Berlin,  south-east  bv  Pike 


coimty,  and  south-west  by  Paupaek  or  tlie  old  Milford 
and  Owego  turnpike  road. 

Heuben  Jones,  Jasper  Parish,  Stephen  Parish,  and 
a  son  of  Jacob  KimlJe,  Sen.,  were  taken  prisoners  by 
the  Mohawk  Indians,  near  Panpack  Eddy,  after  the 
battle  of  Wyoming.  The  young  man  named  Stephen 
Kimble  not  being  well  was  made  to  carry  such  heavy 
1)urdens  by  the  Indians  that  he  gave  out  and  was  tom- 
ahawked; so  said  Reuben  Jones  upon  his  return,  but 
Stephen  Parish  said  that  he  died  a  natural  deatli.  Jas- 
per Parish  married  an  Indian  wife,  remained  ^vith 
the  Indians,  and  made  his  fortune.  Stephen  Parish, 
after  peace  was  declared,  returned  to  Paupaek  and 
practiced  as  an  Indian  doctor,  but  finally  went  l)ack 
and  died  among  the  Indians.  Reuben  Jones,  being  a 
very  large  and  powerful  man,  was  considered  as  a  re- 
markable trophy  by  the  Indians,  who  looked  upon  him 
as  one  of  the  dread  sons  of  Anak,  and  treated  him  witli 
the  greatest  respect,  but  w^atched  him  with  the  keenest 
vigilance.  He  was  with  them  six  or  eight  months. 
When  a  boy,  about  sixty-seven  years  ago,  I  heard  him 
relate  how  he  escaped  from  the  Indians.  Tlie  boastful 
young  braves  would  challenge  him  to  run  Mith  them, 
and  he  was  shrewd  enough  to  let  them  l)arely  beat 
him.  Repeated  trials  were  made  with  like  results. 
Having  secretly  filled  his  tattered  pockets  with  dried 
venison,  Jones  challenged  one  of  the  swiftest  of  the 
young  Indians  to  make  one  decisive  race.  The  chal- 
lenge was  accepted,  and  said  Jones :  "After  we  had 
run  a  mile  or  so  I  never  saw  anything   more  of    that 

158  HISTORY''    OF    WAYNE    COUNTY. 

Indian.  I  struck  for  the  head-waters  of  the  Delaware 
and  thence  to  Panpack  Eddy  by  the  way  of  Bioj  Eddy, 
and  on  my  way  ate  nothing  but  that  venison."  Jones 
said  he  was  captured  through  the  duplicity  of  an  Indian 
(tailed  Canope,  who  professed  to  be  friendly  to  the 
wliites.  After  peace  was  concluded,  Canope  was  se- 
cretly murdered,  and  the  killing  was  charged  upon 
Benjamin  Haines,  who  always  denied  it.  It  was  be- 
lieved up  in  Paupack  that  Jones  killed  Canope,  as  he 
had  great  provocation  so  to  do.  After  Jones  came 
home,  he,  with  his  brothers  Alpheus  and  Alexander, 
and  a  sister  called  Widow  Cook,  built  a  small  house 
above  the  mouth  of  Middle  creek,  and  Jones  Eddy  was 
named  after  them.  About  the  same  time  Elisha  Ames 
!)uilt  and  began  on  the  David  Bishop  farm.  They 
were  the  first  settlers  in  and  about  Hawley,  and  were 
natives  of  Connecticut.  Thomas  Spangenberg  found 
they  had  been  there  some  time  Avhen  he  came  into  the 
county  in  1794. 

Coeval  with  the  settlement  of  Jones  was  that  of 
Benjamin  Haines  upon  the  present  premises  of  George 
S.  Atkinson.  Haines  w^as  the  noted  Indian  killer 
whose  exploits  have  been  the  text  for  many  a  sensa- 
tional article  in  our  country  newspapers,  which  articles 
were  never  monotonous,  no  two  of  them  ever  reading 
alike.  Haines  had  one  son  named  Poger  who  lived  in 
the  upper  part  of  the  county.  Jonathan  Brink  suc- 
ceeded to  the  place  of  Benjamin  Haines,  and,  after 
living  there  many  years,  sold  it  to  Joseph  Atkinson, 
who  divided  it  between  his  sons,  George  S.  and  Asher 

.     TO  WNSHIPS—PALMYBA.  159 

M.,  and  the  latter  sold  his  part  to  Daniel  Kimble,  Jr. 
Daniel  Kiml)le,  Sen.,  located  at  White  Mills.  He 
married  Jane  Koss,  a  native  of  New  Jersey,  and  they 
raised  a  large  family.  He  was,  for  many  years,  a  jus- 
tice of  the  peace,  and  was  a  noted  man  among  the  first 
settlers.  A  man  by  the  name  of  George  Neldin  first 
commenced  an  improvement  at  Panpack  Eddy,  and 
built  the  first  saw-mill  in  that  region.  Joseph  Atkin- 
son, from  New  Jersey,  when  a  young  man,  first  came 
to  the  Narrows  and  worked  in  the  mills  built  there  l)y 
Robert  L.  Hooper,  who  committed  said  mills  to  the 
care  of  Esquire  Snyder,  a  grandfather  of  Joseph  At- 
kinson. This  was  about  1810.  Atkinson  soon  left 
and  went  up  to  Paupack  Eddy  and  engaged  to  work 
in  Neldin's  mill.  After  continuing  in  Neldin's 
employ  several  years,  he  bought  out  all  of  his  posses- 
sions, married  a  daughter  of  Ephraim  Kimble,  at  the 
Narrows,  and  continued  to  live  there  during  his  life. 
In  middle  life  he  lost  his  first  wife,  and  afterwards 
married  Fanny,  a  daughter  of  Benjamim  Kimble,  and 
cousin  of  his  first  wife.  She  is  yet  living  at  the  old 
homestead  at  Paupack  Eddy.  Joseph  Atkinson  had 
sixteen  children,  most  of  whom  are  yet  living.  He 
was  proud  of  his  family  and  his  wife,  as  he  had  good 
reason  to  be.  About  1792,  Judge  James  Wilson,  then 
one  of  the  Judges  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Unit- 
ed States,  owned  the  lands  upon  the  Wallenpaupack 
and  was  made  to  believe  that  they  were  peculiarly 
adapted  for  the  raising  of  hemp  and  flax,  and  that  the 
manufacture  of  the  same  could  be  made  profitable,  and 

160  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

ill  or  Mbout  1792,  commenced  tlie  building  of  a  factory 
for  that  purpose,  at  a  point  above  the  tannery  of  Judge 
Cromwell.  The  l)uilding  was  completed  and  well  built, 
but  of  its  size  and  cost  nothing  delinite  can  be  learned. 
Its  cost  was  estimated  at  from  $8,000  to  $12,000.  Its 
size  is  supposed  to  have  l)een  from  tliirty  to  forty  feet 
square.  It  was  put  in  operation  and  did  some  work, 
but  failed  for  tlie  want  of  material.  About  the  same 
time.  Judge  Wilson  failed.  Tlie  factory  was  sold  to 
Benjamin  Kimble,  and  some  one  else,  who,  after  tak- 
ing out  what  was  valuable,  burnt  it  down  to  get  the 
iron.  Wliile  said  factory  was  building  several  houses 
were  erected  at  Wilson ville,  but  the  place  soon  de- 
clined, and  in  1822  there  was  only  a  tavern-house,  be- 
longing to  Leonard  Labar,  who  sold  the  premises  to 
John  and  William  Shouse,  wlio  disposed  of  the  same 
to  Frederick  W.  Farnham.  It  would  be  wrong  to 
forget  John  R.  Compton,  who,  with  his  family,  lived 
])elow  Samuel  Kimble  on  the  old  Milford  and  Owego 
turnpike  road.  He  was  always  constable  or  super- 
visor in  Palmyra.  David  Compton  lived  below  John 
R.,  and  sold  out  his  farm,  in  1846,  to  John  M.  Ball, 
a  Baptist  minister  from  Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  who 
built  OY  owned  a  saw-mill  on  Swamp  pond  creek.  He 
had  five  children,  all  now  living,  three  sons  and  two 
daughters.  Henry  Ball,  proprietor  of  the  Wayn(» 
County  Hotel,  in  Honesdale,  is  the  only  one  of  the 
family  living  in  tlie  county.  The  Balls  were  of  Eng- 
lish desc^ent. 

About    sixty-live   years    ago  Jason  Torrey,  Al)islia 


Woodward,  and  Moses  Kellaiii  bought  the  place  after 
wards  called  the  Daniels  farm,  built  a  frame  house,  call 
ed  it  "New  Castle,"  and  carried  on  lumbering  on  a 
large  scale  there  for  years,  and  then  sold  out  the 
premises  to  Joseph  Atkinson,  who,  in  his  turn,  sold 
them  to  Kussell  Daniels,  from  Connecticut.  He  be- 
came a  noted  lumberman,  and  for  many  years  kept  a 
public  house.  He  had  several  sons,  namely,  Franklin, 
Ira,  George,  Martin,  Edmund,  and  Dighton.  The 
lumber  manufactured  at  "New  Castle"  was  always  in 
demand  at  Philadelphia. 

In  1828,  lifty-one  years  ago,  Joseph  Atkinson  and 
David  Bishop,  with  their  families  and  workmen,  made 
up  the  population  of  the  present  site  of  Hawley.  The 
canal  was  not  then  built.  Paupack  Eddy,  in  time  of 
freshets,  was  almost  bridged  across  by  rafts  of  sawed, 
hewn,  and  round  white-pine  timber,  intermixed  with 
cherry  and  ash,  the  sale  of  which  brought  a  large 
amount  of  money  into  the  county.  At  that  time  all 
the  hills  along  the  Lackawaxen  which  are  now  deso- 
late and  treeless,  were  mostly  covered  with  white  pine. 
In  that  year  Plenry  Heermans  and  Zenas  Nicholson, 
of  Salem,  built  a  saw-mill  on  the  Pike  county  side  of 
the  Paupack,  at  wdiat  was  called  the  Sliding  Fall, 
about  one-third  of  a  mile  from  the  mouth.  Hunting- 
ton Collins  and  myself  are  the  only  survivors  of  all 
who  helped  to  build  it.  Inclining  toward  the  Circling 
Eddy,  at  the  foot  of  said  Sliding  Fall,  were  rocks, 
which  were  sometimes  out  of  and  sometimes  under  the 
water,  in  whicli  the  water,  by  revolving  pebble-stones, 



had  worn  holes  of  uniform  size  to  the  depth  of  three 
or  four  feet.  The  holes  have  a  circumference  from 
two  to  three  feet,  and  will  at  some  time  be  shown  a^ 
strange  curiosities.  The  best  of  pine  boards  were 
then  but  nine  dollars  per  thousand  in  Philadelphia. 
Heermans  and  Nicholson  succeeded  in  their  enter- 
prise and  sold  ont  to  Fuller  &  Co.  In  1829  the  Del- 
aware <fe  Hudson  Canal  was  completed  and  commenc- 
ed work ;  then  a  turnpike  and  plank-road  was  built 
between  Honesdale  and  Panpack  Eddy ;  and  that  part 
of  the  village  of  HaAvley  east  of  the  canal  at  once 
assumed  the  character  of  a  hamlet  with  a  church, 
several  stores,  and  an  excellent  house  of  entertain- 
ment. About  1847,  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Company's 
Road  was  built,  and  gave  existence  to  Hawley.  The 
length  of  said  coal  road  from  Hawley  to  Port  Griffith 
is  forty -seven  miles.  It  is  a  gravity  road,  worked  by 
stationary  engines.  In  1865,  the  locomotive  railroad 
from  Lackawaxen  to  Hawley,  called  the  Hawley 
Branch  of  the  Erie  Kailroad,  was  built,  length  sixteen 
and  nine-tenth  miles.  In  1868,  this  branch  was  ex- 
tended to  Honesdale.  For  the  convenience  of  the 
traveling  pn}>lic,  a  passenger  train  has  been  for  years 
run  between  Hawley  and  Dunmore.  In  1829,  a  sur- 
vey was  made  to  ascertain  the  most  feasible  route  for 
a  railroad,  or  canal,  or  both  of  them  from  the  coal- 
fields of  the  Lackawaxen  to  Paupack  Eddy.  An  act 
of  Assembly  was  passed,  Ttli  of  April,  1830,  incoi-por- 
ating  "The  Wallenpaupack  Improvement  Company.'' 
Nathaniel  B.  Eldred,  David  Nol)le,  Jeremiah  Bennett, 


James  M.  Porter,  and  Evans  Kees,  very  able  men, 
were  commissioners.  H.  G.  Sargent,  civil  engineer, 
made  a  flattering  report  of  the  feasibility  of  making 
a  double-track  railroad  from  the  coal  mines  to  the 
forks  of  the  Wallenpaupack,  sixteen  miles,  thence  by 
canal  or  slack-water  navigation  to  Wilson ville  falls, 
eighteen  and  one-half  miles,  thence  again  by  railroad 
or  by  canal  one  mile  and  a  half,  down  a  declivity  of 
three  hundred  and  twenty-flve  feet  to  the  Delaware 
and  Hudson  Canal.  The  cost  of  constructing  the 
w^hole  was  estimated  at  ^430,500.  But  the  whole 
project  failed  for  want  of  capital,  and  the  Pennsylva- 
nia Coal  Company  afterwards  chose  a  better  route  for 
descending  from  the  head  waters  of  the  Wallenpau- 
pack to  the  Lackawaxen.  The  great  fall  of  three  hun- 
dred and  twenty-five  feet  in  the  Wallenpaupack  be- 
tween Wilsonville  and  the  mouth  of  said  stream, 
attests  the  astonishing  amount  of  watei'-power  afforded 
for  the  propulsion  of  machinery.  Nothing  of  the 
kind  of  equal  magnitude  can  be  found  in  Northern 
Pennsylvania.  If  that  power  were  all  judiciously  ap- 
plied, it  would  move  more  machinery  than  is  used  in 
the  great  manufacturing  town  of  Lowell,  in  Massa- 

The  first  fall,  which  is  of  about  seventy  feet,  is  a 
few  rods  below  the  bridge  across  the  Paupack,  at 
Wilsonville.  Here,  in  the  last  century.  Judge  AVilson 
greatly  benefited  the  first  settlers  by  building  a  grist- 
mill and  saw-mill.  The  next  fall  is  called  the  Sliding 
Fall;  then  there  are  two  more  where  the  water  falls 


perpendicularly,  about  thirty    feet    at    each,  and    the 

last  is  above  Judge  Cromwell's  tannery,  and  is  seen 

from  the  cars  of   the  Honesdale  Branch  of   the  Erie 

R.    Road.     Below    White    Mills    is    an    eddy    called 

"  Fish  Pole  Eddy,"  on  the  shore  of   which  grew  the 

lari>;est  pine  ever  known    to    the    lumbermen    on    the 

*' Lackawack."     Charles  Kimble  put  it  into  the  eddy 

and  ran  it  down    the    river    to  Philadelphia,  for  Mr. 

Hambleton.     Ten  or  fifteen  feet  al)ove  the  ground  it 

was  forked,  and  had  to  be  split  in  order  to  run  it.     At 

its  stump  it  was  eleven  feet  in  diameter,  and  in  jest  it 

was    called    "The  Fish  Pole."     The   joke    brings    to 

mind   the    description    of   the    enormous    Norwegian 

fisherman : 

' '  A  two-inch  cable  he  took  for  a  line, 
For  a  pole  he  cut  a  tall  mountain  pine  ; 
He  caught  a  sea-serpent  and  cut  off  his  tail, 
Then  sat  on  a  rock  and  bobbed  for  a  whale." 

The  north-western  and  north-eastern  parts  of  the 
township  are  sparsely  settled,  and,  although  the  agri- 
cultural population  is  increasing,  yet  the  township  is 
better  adapted  for  trade  and  manufacturing,  and  may 
thereby  become  one  of  the  wealthiest  townships  in  the 

The  township  has  one  weekly  newspaper,  the  Haw- 
ley  Times ;  ten  common  schools,  including  the  newly 
established  graded  school,  which  has  an  hnposing 
building;  one  Roman  Catholic  churc^h.  Saint  Pliilo- 
mena ;  one  Baptist ;  one  German  Reformed ;  one  Pres- 
ley terian  ;  and  one  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 

TO  WNSHIPS—PA  UP  A  CK.  165 

CHAPTEK     Xiy. 

THIS  township  was  taken  off  of  Palmyra  in  1850. 
It  is  bounded  north-west  by  Cherry  Ilidge,  north- 
east by  Palmyra,  south-east  by  the  Wallenpaupack,  and 
west  by  Salem  and  Lake.  Most  of  the  lands  in  the 
northern  and  eastern  parts  are  unimprov-ed.  The 
township  is  well  watered,  having  the  Goose  pond  in 
the  middle  of  the  southern  part,  and  Long  and  Purdy's 
ponds  in  the  w^estern  part.  The  outlets  of  the  latter- 
named  ponds  furnish  good  mill  sites  which  are  used ; 
Middle  creek  runs  through  the  north-east  section,  and 
the  Wallenpaupack  furnishes  one-third  of  the  boundary 
of  the  towmship.  So  wide,  deep,  and  slow-moving  is 
the  Wallenpaupack  that  a  few  years  ago  the  Ledgedale 
Tannery  Company  ran  a  steamboat  several  summers 
on  that  stream  between  Wilsonville  and  Ledgedale,  to 
carry  up  hides  and  take  back  leather. 

Silas  Purdy,  Sr.,  and  family  were  the  first  settlers 
permanently  located  on  the  west  side  of  the  Wallen- 
paupack, about  the  year  1787.  He  was  a  farmer  by 
occupation,  and  he  had  six  sons  and  several  daughters. 
His  oldest  son,  Jacob,  was  the  first  blacksmith,  and  at 
the  age  of  forty  emigrated  to  the  Lake  country. 
Ephraim,  the  second  son,  built  the  first  grist-mill,  and 


was  patronized  l)y  Salem,  Canaan,  and  all  along  the 
Lackawaxen  river.  It  was  built  on  tlie  outlet  of  the 
Hallock  or  Long  pond  creek,  and  its  location  is  still 
known  by  the  old  decayed  timbers."  Amos  and  Isaac 
Purdy  emigrated  to  Ohio.  Peter  Purdy  fell  heir  to 
the  old  homestead  ;  he  was  a  blacksmith  and  built  the 
first  saw-mill  on  a  stream  on  his  farm,  A  public  house 
was  kept  there  many  years,  for  it  was  once  looked 
upon  as  the  most  important  business  location  in  the 
township,  as  it  was  when  the  first  road  authorized  by 
law  was  laid  out  from  Milford  by  the  way  of  Blooming 
Grove  to  Hezekiah  Bingham's,  thence  passing  through 
Purdyville,  and  thence  onward  to  John  II.  Schenck's, 
and  thence  to  Asa  Stanton's  on  tlie  north  and  soutli 
road.  Among  the  papers  of  Judge  Samuel  Preston  is 
found  a  petition  to  the  Judges  of  Wayne  county  to 
convene  at  Milford,  Dec.  lOth,  1798,  asking  for  the 
confirmation  of  said  road,  signed  by  Willliam  Purdy, 
Jacob  Purdy,  Solomon  Purdy,  Reuben  Purdy,  William 
Purdy,  Jr.,  Ebenezer  Purdy,  Ephraim  Purdy,  Silas 
Purdy,  Amos  Purdy,  Jedediah  Willis,  Solomon  AYillis, 
Henry  Husted,  Ilo])ert  Hartford,  Elias  Hartford,  and 
James  Hartford.  We  remember  them  all  excepting 
Solomon  Willis.  The  road  was  confirmed  and  a  branch 
therefrom  laid  through  Rollisonville  to  the  cross-roads 
at  Salem  Corners.  This  shows  wdio  were  the  real  resi- 
dents at  that  time.  But  to  resume  the  history  of  the 
Purdy  families.  Elder  William  Purdy  came  to  this 
township  from  Nine  Partners  on  the  North  river  in 
the  State  of  New  York,  in  1792,  with  a  family  of  six 


sons  and  two  daughters,  and  began  two  miles  west  of 
Silas  Purdy,  Sen.  The  lands  were  taken  up  two  years 
before  the  family  moved  into  the  county.  The  minis- 
terial labors  of  Elder  William  Purdy,  who  was  a  Bap- 
tist clergyman  extended  through  parts  of  Luzerne, 
Wayne,  and  Pike,  from  Wilkesbarre  to  Abington  in 
Luzerne,  and  from  Mount  Pleasant  to  Paupack.  He 
was  one  of  the  leading  spirits  in  organizing  the  first 
Baptist  church  and  the  Abington  Baptist  Association. 
He  died  in  1824,  aged  seventy-five.  Beuben  Purdy, 
the  eldest  son  of  the  Elder,  located  adjoining  his  father, 
and  as  a  licentiate  filled  the  pulpit  in  his  father's  place. 
He  was  many  years  a  justice  of  the  peace.  He  died 
in  1855,  aged  eighty-two.  His  son,  PeubenR.  Purdy, 
who  was  a  popular  commissioner  of  Wayne,  and  w^ho 
became  the  proprietor  of  his  father's  estate,  died  a  few 
years  since.  Darius  G.  Purdy,  his  son,  to  whom  we 
are  indebted  for  much  of  the  history  of  the  Purdy 
family,  is  yet  living  at  or  near  Purdyville.  Solomon 
Purdy,  the  second  son  of  Wm.  Purdy,  occupied  lands 
adjoining  his  father  on  the  north,  w^as  a  prosperous 
farmer,  and  loved  the  sports  that  hunting  and  fishing 
afforded.  He  lived  to  the  age  of  eighty  years.  James 
Purdy,  the  third  son  of  Elder  William  Purdy,  settled 
east  of  his  father,  and  afterward  purchased  a  farm  on 
the  Lackawaxen  near  Paupack  Eddy,  where  he  died, 
aged  seventy.  William  Purdy,  the  fourth  son,  was  a 
Baptist  minister,  living  and  preaching  many  years  at 
Bethany,  afterwards  emigrating  to  the  State  of  Ohio. 
Ebenezer,  the  fifth  son,  owned  a  farm  nortli  of   his 

168  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

brother  Solomon,  and  died  in  the  prime  of  life.  Abner, 
the  yoimgest  of  the  family,  removed  to  Ohio,  and  in 
1876  was  living  at  the  age  of  eighty-six.  We  would 
not  neglect  to  state  that  Silas  Pnrdy,  the  first  settler, 
died  in  1814,  and  that  Martial  Pm'dy  is  yet  living  on 
the  old  homestead.  The  Purdys  must  have  been  of 
Puritanic  origin,  as  they  preached,  prayed,  and  read  in 
the  sing-song  tone  of  the  old  Puritans.  Tliey  were  a 
quiet,  peaceable,  law-abiding,  temperate  people.  They 
were  more  or  less  lumbermen,  as  the  forests  were  then 
waving  with  the  noblest  of  white  pines.  Simeon 
Ansley,  a  son  of  Major  John  Ansley,  lived  about  two 
miles  below  Silas  Purdy's,  and  there  kept  a  hotel  on 
the  old  Lake  country  road.  Mifflin  Ansley  was  his  son. 
The  Hartfords  will  be  mentioned  under  Salem  town- 

Ambrose  Buckingham,  from  Saybrook,  Connecticut, 
about  1825,  began  at  or  near  the  line  between  Salem 
and  Paupack.  He  was  a  very  industrious  man  and 
the  father  of  Emma  May  Buckingham,  the  poetess, 
and  the  authoress  of  the  works  entitled,  ''A  Self-Made 
Woman,"  "Silver  Chalice,"  "Pearl,"  etc. 

Uriah  Williams,  a  lineal  descendant  of  Roger  Wil- 
liams, lived  in  Paupack  many  years;  his  Avife  was  a 
Hewitt.  George  Williams  lives  on  the  old  homestead. 
John  H.  lives  at  Nobletown.  He  had  other  children 
whose  residences  are  unknown. 

Paupack  has  one  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  and 
in  1878  had  six  public  schools. 

At  Hemlock  Hollow  is  a  post-office,  and  about  that 


village  seems  to  center  the  principal  business  of  the 
town,  and  it  is  strange  that  it  was  not  called  Purdy- 
town,  as  it  ought  to  have  been. 

On  or  near  the  western  border  of  this  township 
was  a  dark,  dreary  sw^amp  called  "The  Shades  of 
Death."  Chapman,  in  his  history  of  Wyoming  says, 
when  describing  the  sequel  of  the  massacre  at  Wyo- 
ming :  "•  The  remainder  of  the  inhabitants  were  driven 
from  the  valley  and  compelled  to  proceed  on  foot  six- 
ty miles  through  the  great  swamp,  almost  without  food 
or  clothing.  A  number  perished  on  the  journey, 
principally  women  and  children,  some  died  of  wounds, 
others  wandered  from  the  path  in  search  of  food  and 
w^ere  lost,  and  those  wdio  survived  called  the  wilder- 
ness through  which  they  passed,  "The  Shades  of 
Death,"  an  appellation  which  it  has  since  retained." 
The  settlers  in  Paupack,  wdiose  account  is  sustained 
by  Miner,  in  his  history  of  Wj^oming,  asserted  that 
there  in  that  dread  swamp  a  child  died,  and  the  fran- 
tic hunger  of  the  sufferers  led  them  to  cook  and  eat 
it,  the  abstaining  mother  standing  by  and  weeping. 
The  next  day  they  all  crossed  the  Paupack,  after 
which  she  w^ent  back  and  drowned  herself,  to  escape 
from  the  distracting  memory  of  the  tragic  event. 


170  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 


THIS  was  un  original  township,  established  soon 
after  tlie  erection  of  the  county,  in  1798.  It  then 
included  Salem,  which  was  set  off  in  1808,  and  a  part 
of  Cherry  Hidge,  since  erected,  leaving  the  township 
then  bounded  north  by  Mount  Pleasant,  east  by  Dy- 
berry,  (now  mostly  by  Cherry  Ridge),  and  south  by 
Salem,  and  west  by  Luzerne  county.  The  northern 
part  was  taken  off  in  1834,  to  make  up  the  township 
of  Clinton,  and  in  1851,  Waymart  was  scooped  out  of 
its  northern  part.  Finally  the  territory  remaining  in 
1851  was  divided  by  an  order  of  (iourt,  of  Febniary 
sessions,  1852,  into  Canaan  and  South  Canaan.  To 
give  with  accuracy  an  account  of  the  first  settlers,  it 
will  be  necessary  to  (consider  the  bounds  of  the  town- 
ship, as  it  was  after  the  excision  of  Salem  township. 
The  township  is  well  watered  by  the  Middle  creek  and 
its  branches,  and  the  streams  running  into  and  from 
the  ponds,  the  chief  of  which  are  called  Elk  Forest, 
Stanton's,  Keene's,  Hoadley's,  and  Curtis's  ponds. 
The  Moosic  mountain  runs  through  tlie  north-western 
part  of  the  township.  The  rest  of  tlie  land  is  not  in- 
conveniently hilly,  has  a  south-eastern  or  southern 
declivity,  and  produces  excellent  crops    of   hay,  coi-n, 


rye,  oats,  and  buckwheat.  The  old  Easton  and  Bel- 
mont turnpike  road,  which  was  called  the  north  and 
south  road,  was  made  and  finished  in  1819-i^O.  Coach- 
es, carrying  mails  and  passengers,  ran  daily  upon  it, 
and  large  numbers  of  cattle  and  sheep  w^ere  driven 
down  and  along  it  from  Western  New  York  to  Easton 
and  Philadelphia,  for  twenty-five  or  thirty  years.  It 
furnished  what  w^as  then  considered  a  convenient  com- 
munication wdth  Easton,  from  which  the  merchandise 
and  goods  used  in  the  lower  part  of  tlie  county  were 
transported  in  wagons.  There  w^as  much  travel  upon 
the  road.  The  Milford  and  Owego  turpike  was  built 
or  finished  in  1815.  Besides  daily  mail-coaches  there 
was  a  constant  stream  of  travel  over  it,  it  being  then 
one  of  the  roads  lying  in  a  direct  line  from  the  city 
of  New  York  through  New  Jersey  and  Northern 
Pennsylvania  to  the  western  counties  of  New  York, 
and  many  droves  of  sheep  and  cattle  were  driven  year- 
ly in  the  fall  months  to  market.  The  Honesdale  and 
Clarkville  turnpike,  built  in  1831,  afforded  the  people 
of  Canaan  and  parts  adjacent  easy  access  to  the  mar- 
kets at  Honesdale.  But  the  travel  and  business  of 
the  county  having  been  diverted  into  other  channels 
by  the  railroads,  the  said  turnpikes,  the  making  of 
which  drew  severely  upon  the  resources  of  the  people, 
have  been  thrown  up,  and,  like  paupers,  are  supported 
by  the  townships  where  they  belong. 

We  must  now  speak  of  the  early  settlement  of  the 
township.  It  has  been  stated  in  the  former  part 
of  this  work,  that  tlie  object  of  the  writer  is  to  pre- 


sent  a  history  of  those  who  first  settled  and  cleared  up 
the  country  as  it  was  when  God  made  it,  with  all  its 
hills  and  valleys,  lakes  and  streams.  Asa  Stanton, 
Margaret  Bryant,  of  Bethany,  daughter  of  John  Bur- 
leigli,  and  widow  Sarah  Keed,  of  Honesdale,  daugliter 
of  Otto  Wagoner,  deceased,  all  born  in  Canaan  town- 
ship, furnished  most  of  the  following  history: 
y  John  Shaffer,  originally  from  Germany,  moved 
from  Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  to  Canaan,  in  1783.  He 
hought  a  tract  of  land,  and  first  lived  on  Middle 
creek,  below  the  old  north  and  south  road.  His  son, 
John  Shaffer,  was  born  in  Orange  county,  N.  Y.  His 
second  son,  Moses  Shaft'er,  was  the  first  child  born  in 
the  town.  His  third  son,  Samuel  Shaffer,  was  born 
in  the  same  place.  John  Shaffer  had  five  daughters, 
all  born  in  Canaan,  namely,  Catherine,  married  to 
James  McLean,  (who  was  killed  by  a  limb  that  fell 
from  a  tree),  Susan,  married  to  Joshua  Burleigh,  Ef- 
fie,  married  to  Jacob  Swingle,  Betsey,  married  to 
Edward  Doyle,  of  Buckingham,  and  Polly,  married 
to  Samuel  Chumard.  The  said  John  Shaffer  built  an 
overshot  mill,  upon  the  Middle  creek,  at  or  near  the 
place  always  thereafter  called  "Shaffer's  Mill."  This 
was  the  first  mill  of  any  worth.  There  had  l)een  one 
])uilt  further  up  the  creek,  which  had  no  bolter.  The 
women  sifted  the  ground  corn  and  rye  through  sieves, 
Tnade  of  perforated  buckskin,  stretched  over  a  hoop. 

Adam  Wagoner.  His  granddaughter,  Mrs.  Reed, 
thinks  he  first  came  into  the  county  in  1783,  that  he 
moved  into  a  sugar  house,  built  of   logs  and  covered 


with  bark,  upon  the  farm  now  owned  by  Edgar  Wells, 
and  thence  moved  to  the  farm  now  owned  l^y  Jonatlian 
Swingle,  where  he  died  in  1793.  He  had  two  sons, 
Otto  Wagoner,  who  died  about  eleven  years  ago,  aged 
eighty-two  years,  and  John  Wagoner,  who  died  long 
ago,  and  four  daughters,  one  of  whom,  named  Sally, 
the  widow  of  Frederick  Swingle,  deceased,  is  yet  liv- 
ing, aged  eighty-nine  years.  Adam  Wagoner  was  of 
Pennsylvania  German  descent. 

Hans  Sura  Swingle,  from  Germany,  settled  in  this 
township  in  1783.  He  had  six  sons,  namely,  Conrad, 
Jeremiah,  Frederick,  Jacob,  John,  and  Henry,  all  of 
whom  settled  about  him  and  were  successful  farmers. 
He  had,  also,  four  daughters,  namely,  Katy,  married 
to  Geo.  Enslin;  Morilla,  married  to  Henry  Curtis; 
Christina,  wife  of  Silas  W^oodward;  and  Mary,  wife 
of  Moses  Shaffer,  all  of  whom  have  gone  to  their  rest. 
The  descendants  of  the  above  named  family  are  so 
numerous  that  to  give  their  names  would  take  more 
space  than  can  be  spared.  Perhaps  there  is  no  fami- 
ly in  the  county  tliat  has  so  well  kept  up  its  name  and 
numbers  as  the  Swini>;le  familv. 

/  Henry  Curtis  was  a  German.  He  came  into  the 
town  about  1784,  and  settled  on  Middle  creek.  For 
four  years  he  was  in  actual  service  as  a  soldier  in  Ger- 
many, and  three  years  as  such  in  the  Revolutionary 
war.  He  had  one  son,  Hans  Curtis,  who  married 
Polly  Wagoner,  daughter  of  Adam  Wagoner. 

George  Enslin,  a  blacksmith  from  Ke\\^)ort,  Pa., 
located  at  an  early  day.     He   had    one    son,  Simeon 

174:  HISTORY    OF    WAYNE    COUNTY. 

Enslin.       fie    had    other  cliildreii,  all  of    whom  are 
dead,  leaving  children  now  resident  in  the  town. 

John  Bunting,  a  Quaker,  made  the  first  clearing 
between  Col.  Asa  Stanton's  and  the  Swingle  Settle- 
ment, near  the  old  Cortright  tannery.  He  made  an 
assessment  of  the  town,  in  1800,  when  there  were  only 
thirty-four  taxables,  including  Salem,  Sterling,  part  of 
Cherry  Ridge,  and  part  of  Clinton.  He  assessed  to 
himself  446  acres  of  land.  In  the  year  of  1802  he 
was  appointed  the  first  justice  of  the  peace  in  Canaan. 
Daniel  Bunting,  his  son,  succeeded  him  as  assessor,  and 
served  several  years,  and  then  removed  and  settled  on 
the  west  branch  of  the  Lackaw^axen  below  Aldenville, 
took  up  a  large  quantity  of  land,  and  there,  for  some 
years,  kept  a  house  of  public  entertainment.  All  the 
families  afore-mentioned,  save  that  of  John  Bunting, 
were  Germans.  Their  neighborhood  was  always  known 
as  the  "Dutch  Settlement."  They  were  industrious, 
hospitable,  and  honest.  There  were  no  sharpers  or 
speculators  among  them.  They  took  up  the  very  best 
lands  in  South  Canaan. 

The  history  of  the  Stantons  is  given  by  Asa  Stan- 
ton as  follows:  "  My  father,  Asa  Stanton,  was  born 
in  Preston,  Conn.  His  wife,  Zibah  Kimble,  was  a 
cousin  of  Walter  Kimble.  He  first  moved  into  Pau- 
pack,  lived  there  one  year,  and,  in  1790,  moved  to 
Canaan  and  located  on  the  old  north  and  south  State 
road,  about  where  I  now  live.  He  had  nine  children, 
four  of  whom  besides  myself  are  now^  living,  -iiamely, 
William  Stanton,  of  Waymart ;  Levi  Stanton,  of  Mich- 


igan ;  Louisa,  who  married  Philander  Bettis ;  and  Julia, 
who  married  Harrison  Wentz.  Samuel  Stanton,  a 
cousin  of  father's,  settled  in  Mount  Pleasant,  twelve 
miles  north  of  us,  in  1791.  Father  built  a  large  log- 
house  and  kept  travelers  and  drovers.  We  had  to 
learn  how  to  do  without  everything  that  we  could  not 
raise  or  make  for  ourselves.  Salt  was  brought  from 
Newburg  on  pack-horses.  The  winter  of  1792  was  se- 
vere, and  really  terrible.  According  to  father's  account, 
the  snow  began  on  the  18th  of  November,  and  fell 
most  of  the  time  for  two  weeks.  He  had  raised  some 
corn  that  season,  and  he  bought  some  rye,  but  it  was 
not  tit  for  food  until  it  had  been  ground.  So  in  the 
winter  of  1793,  Elijah  Dix,  Elder  Elijah  Peck,  and  he 
went  to  mill  at  Slocum  Hollow,  (now  Scranton,)  with 
three  yoke  of  oxen  and  a  span  of  horses,  and,  being 
snowed  in,  they  were  gone  nine  days.  They  fed  out 
one-third  of  their  grists  to  the  teams.  In  the  winter 
of  1791,  father  carried  up  provisions  to  Samuel  Stan- 
ton's family  in  Mount  Pleasant  to  keep  them  from 
starvation.  Game  and  deer  were  plenty,  or  we  should 
all  have  perished.  He  bought  three  hundred  and  twen- 
ty acres  of  land  on  the  old  State  road,  and  three  hun- 
dred acres  around  the  Stanton  pond,  where  he  built 
a  saw-mill.  Father  was  deputy-sheriff  of  Pike  county, 
under  Abraham  Mulf  ord,  and  afterwards  treasurer.  He 
was  elected  colonel  after  the  organization  of  the  county. 
We  sometimes  went  to  mill  at  Slocum  Hollow,  some- 
times at  Wilsonville,  and  sometimes  at  Ephraim 
Purdy's ;  frecjuently  we  pounded  our  corn  in  a  mortar. 

176  HISTORY    OF     WAY^NE    COUNTY. 

We  made  our  sugar  and  sold  some.     Bees  were  abun- 
dant in  the  woods    and  the  streams  were    alive    with 
trout.     Tlie  first  bolting  grist-mill  was  built  in  South 
Canaan  by  John  Shaffer.     Before  that  a  mill  was  built 
west  of  Lerch's  for  grinding  corn.     The  first  saw-mill 
was  built  by  Amos    Bronson  and    liis  l^rother.     Iron 
being  scarce,  they  made  the  crank  of  a  natural-crooked 
white  oak.     The  first  man  that    settled    and  made  a 
clearing  between  us  and  the  Shaffer   Settlement  was 
John  Bunting.     He  ]>egan  near  the  Cortright  tannery. 
Daniel  Stevenson,  of  Barnegat,  N.  J.,  was   the  first 
man  that  settled  betw^een  father's  and  Samuel  Stanton's. 
Samuel  Chmnard  settled  about  one    mile  and    a  half 
above  us,  on  the  old  road.     He  sold  out  to  Hezekiah 
Leach.     Samuel  West,  a  Baptist  clergyman,  next  be- 
gan north  of  us.     His  son,  David  S.  West,  who  occu- 
pied his  father's  improvements,  w^as  a  man  of   educa- 
tion and  a  noted  surveyor.    John  Fobes,  Esq.,  a  justice 
of  the  peace,  began  at  Canaan  Corners  in  or  about  1806, 
and  Caleb  Fobes  settled  on  the  widow  Jonas  Stanton 
place.     Jonas  Stanton  lived  on  the  flat  called  the  New- 
man place,  in  1811.     Jacob  Stanton,  who  settled  and 
died  at  Little  Meadows,  in  Salem,  was  a  distant  rela- 
tive of  father.      My  parents,  in  1817,  went  on  a  visit 
down  East,  and  on  their  return  in  crossing  the  Dela- 
ware, a  sudden  storm  arose  and  the    boat  filled    with 
water.     Father  saved  mother,  but  having  on  a  heavy 
overcoat  was  carried  down  the  stream  and   drowned. 
This  was  on  the  12th  day  of  November,  1817,  at  Co- 
(?hecton,  N.  Y.       Seth  Eaton  settled  at  an  early  day 


oil    the  old    road  leading   from  Canaan  to  Bethany. 

I  used  to  hunt  considerably  on  the  head  waters  of 
the  Lehigh  and  Tobyhanna  and  trap  beavers  and  mar- 
tens. There  nsed  to  be  many  beavers  caught  in 
Canaan  and  I  have  seen  their  houses  biult  three  stories 
high.  Father  killed  a  number  of  elk,  and  Charles 
Stanton  killed  one  that  had  horns  eacli  four  feet  long 
and  they  weighed  twenty-five  pounds.  I  killed  six 
deer  in  one  day,  and  one  Imndred  and  two  in  one 
year,  besides  several  bears  and  foxes.  I  have  the 
horns  of  the  great  elk  killed  by  Charles  Stanton. 

The  winters  were  not  as  cold  then  as  they  are  novs', 
but  were  longer  and  attended  with  more  snow.  On 
the  last  day  of  March,  1804,  father  sent  me  to  Major 
Ansley's,  in  Palmyra,  to  get  a  horse  shod.  The  snow^ 
fell  three  feet  deep  and  I  was  gone  three  w^eeks.  I 
was  born  in  Canaan." 

Among  the  other  settlers  who  commenced  at  an 
early  date  may  be  named  James  Carr.  He  had  four 
sons,  namely,  John,  Thomas,  Erastus,  and  James. 
John  A.  Gustin  married  one  of  his  daughters,  and 
Randall  Wilmot,  fatlier  of  David  Wilmot,  married 
another.  Mrs.  Gustin  is  yet  living  in  Honesdale. 
There  are  many  descendants  of  James  Carr,  Sen.,  in 
the  county.  In  1805,  Elias  Yan  Auken  was  assessed 
for  two  hundred  and  sixty-four  acres  of  Lmd.  He 
gave  the  name  to  the  creek  on  which  he  lived.  Geo. 
Rix  was  assessed  with  two  hundred  and  ten  acres,  and 
Justus  Cobb  with  four  hundred  acres.  Each  was 
assessed  for  a  house  and    a   few    acres    of   impro^'ed 


178  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

land,  the  remainder  of  the  hinds  being  in  a  wild  state. 

Amos  Bronson  and  his  brother  were  from  Schoharie, 
X.  Y.  The  latter  was  an  ingenious,  self-taught  mill- 
wright. In  1807,  Daniel  Jaggers  was  assessed  with 
four  lumdred  acres,  mostly  wild  land,  lying  east  of 
the  Shaifers.  Wareham  Day,  fi*om  Connecticut,  mar- 
ried a  daughter  of  Abraham  Hoagley,  a  former 
justice  of  the  peace,  and  was  elected  county  commis- 
sioner. Vene  Lee,  of  Connecticut,  was  a  farmer  and 
had  two  sons,  Horace  and  John.  Horace  married 
Catherine  Hamlin,  and  John  married  Eliza  Chumard. 

William  Griffin,  from  Connecticut,  was  a  farmer  aiid 
cabinet  maker.  He  was  also  a  Methodist  local  min- 
ister, who  held  meetings  in  barns  in  summer  and  in 
private  dwellings  in  cold  weather. 

Silas  Hoadley,  a  farmer,  settled  above  William 
Griffin's  and  was  a  man  highly  respected  in  his  day. 
He  had  three  sons :  one,  named  Eli,  was  killed  by  a 
tree;  one,  named  Oliver,  died  suddenly  of  heart  dis- 
ease ;  and  the  other,  whose  name  w^as  Luther,  lived  and 
died  on  the  old  place.  Mrs.  Mary  Ann  Sampson,  late 
of  Honesdale,  deceased,  the  Avidow  of  Ward  W.  Samp- 
son, late  of  Canaan,  deceased,  was  a  (Uiughter  of  Silas 

Abraham  Lloadley,  who  was  no  relative  of  the 
above  family,  settled  on  land  north-east  of  George 
Enslin.  He  had  two  scms :  one  of  them,  John  P. 
Hoadley,  was  the  father  of  John  K.  Hoadley,  Esq., 
of  Cherry  Jlidge.     Miles  Hoadley,  the  other  son,  left 


H  large  family.  The  Hoadleys  were  all  from  Connect- 

Abram  Frisbie,  a  farmer,  had  three  sons,  namely, 
Solomon,  Hiram,  and  Philemon.  Solomon  married 
Charlotte,  the  youngest  daughter  of  Jesse  Morgan. 
Hiram,  yet  li\dng,  moved  to  Carbondale  and  kept 
boarders  and  wayfaring  men  in  the  first  house  ]>uilt  in 
the  place.  It  was  excellently  kept,  as  w^e  well  remem- 
ber. It  is  claimed  that  he  took  the  first  coal  to  mar- 
ket that  was  ever  taken  over  the  mountain  to  the 
Lackawaxen.     Philemon  moved  from  the  county. 

Probably  there  are  some  persons  living  in  Canaan 
who  remember  the  widow  Frisbie,  whose  peculiarities 
were  such  as  to  excite  their  recollection  of  them.  Her 
clothing,  which  was.  white,  she  manufactured  from 
wool  taken  from  living  sheep.  She  had  her  shoes 
made  from  the  hide  of  some  animal  that  died  a  nat- 
ural death.  She  ate  no  animal  food,  and  claimed  that 
the  command,  ''Thou  shalt  not  kill,"  forbade  the  tak- 
ing of  the  life  of  any  living  creature,  and  replied  to 
the  assertion  that  animal  food  is  necessary  to  give 
men  strength,  that  elephants,  horses,  camels,  and  oxen, 
which  are  the  strongest  of  animals  and  have  the 
greatest  powers  of  endurance,  live  wliolly  upon  vegeta- 
ble food  and  refuse  to  eat  flesh ;  that  the  killing  and 
eating  of  animals  makes  us  gross,  sensual,  and  cruel; 
and  that  the  person  who  can  wdth  indifference  see  pain 
and  anguish  inflicted  upon  any  of  God's  creatures,  is 
but  one  remove  above  an  idiot  or  a  devil.  To  one 
who  sought  to   convince  her  that  lier  belief  was  but  a 


delusive  vagary,  she  replied  that  she  was  not  afraid  of 
going  to  any  part  of  God's  universe  where  she  should 
repent  of  having  been  merciful  to  all  his  creatures. 
Noble  woman !  She  was  in  advance  of  her  age.  She 
could  say,  in  the  words  of  Goldsmith's  hermit: 

*'No  beasts  that  range  the  forests  free,  to  slaughter 
I  condemn ; 
Taught  by  that  power  that  pities  me,  I  learn  to 
pity  them." 

Her  countenance  was  radiant  with  benehcence  and 
very  attractive.  She  finally  returned  to  Connecticut, 
from  whence  she  came. 

/^Joseph  Cobb  was  from  Tunkhannock  and  married 
Abigail  Stephens.  He  had  several  sons,  namely, 
Jesse,  Joseph,  Lovell,  Noah,  John,  and  Ebenezer. 
Asa  Cobb,  a  brotlier  of  the  said  Joseph,  lived  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Moosic  mountain,  on  the  road  leading 
from  Salem  to  Providence.  He  married  Sarah  Stephens, 
a  very  noted  woman  in  her  day,  as  she  rode  far 
and  near  in  the  practice  of  obstetrics.  Providence  was 
always  spoken  of  as  belonging  in  Salem,  although  it 
was  in  Luzerne  county.  Asa  Cobb  kept  a  tavern  dur- 
ing his  life  and  was  succeeded  in  the  business  by  his 
son,  John  Cobb,  who  married  a  daughter  of  Conrad 
Swingle.  Her  fame  was  known  far  and  near,  as  she, 
in  a  iierce  battle,  with  nothing  but  a  stake,  killed  a 
large  wolf,  that  was  chasing  her  sheep.  According 
to  Mrs.  Bryant,  each  family  had  a  Noah,  John,  and 
Ebenezer.  Cyprian  Cobb  and  Ebenezer  Cobb,  of 
Salem,  were  sons  of  Asa  Cobb. 


Elislui  Ames,  wlio  was  an  early  settler  near  Pan- 
pack  Eddy,  is  nientioned  in  an  assessment  of  Palmyra 
made  in  1801,  as  being  in  Canaan.  He  is  supposed 
to  be  the  progenitor  of  the  Ames  family.  H.  Ames, 
who  lives  on  the  old  Milford  and  Owego  turnpike,  has 
been  a  resident  in  the  town  for  many  years. 

Matthias  Keen,  better  known  as  Captain  Keen,  a 
native  of  Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  first  moved  to  Mil- 
ford,  Pike  county,  and  thence  to  Canaan,  in  1815. 
He  first  lived  on  (3rchard  hill,  and  made  a  dam  at 
the  mouth  of  Keen's  pond,  then  called  "Canoe  pond," 
and  built  the  frame  for  a  grist-mill.  About  this  timej 
in  drawing  a  gun  towards  him  in  a  canoe,  it  went  oif 
and  the  ball  was  lodged  in  his  hip.  After  he  had  suf- 
fered much.  Dr.  Mahony  extracted  the  ball,  but  he 
was  left  a  cripple  for  life.  He  erected  the  first  carding- 
machine  in  that  region  of  the  country,  and  to  it  there 
was  a  wool-picker  attached.  Before  this  all  the  wool 
was  picked  and  carded  by  liand,  but  the  machine 
diminished  much  of  tlie  labor  of  the  women,  and  Cap- 
tain Keen  was  complimented  as  a  public  benefactor. 
He  built  the  first  grist-mill  in  that  part  of  the  town, 
and  Deacon  Kufus  Grenell  was  the  mill-wright.  In 
1834,  that  well-known  mill-wright,  Huntington  Collins, 
put  up  a  saw-mill  for  liim.  Captain  Keen,  who  was  a 
prominent  Freemason,  was  a  man  highly  esteemed,  and 
was  at  one  time  captain  of  a  uniformed  company  in 
Orange  county  called  the  "Hepublican  Blues."  He 
died  in  1835.  He  had  a  large  family,  most  of  w^hom 
are  in  the  grave.     The  following  named  were  his  sons: 


George  M.  Keen,  late  of  Prompton,  deceased,  who  was 
a  man  of  culture  and  of  great  moral  excellence ;  he 
has  two  sons,  Spencer  and  Frederick,  who  reside  in 
Honesdale,  one  named  Mott,  a  resident  of  Prompton, 
and  one  daughter,  who  is  the  wife  of  William  F. 
Wood,  Esq.,  a  former  sheriff  and  prothonotary  of  the 
county.  Matthias  Keen,  Jr.,  a  farmer  who  lived  and 
died  in  the  county.  eTames  R.  Keen,  now  living  in 
Honesdale,  aged  ninety-one,  who  was  many  years  a  most 
elticient  clerk  of  the  commissioners  of  the  county,  and 
register  and  recorder.  Ja(?ob  L.  Keen,  once  a  popular 
commissioner  of  the  county,  is  yet  living  in  Canaan, 
near  the  Keen's  mills,  of  which  he  is  now  owner.  Eli 
C  Keen,  who  settled  near  Keen's  pond,  was  a  soldier 
in  the  w^ar  of  1812.     James  B.  Keen  is  his  son. 

Thomas  Starkweather,  generally  known  as  Captain 
Starkweather,  according  to  the  remembrance  of  Asa 
Stanton,  was  an  Eastern  man  and  came  into  Canaan  in 
1811.  Being  an  industrious,  energetic  man,  he  bought 
and  cleared  up  a  valuable  lot  of  land,  and  finally  set- 
tled at  Canaan  Corners,  at  a  point  at  the  intersection 
of  the  Milford  and  Owego  turnpike  with  the  Belmont 
and  Eastern  turnpike  road,  which  was  afterwards  called 
Wayneville.  The  travel  upon  said  roads  being  great, 
Mr.  Starkweather  built  there  a  larire  hotel  which  he 
kept  for  many  years  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  travelers 
and  with  credit  to  himself.  He  built,  also,  a  large 
store-house,  called  the  "Variety  Store,"  kept  by  Stark- 
weather and  Robert  Love.  The  place  once  had  the 
promise  of  becoming  a  prosperous  village,  but  it  was 


finally  overshadowed  hj  Waymart.  Wayneville,  how- 
ever, was  for  many  years  a  prominent  place.  George 
A.  Starkweather,  Esq.,  now  living  in  Waymart,  is  a 
son  of  Captain  Starkweather.  Leonard  Starkweather 
built  the  lirst  tavern  house  in  the  vicinity  of  Waymart, 
about  1832,  at  or  near  the  residence  of  Roswell  F. 
Patterson,  Esq.,  and  the  same  was  kept  as  a  public 
house  for  many  years.  Previous  to  l)uilding  there  he 
was  eisrht  or  ten  years  constal)le  of  Canaan. 

Tliomas  Clark  came  from  near  Milford,  Pa.,  and, 
in  1825,  was  licensed  as  a  tavern-keeper,  and  rated  as 
a  merchant  in  South  Canaan ;  afterwards  he  removed 
to  Canaan  Corners  and  erected  a  tavern  and  a  store 
which  were  attended  by  himself.  After  it  became 
apparent  that  Waymart  would  be  a  place  of  impor- 
tance, Mr.  Clark  removed  thither  and  built  a  public 
house,  where  he  lived  to  the  end  of  his  days.  He  was 
an  active  politician,  and  once  treasurer  of  the  county. 
His  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Francis  Smith, 
of  Milford.  The  great  celebrity  of  Clark's  house  was, 
no  doubt,  owing  to  the  ability  and  taste  of  his  wife. 
Said  Thon:ias  Fuller  to  Clark,  whom  he  liked  at  once 
to  flatter  and  to  tease:  "Tom,  you  do  keep  the  best 
tavern  and  set  the  best  table  that  can  be  found  within 
my  knowledge,  or  rather  your  loife  does." 

Jolm  Spangenberg,  a  brother  of  Thomas  Spangen- 
l)erg,  Esq.,  late  of  Bethany,  while  Canaan  was  covered 
with  woods,  began  in  the  w^est  part  of  the  town,  and 
many  of  his  descendants  are   living   in    that  vicinity. 

184  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COVNTY. 

The  Spaiigenbergs  came  from  New  Jersey,  and  were 
of  German  descent. 

George  Morgan,  who  died  recently,  aged  nearly  100 
years,  was  a  son  of  Jesse  Morgan,  and  moved  from 
Salem.     They  came  at  lirst  from  Connecticnt. 

George  E,ix  located  at  the  foot  of  the  Moosic  monn- 
tain,  and  the  Milford  and  Owego  tnrnpike  was  built 
past  his  liouse.  In  1805  he  was  assessed  as  a  farmer 
and  owning  208  acres  of  land.  He  was  always  called 
Captain  Rix,  and  w^as  a  prominent  man  in  his  day. 

Levi  Sampson  lived  on  the  place  afterwards  owned 
by  John  B.  Tntliill,  Esq.  There  were  three  others  of 
the  family,  viz :  William,  Elijah,  and  Ward  W.  Samp- 
son. They  came  from  Connecticnt,  but  at  what  exact 
time  (nmnot  be  stated.  Some  of  the  family  lived  on 
the  Easton  and  Belmont  tnrnpike  road  and  kept  the 
gate  sonth  of  Canaan  Corners  for  a  long  time. 

At  a  place  called  Millville,  in  the  southern  border 
of  tlie  township,  is  a  thickly  settled  neighborhood  or  a 
scattered  village  which  takes  its  name  from  the  num- 
ber of  ruills  on  Middle  creek.  The  site  of  the  old 
Shaffer  mill  is  yet  to  be  seen. 

Lerch's  Corners,  so  called  from  the  fact  that  P.  W. 
Lerch,  many  years  ago,  commenced  a  store  and  tavern 
there,  has  all  the  coiiveniences  of  a  village  and  is  the 
only  post-ofhce  in  Sonth  Canaan.  In  and  about  this 
place  is  some  very  choice  land.  Near  here,  about  forty 
years  ago,  a  Protestant  Methodist  church  was  built, 
and  twelve  years  ago  a  Methodist  Episcopal  churcli. 
[n  the  western  part  of  the  town  is  a  Free  Methodist 


cliiirch.  8()iit]»  Canajin  luis  three  liundred  and  thirty- 
tliree  taxjibles,  with  nme  coinnioii  schools.  Canaan 
lias  one  hnndred  and  ninety-one  taxal)les  with  fiv<' 
cH)mnion  schools. 

Way  mart,  as  has  been  already  stated,  was  incorpor- 
ated in  1851.  It  appears  yonng  to  me  who  can  remem- 
ber sixty  or  seventy  years  back ;  it  must  appear  so  to  our 
veneral)le  friend,  Asa  Stanton.  But  though  young,  it 
lias  acquired  an  excellent  character.  Without  flattery 
it  nmst  he  said  that  as  a  law-abiding  people,  of  high 
intellectual  culture  and  moral  exellence,  they  occupy 
an  envied  position.  We  wish  to  be  relieved  from  the 
task  of  describing  them  individually.  It  would  be 
like  taking  a  measure  of  wlieat  and  examining  each 
grain  separately  and  ending  perhaps  in  not  finding 
one  false  or  snmtty  kernel.  C.  \1.  Rogers  keeps  the 
old  Thomas  Clark  tavern,  and  is  a  popular  landlord. 
There  is  one  Presb^^terian  and  one  Methodist  Episco- 
pal church,  and  two  common  schools.  Numbei*  of 
taxables,  one  hundred  and  sixty -five. 




^piIIS  was  one  of  the  fH'iginal  townships,  but  poi*- 
J-  tions  were  taken  from  it  to  form  the  townships  of 
I)Yl)errv,  Preston,  and  Chnton.  But  notwitlistand- 
ing  all  tliat  luis  heeii  plundered  from  it,  Damascus 
alone  exceeds  it  in  dimensions.  It  is  1)ounded  north 
hy  Preston,  east  \)\  Buckingham  and  Lebanon,  south 
l)y  Clinton  and  Dyberrv,  and  west  l)y  Snsqnehanna 
connty.  8ome  ])art  of  tlie  Moosic  mountain  on  the 
^yestern  verge  of  the  township  is  nncultivatai)le.  Tlie 
rest  of  tlie  townsliip  is  hilly;  still  the  most  of  the  hills 
admit  of  tillage  to  their  very  summits.  The  various 
hills  and  valleys  present  some  of  the  most  enchanting 
scenery  in  the  county.  Mount  Pleasaut  may  be  call- 
ed the  Switzerland  of  Northern  Pennsylvania.  In 
the  summer  months  it  is  almost  a  paradise;  in  the  win- 
ter it  has  the  climate  of  Siberia,  a  condition  which, 
with  slight  modifications,  is  incident  to  the  whole 

The  western  branches  of  the  Lackawaxen  and  I)y- 
l)erry  and  tlieir  tributaries  furnish  al)U]idant  water- 
power.  The  natui'al  ponds  are  Rock  lake,  Bigelow 
lake,  and  Miller's  pond.  More  turnpike  roads  w^ere 
made  in  tliis  township  than  in  any  other.  The  Oo- 
checton     and     (ireat      Bend    tnrn])ikc    road,    passing 


tliroiigh  tlie  central  part,  was  incorporated  in  1804. 
The  road  was  tinislied  in  1811,  and  tlie  travel  on  it 
was  very  great,  it  being  the  nearest  route  from  New- 
burg  to  AVestern  New  York.  Daily  mail-coaches, 
drawn  by  two  span  of  horses,  ran  upon  tlie  road  for 
years.  Numerous  droves  of  cattle,  sheep,  and  liogs 
were  driven  upon  it  towards  New  York  market.  Al- 
most half  of  the  houses  on  the  road  were  taverns. 
After  the  Erie  canal  was  built  the  travel  was  less,  l)ut 
it  was  not  until  the  completion  of  the  New  York  A: 
Erie  Railroad  tliat  it  was  almost  wholly  suspended. 

The  Bethany  Jind  Dingman's  Choice  turnpike  was 
incorporated  in  1811.  It  aiforded  convenient  means 
of  getting  to  and  from  tlie  county  seat,  and  was  kept 
in  order  for  many  years  l)y  moneys  received  for  tolls. 
Its  course  w^as  south-east  from  Pleasant  Mount.  Tlie 
Belmont  and  Easton  turnpike  was  chartered  in  1812. 
It  passed  through  the  western  part  of  the  township 
and  opened  up  a  direct  communication  with  Easton 
and  Philadelphia,  and  for  many  years  attracted  a  con- 
stant stream  of  travel,  with  daily  mail-coaches,  and 
droves  of  all  kinds  of  live  stock.  The  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania appropriated  $10,000  to  aid  in  the  construc- 
tion of  the  road.  It  was  of  great  importance  to  that 
part  of  the  county  through  which  it  extended.  But 
the  building  of  other  roads,  particularly  of  the  Dela- 
ware it  Hudson  Canal  and  Railroad,  and  of  the  New 
York  &  Erie  Railroad,  diverted  the  travel  into  other 
channels,  until  this  once  celebrated  road  was  almost 
abandoned  by  the  traveling  public. 

188  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

The  Belmont  and  OglKjuaga  turnpike,  chartered  in 
1817,  owed  its  existence  chiefly  to  the  exertions  of  T. 
Meredith,  Esq.,  wlio  owned  large  tracts  of  land  along 
the  route  of  tlie  road.  The  settlers  in  the  western 
part  of  Preston  were  benefited  by  it  and  it  was  sus- 
tained many  years  by  tlie  tolls  taken  on  the  road ;  hut 
the  same  (!anses  that  lessened  travel  on  other  turnpikes, 
operated  ecpially  unfavoral)le  to  this.  The  turnpike 
:ip  the  west  brand  i  of  the  Lackawaxen,  bnilt  many 
years  ago,  although  a  very  useful  road,  not  being  self- 
sustaining,  has  been  thrown  up,  and  all  the  above-- 
named turnpikes,  ha\'ing  served  their  day  and  geuera- 
tion,  have  reverted  to  the  several  townships  througli 
which  they  extend,  and  are  kept  in  repair  by  them, 
as  necessary  for  public  use.  The  road  from  Pleasant 
Mount  to  Stockport  is  an  old  one,  and  was  laid  out  in 
or  about  1799,  and  has  been,  and  probably  it  always 
will  be,  one  of  the  most  indispensal)le  thoroughfares 
in  the  connty.  What  has  been  tlie  enterprise  of  the 
people  of  Mount  Pleasant  may  l)e  inferred  from  the 
amount  of  labor  which  they  expended  in  the  l)uilding 
of  the  above-described  roads.  The  early  liistory  of 
this  township  is  exceedingly  interesting  and  worthy  of 
historical  preservation. 

The  first  settler  was  Sanmel  Stanton,  of  Preston, 
Conn.  He  came  in  June,  1789,  and  bought  or  con- 
tracted for  three  thousand  acres  of  land,  and  the  next 
year  built  a  house  on  it,  and  commenced  a  clearing. 
His  cabin  was  a  little  east  of  the  old  Easton  and  Bel- 
mont turnpike,  near  the  present   residence  of    H.  W. 


Muuiford.  It  was  made  of  small  logs  and  poles,  cov- 
ered witli  l»ark,  liaving  no  partitions,  and  without 
windows.  The  iioor  and  dooi*  were  made  of  l)oards 
split  out  of  logs.  His  houseliold  furniture  was  scanty, 
and  as  homely  as  liis  dwelling.  He  moved  liis  family 
into  this  cabin  in  the  spring  of  1791.  Other  settlers 
(iame  in  that  year  to  commence  clearing,  hut  they  all 
left  in  the  autumn,  lea^dng  Stanton  and  his  family 
alone  in  that  vast  wilderness.*  During  the  long  and 
dreary  winter  they  suffered  from  want  of  food  and 
from  sickness  produced  by  destitution  and,  ^vhen  on 
tlie  very  verge  of  starvation,  a  man  from  Canaan,  hj 
the  name  of  Church,  came  along,  who  shot  an  elk  and 
gave  the  meat  to  Stanton,  which  relieved  the  wants 
of  his  family.  At  that  time  the  snow  was  deep  and 
the  weather  intensely  cold  and  Stanton's  nearest  neigh- 
l)or,  Asa  Stanton,  his  cousin,  lived  twelve  miles  distant. 
Another  hunter,  named  Frederick  Coates,  happened 
along,  who,  with  said  Church,  went  and  procured 
other  provisions  for  the  relief  of  the  family.  In  a  few 
years,  Stanton,  l)y  his  industry,  began  to  prosper.  He 
kept,  to  the  best  of  his  ability,  a  puldic  house.  In  a 
letter  dated  Oct.  5th,  1795,  directed  to  Judge  Preston, 
he  wrote:  "I  had  my  house-frame  raised  last  Thursday, 
and  no  one  was  hurt  \)\  the  timber.  T  will  keep  a 
civil  house  or  none.  Many  judges,  squires,  and  gen- 
tlemen have  lately  traveled  this  road  to  and  from  New 
York.  I  make  more  from  people  of  tliis  char^icter 
than  I  can  hope  to  from  a  pack  of  drunken  scoundrels. 

*See  Whaley's  History  of  Mount  Pleasant. 

190  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY, 

even  if   I  did  not  ablior  their  practices/'     Sucli    was 
the  first  settler  and  innkeeper  of  Mount  Pleasant. 

The  next  year,  1792,  new  settlers  arrived,  namely, 
Silas  Kellogg,  Elijah  Dix,  Jirah  Muniford,  John  Tif- 
fany, and  Joseph  Stearns;  and  tlie  next  year  Josepli 
Tanner  and  Amasa  Geer,  all  from  Connecticut,  ex- 
cepting Kellogg,  wdio  was  from  the  State  of  New 
York.  He  was  tlie  father  of  Azor  Kellogg  and  Jirali 
Kellogg.  Mary,  his  oldest  daughter,  was  the  wife  of 
John  K.  Woodward,  and  motlier  of  the  late  Warren 
J.  Woodward,  deceased,  and  Jackson  K.  Woodward, 
late  of  Honesdale,  deceased.  Mrs.  Woodward  is  still 
living,  having  outlived  all  her  children.  Silas  Kel- 
loea*  was  elected  sheriff  of  tlie  countv  in  1813.  He 
died  at  Mount  Pleasant  at  a  very  ad\'anced  age. 

Jirah  Mumford,  from  Connecticut,  came  into  the 
town  with  Joseph  Stearns,  in  1792,  but  did  not  move 
his  family  until  the  next  year.  His  sons  were  Thomas, 
Jirah,  Jr.,  Minor,  and  John.  His  descendants  are 
spread  over  the  county. 

John  Tiffany,  of  Massachusetts,  in  1792,  started  with 
his  wife  and  three  children  to  go  to  Nine  Partners,  in 
Susquehanna  county,  but,  coming  to  Mount  Pleasant, 
concluded  to  stay  and  build  a  house  on  the  Christopher 
farm.     He  was  a  useful  man. 

Joseph  Tanner,  in  1795,  built  a  frame  house  north 
of  the  present  village  of  Pleasant  Mount,  and,  in 
1806,  in  company  with  a  man  named  Granger,  opened 
the  first  store  and  built  a  public  house  near  it.     Clark 


Tanner  was  a  brother  of  Joseph.      He  was    a  fariiiei* 
and  brought  up  a  family  in  the  township. 

In  1795,  John  S.  Kogers,  a  Qnaker  from  New  Jer- 
sey, moved  npon  the  farm  since  known  as  the  Panl 
O'Neill  place,  and  kept  a  tavern  there  during  his  life. 
He  had  eight  (children. 

In  tlie  same  year  Joseph  Stevenson,  from  New  Jer- 
sey, bought  near  the  stone  school-house,  a  part  of 
whicli  is  noAV  the  farm  of  Henry  Gager.  James  and 
Isaiah  Stevenson  were  liis  sons.  Oliver  Stevenson, 
formerly  sheriff  of  Wayne  county,  is  a  son  of  James 
Stevenson ;  and  Godfrey  Stevenson,  the  present  treas- 
urer of  the  county,  and  Arthur  Stevenson,  are  sons  of 
Isaiah  Stevenson. 

In  November,  1873,  Jabez  Stearns,  then  living  in 
Damascus,  l)ut  since  deceased,  gave  me  the  following 
account:  "Joseph  Stearns,  my  father,  and  Jirah 
Mnmford,  came  to  Mount  Pleasant  from  Tolland 
county,  Connecticut,  in  the  winter  of  1792.  They 
started  from  home  on  a  snow-sled,  each  having  a  yoke 
of  oxen,  designing  to  go  to  a  settlement  called  Nine 
Partners,  in  Susquehanna  county.  Finding  that  they 
'•ould  buy  land  to  suit  them  near  Samuel  Stanton's 
location,  tliey  concluded  to  go  no  further.  In  the  fall 
fatliei'  went  back  and  the  next  spring  brought  mother 
and  eight  cliildren,  and  moved  into  a  house  that  said 
Jirah  Minnford  had  built,  and  lived  there  tlu^  first 
wintei'.  h\  tlie  spring  he  moved  to  a  place  near  tlie 
residence  of  the  late  Hussell  Spencer.  I  was  l)orn  there, 
June   18tli,  1798.     Our    folks    brought    clotliing    for 


themselves  .-iikI  cliildreii  with  tliein.  Luxuries  and 
superfluities  were  not  tliouglit  of.  Tlie  struggle  was 
to  ol)tain  the  indispensal>le  necessaries  for  sustaining 
life.  To  tell  tlie  trutli  tliere  were  times  when  om* 
family  sulfered  for  foocL  Fatlier  went  on  foot  several 
times  to  Great  Bend  after  flour  and  hi-ought  it  home 
on  liis  back.  Wild  meat  was  not  always  to  l)e  had, 
and  otlier  meat  was  out  of  the  (juestion.  When  it 
seemed  as  if  we  should  starve,  a  deer  would  come,  to 
all  appearances  providentially,  in  tlie  way  and  be  kill- 
ed, which  would  afl^ord  food  f(jr  awhile.  The  settlers 
a.ll  suifered  about  alike.  Those  vvdio  had  kettles  made 
their  own  sugar.  Mother  used  to  tell  me  that  she  once 
went  i]ito  the  wf)ods  to  gather  sap,  laid  me  down  in  a 
sap  trough  by  a  log,  and  w^ent  about  her  work.  After 
a  time,  looking  towards  me,  she  saw  a  large  black 
bear  taking  a  look  at  me  and  standing  on  the  log  by 
which  I  was  laid.  In  terror  she  screamed  aloud, 
(taught  up  a  club,  and,  her  faithful  dog  running  to  hei', 
they  together  made  for  l)i*uin.  He  walked  away  very 
leisurely,  looking  back  at  them  and  seeming  to  say, 
"You  make  a  great  fuss  about  a  very  small  matter.'' 
She  did  not,  as  has  been  told,  faint  away.  She  was 
not  subject  to  that  infirmity.  It  has  been  told  that  it 
was  my  l)rother  Aslil)el  that  the  bear  inter^^ewed,  but 
I  tell  it  as  mother  told  it  to  me.  At  another  time  my 
brother  Otis  was  carrying  me;  another  In-other,  my 
mother,  and  that  old  dog  Avere  along;  we  went  down 
to  near  Zeb  Hut  creek  where  a  log  lay  across  the  path, 
and  tliere  a  bear,  large  enough  to  have  devoured   the 


forty  and  two  irreverent,  prophet-insulting  children  of 
old,  came  and  put  his  fore  paws  upon  the  log,  and  dis- 
puted our  passage.  Mother  and  my  older  brother,  as- 
sisted by  the  old  dog,  made  such  a  display  of  hostility 
that  }>ruin  abandoned  his  position  and  went  his  way. 
Sometimes,  in  those  days,  children  were  lost  in  the 
woods.  Mrs.  Jirah  Mumf  ord  once  sent  her  two  daugh- 
ters, Deborah,  aged  six  years,  and  Sally,  aged  four 
years,  on  an  errand  to  a  neighbor's.  In  returning 
homeward  they  mistook  the  patli  and  wandered  off 
into  the  woods.  It  was  soon  found  out  that  they  were 
lost.  The  few  settlers  were  notified  and  went  in  search 
of  the  children,  but  night  came  on  and  they  were  not 
found.  The  search  w^as  continued  all  night  with 
torches  and  lanterns,  and  all  the  next  day,  but  the 
search  was  unavailing.  The  poor  mother  was  frantic 
with  grief  and  anguish.  On  the  third  day  the  search 
was  resumed  with  the  utmost  determination.  At  last, 
a  hunter,  who  had  been  much  at  Mr.  Mumf ord's,  heard 
a  little  dog  bark  which  went  with  the  children.  He 
iired  off  his  gun  to  let  the  other  searchers  know  that 
he  had  found  the  children.  The  little  dog,  when  call- 
ed, ran  to  the  hunter,  but  the  girls  hid  in  a  clump  of 
bushes.  The  company  all  came  together  and  took  the 
children  to  their  home.  Their  mother,  delirious  with 
joy,  clasped  them  in  her  arms  and  wept.  The  strong, 
hardy  men  of  the  forest  c^ould  not  restrain  their  tear- 
ful transports  of  joy.  The  children  said  the  iirst  night 
they  made  themselves  a  bed  of  leaves  by  the  side  of  a 
log,  and  that  little  Trip  lay  down  l)y  them,  and  that 



two  big  (logs  (probably  wolves)  came  and  looked  at 
them ;  but  little  Trip  growled  and  barked  at  them  and 
they  went  away.  The  next  day  they  looked  for  their 
home  and  found  a  few  berries  w^hieh  they  were  very 
glad  to  find,  as  they  were  very  hungry.  They  had 
heard  their  names  called  but  were  afraid  to  answer, 
having  heard  about  Indians  killing  children.  Had  it 
not  been  for  faithful  little  Trip— had  he,  in  his  hunger, 
left  them  and  gone  home — they  miglit  never  have  been 

In  1795,  Seymour  Allen,  from  Connecticut,  bought 
of  Amasa  Geer  the  farm  that  he  first  took  up ;  then 
Allen  sold  it  to  Ichabod  Starks,  who  lived  on  it  the 
rest  of  his  life.  Jacob  Van  Meter  moved  that  year 
from  New  Jersey  to  the  place  lately  occupied  by  liis 
son,  Charles  Yan  Meter.  Abram  Cramer  moved  the 
same  year  from  the  Acres  place,  so  afterwards  called, 
situated  on  the  old  north  and  south  State  road,  which 
is  twelve  miles  below  where  Captain  Phineas  Howe 
Jjept  his  celebrated  tavern  in  Sterling  township,  and 
settled  near  the  Thomas  Slayton  farm.  He  built  his 
house  of  hewn  logs,  and  some  of  it  is  standing  to  this 
day.  He  was  the  grandfather  of  Abram  Cramer,  Jr., 
and  of  iJavid  Cramer.  The  latter,  in  middle-life,  left 
his  home  of  comfort  and  competence  and  went  in  pur- 
suit of  fortune's  slippery  ball  to  California's  golden 
shore,  and  from  thence  to  Australia  and  back  again  to 
California,  and  then  home.  He  afterwards  made  fi\e 
or  six  voyages  to  California,  and  finally  came  home 
exhausted  and  enervated  by  his  lal)ors  and  sufferings. 


finding  that  bread  is  not  always  to  the  wise,  nor  riches 

to  men  of  understanding,  and  feeling  as  if   lu^  could 

address  a  lump  of  gold  in  the  following  strain : 

''For  thee,  for  thee,  vile  yellow  slave, 
I  left  kind  hearts  that  loved  me  true ; 

I  crossed  the  tedious  ocean  wave. 

To  roam  in  climes  unknown  and  new ; 

And  now  come  home  to  find  a  grave, 
And  all  for  thee,  vile  yellow  slave. " 

x\bram  Cramer,  Jr.,  is  still  living  in  Salem  township, 
and  has  a  very  large  family  of  twenty-one  children. 

About  1795,  Benjamin  King  moved  from  Cherry 
Kidge  and  settled  below  the  Benjamin  Wheeler  farm. 
He  was  a  commissioner  and  for  many  years  a  justice 
of  the  peace.  Robert  and  Benjamin  King,  of  Star- 
rucca,  were  his  sons.  Charles  King,  a  brother  of 
Benjamin  King,  Sen.,  at  the  same  time  settled  east  of 
the  Wheeler  farm.  The  Kings  were  from  Rhode  Is- 

Elijah  Peck  moved  in  about  1795,  from  Connecti- 
(iut.  He  became  a  Baptist  clergyman  and  was  exten- 
sively known  and  honored  as  an  ornament  to  his  pro- 
fession. His  oldest  son,  Elijah  Peck,  is  living.  Wil- 
liam Peck  and  Reuben  Peck  are  deceased.  Lewis 
Peck,  Myra  Peck,  who  married  Jesse  Dix,  Joan- 
na W.,  widow  of  Giles  Gaylord,  late  of  Clinton,  de- 
ceased, are  all  living.  Elijah  Peek,  2d,  had  nineteen 

From  an  assessment  made  by  Joseph  Tanner,  in 
1801,  there  were  thirty  houses  or  huts  and  fifty -four 
feaxables  in:  the  township.     Among  these  taxables,  not 

196  HISTORY    OF     WAYNE    COUNTY. 

including  the  above  named,  were  Daniel  McMulleii, 
OaleV)  Carr,  Eliplmlet  Kellogg,  commissionerrt'  elerk, 
Jacob  Crater,  who  built  a  saw-mill  and  grist-mill  on 
the  west  branch,  David  Kennedy,  llo])ert  Kennedy, 
Thomas  Mumford,  James  Miller,  ^Tathan  Rude,  Elihu 
Tallman,  Sanniel  Torrey,  and  Jason  Torrey,  surveyor. 

Daniel  McMullen  was  a  farmer  assessed  as  havin<r 
one  hundred  acres  of  land.  He  and  George  McMullen 
were  both  Scotchmen  and  ijreat  hunters. 

Eliphalet  Kellogg  is  mentioned,  as  having  been  the 
clerk  of  the  county  commissioners  from  the  erection 
of  the  county  until  he  was  appointed  prothonotary  l)y 
Governor  Snyder.  He  took  up  land  in  Mount  Pleasant, 
])uilt  a  house  and  improved  some  land,  and  removed 
to  Bethany  in  1810.  He  was  a  brother  of  Silas  Kel- 

David  Kennedy.  It  is  evident  that  David  Kennedy, 
Sen.,  and  Robert  Kennedy  were  in  the  township  at  an 
early  date.  In  1801  they  had  l)uilt  comfortable  houses, 
and  David  Kennedy  had  cleared  up  twenty  acres  of 
land  and  Robert  Kennedy  had  cleared  eighteen  acres. 
David  Kennedy,  Sen.,  had  a  son  named  David  Ken- 
nedy, Jr.,  and  David  L.  Kennedy,  of  Honesdale,  is  a 
son  of  the  latter.  Mrs.  Wilbur,  now  living  in  Wliite's 
Hollow  with  William  Partridge,  Esq.,  was  a  daughter 
of  David  Kennedy,  Sen.  She  is  about  ninety-three 
years  of  age,  and  to  a  remarkable  degree  retains  her 
physical  and  mental  powers.  Her  husband,  Jonathan 
Wilbur,  was  a  blacksmith  who  located  near  Atwater's 
Corners  on  Johnson's  creek.     The    Kennedy    family 

TOWNSHIPS— MO  U  .  ANT.  197 

liHve  well  kept  up  their  name  and  numbers,  ])ut  to  de- 
scribe all  its  numerous  ])ranches  would  require  too 
much  time  and  space. 

James  Miller  was  from  the  State  of  New  York  and 
took  up  seventy  acres  of  land.  Moses  Miller  took  up 
two  hundred  acres  of  land.  He  was  the  father  of 
Ephraim  Miller,  Marlin  Miller,  George  "W.  Miller,  J. 
W.  Miller,  and  Wesley  Miller.  Moses  Miller  was 
many  years  a  justice  of  the  peace. 

Jonathan  Miller,  of  Pleasant  Mount,  also  a  justice 
of  the  peace,  was  from  Luzerne  county.  His  wife  was 
a  daughter  of  James  Bigelow.  He  appears  to  have 
l.)een  the  first  noted  blacksmith  in  the  town.  His  son, 
Jonathan,  now  residing  in  the  village,  follows  the 
same  trade.  This  family  was  not  related  to  those  of 
James  and  Moses  Miller. 

Elihu  Tallman  will  be  mentioned  under  the  head  of 
Preston  township,  and  Jason  Torrey  and  Samuel  Tor- 
rey  under  the  head  of  Bethany. 

Nathan  Rude  lived  on  the  north  side  of  the  rotwl 
beyond  Benjamin  Wheeler's.  He  had  three  sons, 
Nathan,  Simeon,  and  Reuben,  and  was  a  man  of  orig- 
inal wit.  Many  anecdotes  are  told  of  his  shrewdness 
and  repartees.  He  was  at  first  a  Baptist  preacher; 
afterward,  he  became  a  Restorationist.  Being  asked 
his  profession  in  court,  he  replied,  "  I  am  a  pulpit- 
drummer  and  a  cushion-thumper."  Sometimes  he 
made  poetry  which  was  cute,  pertinent,  and  laugha- 
ble. Riding  by  Joseph  Tanner's  tavern,  lie  was  urg- 
ed   by    some   loungers    to   stop.     "No,  no,"  said  he. 

198  HI&  WAYNE    COUNTY. 

'*  Well,  then,"  said  they,  "make  iis  a  \^ei\4e."  Said 
he,  "Tliere  is  a  verse  ah-eady  made/'  "  Then,  let  us 
have  it."  "  Well,  listen,  1st  Psalm,  1st  verse,  '  Blest 
is  the  man  who  shuns  the  place  where  sinners  love  to 
meet/  "  A  clergyman  called  on  him  and  asked  if  he 
(H>uld  do  any  good  by  preaching  the  gospel  to  his 
people.  "  You  could  do  more  good  at  something 
else,"  said  Kude.  "In  what  way?"  said  the  preacher. 
"  By  coming  and  practicing  it.  I  can  preach  some 
gospel  myself,  but  I  make  stumbling  work  in  practic- 
ing it." 

Samuel  Meredith.  We  have  received  a  full  and 
interesting  history  of  the  Meredith  family,  from  1547, 
showing  their  extraction  from  the  nobility  of  England 
and  Ireland,  whicth  the  want  of  space  compels  us  to 
abridge.  Reese  Meredith,  the  father  of  Samuel  Mer- 
edith, was  born  in  Herefordshire,  England.  He  grad- 
uated at  Baliol  College,  Oxford,  in  1728,  and  emi- 
grated to  Philadelphia  in  1730,  and  entered  the  count- 
ing-house of  John  Carpenter,  a  prominent  merchant, 
married  Martha,  the  youngest  daughter  of  his  employ- 
er, and  was  taken  in  as  a  partner,  and  succeeded  his 
father-in-law  in  l)usiness.  In  1766,  Reese  Meredith 
took  in  partnerhip  his  son,  Samuel,  and  his  son-in-law, 
George  Clymer.  He  was  one  of  the  three  hundred 
and  fifty  merchants  and  citizens  of  Philadelphia,  who, 
in  October,  1765,  signed  the  celebrated  Non-Importa- 
tion Resolutions.  His  son  and  son-in-law  were  also 
signers.  During  the  darkest  hours  of  the  Revolution, 
his  faith  never  wavered  in  the  righteous  (tause  of   the 


colonies.  When  the  patriots  were  starving  at  Yalley: 
Forge,  Reese  Meredith  gave  $25,000,  in  silver,  to  bnji 
food  and  clothing  for  the  suiferers.  He  devoted  his 
time  to  business,  and  it  is  not  known  that  he  ever 
held  any  public  office.  He  died  November  17,  1778, 
aged  seventy-one  years,  leaving  three  children,  as  fol- 
lows: Anne,  wife  of  Henry  Hill;  Samuel,  (the  subject 
of  this  sketch);  and  Elizabeth,  wife  of  George  Cly- 
mer,  a  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 
Samuel  Meredith  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  in  1741, 
and  was  educated  at  the  academy,  at  Chester.  His 
fellow-student  was  Philemon  Dickinson,  afterwards 
his  brothe]*-in-law^,  as  they  married  sisters.  He  mar- 
ried, in  1771,  Margaret,  youngest  daughter  of  Dr. 
Thomas  Cadwalder,  of  Philadelphia.  Samuel  Mere- 
dith several  times  represented  Philadelphia  county  in 
the  Colonial  Assembly.  In  June,  1775,  he  was  com- 
missioned mayor  of  the  3rd  battalion  of  Pennsylvania 
militia,  and  was  in  the  battles  of  Trenton  and  Prince- 
ton. Upon  the  occupation  of  Philadelphia,  by  the 
British,  in  1777,  he,  wdth  his  family,  w^as  exiled.  In 
October  of  that  year,  he  received  the  commission  of 
brigadier-general  of  Pennsylvania  militia.  In  June, 
1780,  Gen.  Meredith  and  George  Cl^^mer  each  pledg- 
ed his  property  and  credit  that  each  would  pay  to 
procure  provisions  for  the  army  of  the  United  States 
the  sum  of  $25,000.  From  1783  to  1786  Gen.  Mere- 
dith was  in  the  State  Legislature,  and  from  1786  to: 
1788  in  the  Continental  Congress,  upon  the  organ- 
ization of   the  ^'overnment  under  tlie  Constitution  of 


the  United  States,  adopted  the  17th  day  of  Septem- 
l)er,  1787.  President  George  Washington,  on  tlie 
11th  of  Septenil)er,  1789,  nominated  Samuel  Mere- 
dith as  treasurer  of  the  United  States,  which  nomina- 
tion was  readily  eoniirmed  by  the  Senate.  He  held 
the  offi(?e  through  the  administration  of  George  Wash- 
ington and  John  Adams,  for  twelve  years,  when  he 
resigned.  Upon  his  accession  to  the  office  he  was 
warmly  congratulated  by  Alexander  Hamilton,  sec- 
retary of  the  Treasury,  and,  upon  his  retirement, 
Thomas  Jefferson  complimented  him  for  his  integrity 
and  ability.  In  or  about  1774,  Meredith  and  Clymer 
purchased  a  large  amount  of  wild  lands  in  Western 
Virginia,  Eastern  Kentucky,  in  Delaware  and  Sulli- 
van counties,  N,  Y.,  and  in  all  the  north-eastern  coun- 
ties of  Pennsylvania,  aggregating  about  1,868,000 
acres,  worth  about  ten  cents  per  acre.  The  payment 
of  the  taxes  on  said  lands  drew  heavily  on  their  re- 
sources. Owning  a  large  amount  of  land  in  Wayne 
and  Susquehanna  counties,  Mr.  Meredith,  about  1796, 
commenced  making  improvements  at  a  place  in  tlu^ 
township  of  Mount  Pleasant,  which  place  he  after- 
wards named  Belmont.  In  1802,  he  was  assessed  as 
having  sixty  acres  of  improved  land  and  a  dwelling 
liouse  valued  at  twenty  dollars,  but  as  a  non-resident. 
Soon  after  this  he  removed  to  Belmont  and  built  a 
dwelling-house  wliich  cost  six  thousand  dollars.  To 
this  place  he  retired  from  the  turmoil  of  public  life, 
and  spent  the  evening  of  his  days  in  quietude  and  se- 
clusion,   and    there    died,  February    10,  1817,  in    the 


seventy-sixth  year  of  his  age.  He  had  seven  children. 
Noted  among  them  were:  first,  Martha,  mother  of  the 
late  John  M.  Read,  chief -justice  of  Pennsylvania ; 
second,  Anna,  mother  of  Philemon  Dickinson,  Esq., 
(who  was  for  forty-live  years  president  of  the  Trenton 
Banking  Co.),  and  also  of  the  late  Col.  Samuel 
Dickinson ;  third,  Tliomas ;  fourth,  Maria,  who  died 
in  1854.  Thomas  Meredith  was  born  in  Philadelphia, 
in  1779,  and  educated  in  the  University  of  Pennsylva- 
nia, upon  leaving  which,  lie  made  a  voyage  to  India 
and  China.  He  was  admitted  to  the  Philadelphia 
bar  in  1805,  to  the  Wayne  county  bar  in  1810,  and  to 
the  Luzerne  county  bar  in  1816.  He  was  prothono- 
tary  and  registei*  and  recorder  of  Wayne  county,  from 
1818  to  1821,  and  held  other  important  positions.  In 
1824,  he  opened  the  first  coal  mines  below  Carbon- 
dale,  to  which  place  he  removed  his  family,  about 
1830.  He  died  at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  in  March,  1855, 
leaving  one  son,  Samuel  Reese  Meredith,  who  was 
born  in  Wayne  county  in  1823.  In  or  about  the  year 
1855,  the  latter  was  active  in  the  formation  of  a  com- 
pany called  the  Lackawanna  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  The 
enterprise  failed  and  he  lost  all  his  property,  and  bro- 
ken down  and  disheartened,  he  died  in  the  Pennsvlva- 
nia    Hospital,  at  Philadelphia,  in  the  year  1865. 

Samuel  Meredith,  the  first  treasurer  of  the  United 
States,  was  buried  at  Belmont,  in  Mount  Pleasant, 
and  it  has  been,  if  it  is  not  yet,  a  matter  of  doubt  ;is 
to  the  exact  place  of  his  interment. 

"  So  peaceful  rests,  without  a  stone,  a  uame 
That  once  had  honor,  titles,  wealth,  and  fame." 



h  is  strange  that  his  wealthy  children  neglected 
to  erect  a  monument  to  the  memory  of  their  patriotic 
father.  AVould  it  not  become  the  United  States  to 
appropriate  a  few  thousand  dollars  to  perpetuate  the 
memory  of  a  man  who,  in  our  early  days,  gave 
$25,000  to  feed  and  clothe  our  suffering  soldiers,  and 
whose  father  gave  a  like  sum  for  a  like  purpose  i 
Republics  are  accused  of  being  ungrateful,  and  the 
neglect  or  refusal  of  Congress  to  make  such  an  appro- 
priation is  strong  confirmation  of  the  justice  of  the 

It  would  be  unpardonable  to  neglect  mentioning 
Mrs.  Sarah  Benjamin,  who  was  born  in  Goshen, 
Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  17,  1745,  and  who  died 
at  Pleasant  Mount,  in  1859,  aged  over  one  hundred 
and  thirteen  years.  Her  maiden  name  was  Sarah 
Matthews,  and  she  was  married  three  times.  Her 
first  husband  was  a  soldier  in  the  early  struggles  of  the 
E-evolutionary  war  and  died  of  a  wound  received  in 
that  war.  Her  second  husband,.  Aaron  Osborne,  of 
Goshen,  N.  Y.,  was  in  the  same  war  and  came  out  aliv^e. 
She  went  with  him  to  the  war,  and  once  when  he  was 
failing  with  fatigue,  she  took  an  overcoat  and  gun  and 
in  the  night  stood  sentinel  for  him.  Washington,  seeing 
something  peculiar  about  her,  asked,  "Who  put  you 
here?"  She  answered,  "They,  sir,  that  had  a  right 
to."  He  undei*stood  the  situation  and  passed  on. 
She  was  at  tlie  1>attle  of  Yorktown,  passing  to  and 
fro  like  an  angel  of  mercy,  attending  to  and  relie^dng 
the  wounded  soldiers.     Washington,  seeing    and    ad- 


miring  her  courage  and  exposure,  asked,  "  Young 
woman,  are  you  not  afraid  of  the  bullets?"  She  jo- 
cosely replied,  "The  bullets  will  never  cheat  the  gal- 
lows." At  ^vhat  time  her  second  husband  died  I  fail- 
ed to  note  down.  She  had  five  children,  and  outlived 
them  all.  Her  third  husband,  John  Benjamin,  moved 
with  her  into  Mount  Pleasant,  in  1822,  and  died  in 
1826.  She  was  well  pensioned  by  the  government, 
but  for  all  that  she  was  very  industrious,  carding, 
spinning,  and  making  the  linest  of  triple-threaded 
yarn,  and  knitting  it  into  hose.  A  specimen  of  her 
work,  done  when  she  was  one  hundred  years  old,  was 
on  exhibition  at  the  Crystal  Palace  in  London.  I  saw 
her  at  the  house  of  Jonathan  Miller,  Esq.,  at  Pleasant 
Mount,  when  she  was  one  hundred  and  ten  years  of 
age.  I  was  surprised  at  her  cheerfulness  and  vivacity. 
She  said  she  had  heard  that  Esquire  Bushnell  had  some 
very  fine  merino  wool  and  that  she  wished  she  could 
get  some  of  it,  for  she  wanted  to  make  herself  up 
some  clothing  before  she  should  be  too  old  to  work. 
Beside  what  I  liave  written  above  she  related  many 
other  interesting  events  of  her  life.  Ko])le  woman  I 
It  is  a  pleasure  to  remember  her. 

If  we  step  forward  twenty-one  years  to  1822,  we 
find  that  the  taxables  have  increased  to  two  hundred 
and  seventeen,  and  see  the  names  of  many  men  who 
settled  between  1801  and  1822.  Time  and  space  will 
permit  us  to  name  briefly  only  a  few  of  them.  Eldad 
Atwater,  a  merchant,  and  father  of  E.  M.  At  water,  of 
Mount  Pleasant,  and  Heaton  Atwater,  innkeeper,  lo- 


cated  where  Godfrey  Stevenson,  Esq.,  now  lives,  and 
(tarried  on  business  there  several  years. 

James  Bigelow  was  the  father  of  John  and  Howe 
Bigelow.  His  daughters  were  noted  women.  Esquire 
Yale  married  one,  Jonathan  Miller,  Esq.,  one.  Deacon 
Tiffany  one,  and  Clayton  Eogers,  wlio  removed  to  the 
West,  another. 

Buckley  Beardslee's  name  appears  in  the  assessment 
for  Mount  Pleasant  for  the  year  1818,  and  is  therein 
assessed  as  owning  a  house  and  farm.  He  afterward 
removed  to  Indian  Orchard  and  bought  the  farm  of 
AY  alter  Kimble. 

Jedekiah  Bonham,  the  father  of  John  Bonham, 
located  in  the  township,  in  1810,  below  White's  Hol- 
low. His  son,  John  Bonham,  married  Sarah,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Harris  Hamlin,  of  Salem.  He  has  been  dead 
many  years,  but  she  is  yet  living,  aged  ninety  years, 
with  her  son,  Hamlin  Bonham.  She  has  several  children 
living.  Mrs.  Sarah  Bonham  tausiht  a  school  in  Salem 
in  1804,  when  she  was  only  fourteen  years  of  age. 
That  was  seventy-six  years  ago.  Although  she  is  very 
deaf,  her  memory  and  intellectual  powers  are  unim- 
paired . 

William  Stark  and  Luther,  called  Major  Stark,  Avere 
orothers  from  Vermont.  David  and  Hiram  were  sons 
of  Luther.  He  had  a  number  of  daugl iters;  Munson 
Sherwood  married  Carissa;  Colin  Hayden,  Terrissa; 
Horace  White,  Lorinda;  Charles  Stearns,  Julia  Ann; 
and  William  Adams  also  married  one  of  the  dauo-hters. 


Silas  Freeman.     Tlie  following    are  the    names  of 


his  children;  Col.  Calvely  Freeman  was  a  noted  sur- 
veyor. In  1850  he  represented  the  county  in  the  State 
Legislature.  He  was  the  father  of  E.  B.  Freeman,  of 
Honesdale.  Sally,  wife  of  Alvah  W.  Norton,  Esq.; 
Silas,  Jr.,  and  Sidney,  both  deceased;  Polina,  wife  of 
Warren  W.  Norton;  Pamelia,  wife  of  Franklin 
Wheeler;  Fanny,  wife  of  Earl  Wheeler,  Esq.;  Rodney 
Freeman,  who  moved  to  Connecticut,  and  Margaret, 
wife  of  John  B.  Taylor. 

Ezra  Bartholomew  and  Wooster  Bartholomew 
came  into  the  county  together.  Ralzamon  Bartholo- 
mew was  the  only  son  of  Ezra.  His  oldest  daughter 
was  the  wife  of  Baxter  Bic^knell;  after  the  death  of 
Bicknell  she  married  James  Bolkcom,  of  Lebanon 
township.  After  the  death  of  Ezra  Bartholomew  his 
widow^  was  married  to  Elder  Chase,  a  Baptist  preacher. 
The  above  mentioned  three  families  came  into  the 
township  in  or  about  1810  from  Connecticut. 

Dr.  Urial  Wright  settled  in  the  town 'in  ]  814.  He 
came  from  Berkshire  county,  Massachusetts.  His  an- 
<*estors  were  people  of  note.  Asa  Wright,  his  grand- 
father, was  an  architect  and  planned  and  superintended 
the  building  of  Dartmouth  College,  where  his  father. 
Dr.  Asahel  Wright,  (the  father  of  Urial  Wright,)  was 
afterwards  educated,  and  who  w^as  appointed  physician 
and  surgeon  in  the  Navy  during  the  Revolutii^marj^ 
war.  He  had  seven  sons,  all  but  one  of  whom  became 
professional  men.  The  oldest,  Asahel, was  a  lawyer; 
Worthington,  a  Presl)yterian  minister,  who  also  studied 
medicine  and  practiced  for  a  time.    Dr.  Erastus  Wright 


settled  in  Salem  and  practiced  there  during  his  life. 
So  that  at  one  time  there  were  the  father  and  six  sons 
all  in  the  practice  of  medicine.  There  was  not  a  fail- 
ure among  them.  Dr.  TJrial  Wright  practiced  through 
a  wide  extent  of  territory  for  fifty-two  years,  and  died 
in  September,  1866,  aged  seventy-six  years. 

Dr.  Rodney  Harmes,  as  a  physician  and  surgeon, 
located  in  the  village  of  Pleasant  Mount,  in  1837. 
He  was  from  Sullivan  county,  N.  Y.  He  is  the  oldest 
practicing  physician  in  the  county,  and  is  yet  at  his 
post.  His  reading  has  been  extensive  upon  all  sub- 
jects and  his  practice  successful.  He  is  not  in  danger 
of  being  outrivaled,  except  by  his  own  sons. 

The  first  resident  physician  was  Dr.  Asa  Parks,  wlio, 
after  practicing  four  years,  removed  to  Montrose.  The 
next  was  Dr.  John  P.  Kennedy,  who  came  in  1811 
and  removed  in  1815.  Dr.  Jonathan  French  came  in 
with  Dr.  IJrial  Wright.  He  stepped  outside  of  his 
profession  and  engaged  in  lumbering,  which  he  found 
unprofitable.  After  three  years  he  returned  to  Mas- 
sachusetts. After  1834  Dr.  Edwin  Eldridge  practiced 
a  little  for  two  years,  and  Dr.  Frederick  Tracy,  after 
1851,  about  the  same  time.  All  the  above  physicians, 
excepting  Wright  and  Harmes,  lacked  the  gift  of  con- 
tinuance in  well  doing. 

The  White  family.  Ezekiel  White,  from  Massa- 
chusetts, a  lineal  descendant  of  Peregrine  White,  who 
was  the  first  white  child  born  at  Plymouth  Rock  Col- 
lony,  came  to  Mount  Pleasant  by  the  way  of  Cocliec- 
ton,  in  1819,  with  his  son,  Ephraim  Y.  White,  who  at 


that  time  was  sixteen  years  old.  Ezekiel  White  had 
six  sons,  Molby  White,  Ephraim  Y.  White,  Leonard 
White,  Gerrison  White,  Philip  White,  E.  Bates  White, 
and  six  daughters.  Ezekiel  White  made  the  first  axes 
in  Pleasant  Mount.  Then  he  worked  in  White's  PIol- 
low.  Ephraim  Y.  White  married  Elizabeth  Mason, 
of  Mount  Pleasant.  He  moved  to  Dundaff  and  manu- 
factured axes  and  edge-tools  there.  Then  he  w^ent  to 
Seelyville  where  Burke  cfe  Story  were  then  running 
a  shovel  factory,  and  there  for  awhile  he  made  axes 
and  edge-tools.  After  this  he  erected  a  good  house 
and  built  a  substantial  shop  above  No.  2,  on  the  Dela- 
ware and  Hudson  railroad.  The  machinery  was 
run  by  water,  but  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  canal 
needing  the  water,  he  removed  to  or  near  Tracyville 
and  there  built  a  large  factory  which  was  run  by  wa- 
ter-power, and  there  a  large  amount  of  business  was 
done  in  the  manufacture  of  axes,  scythes,  and  edge- 
tools.  The  whole  family  of  Whites  were  noted  foi* 
their  skill  in  the  w^orking  of  iron  and  steel.  Their 
axes  and  scythes  were  generally  used  in  the  county 
and  were  sought  for  abroad.  Since  the  death  of  E. 
Y.  White,  in  1866,  the  factory  at  Tracyville  has  been 
under  the  direction  of  his  son,  Gilbert  White,  who 
sends  to  market  fifty  dozen  of  axes  per  week.  There 
is  a  branch  of  the  White  family  in  the  Lackaw^anna 
Yalley,  wlio  manufacture  axes  of  a  very  superior 

David  Hoi'ton  began  at  the  place  now  occupied  by 
J.  W.  How^ell,  and  there  kept  public  house  during  his 


life-time,  mid  liis  widow,  Cornelia  Horton,  continued 
the  business  many  years. 

John  and  David  Howell  were  both  rated  as  farm- 
ers. Thomas  Lillibridge  married  a  daughter  of  Sam- 
uel Stanton.  She  was  the  first  white  child  born  in 
Mount  Pleasant.  He  was  an  active  lumberman  and 
farmer,  but  finally  removed  to  the  West.  Dr.  Lilli- 
bridge was  his  son. 

x\ndrew  Lester,  of  Revolutionary  stock,  and  his 
^\dfe  were  both  from  Conn.  He  settled  in  the  town 
in  his  youth.  He  died  in  September,  1869,  aged 
ninety-two  years,  and  his  wife  died  soon  after,  n^Qi\ 
ninety  years.  They  were  the  parents  of  Orrin  Lester, 

David  M.  Mapes  was  assessed  as  a  merchant;  his 
occupation  was  valued  at  fiYe  hundred  dollars.  He 
was  the  progenitor  of  the  whole  Mapes  family  in  the 

Ebenezer  and  Thomas  Slayton  w  ere  assessed  as  own- 
ing the  farm  of  O.  Kelly,  on  the  west  branch,  where 
Thomas  used  to  keep  a  licensed  tavern. 

Alpheus  W.  Stephens  and  Sylvanus  Gates  lived 
near  Ezra  Spencer^s,  and  w^ere  the  progenitors  of  the 
Grates  family  in  that  region. 

John  Fletcher  lived  Avest  of  B.  M.  AVih-ox  and  was 
killed  by  the  kick  of  a  horse,  LLis  son,  Philander 
Fletcher,  has  one  of  the  most  profitable  orchards  in 
the  town.  William  and  Benjamin  Fletcher,  farmei's, 
were  twins,  and  brothers  of  John  Fletcher. 

We  find  David  Saunders  assessed  with  a  good  prop- 


erty,  and  also  Sliepard  Saunders,  but  from  whence 
they  came  and  the  exact  time  of  their  settlement  we 
cannot  ascertain.  We  lind  there  are  many  in  the 
county  by  the  name. 

John  Sherwood  was  assessed  with  two  hundred 
acres  of  land  with  improvements  in  1818.  lie  w^as 
the  father  of  John  B.  Sherwood. 

Solomon  Sherwood  was  assessed  in  1822  with  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five  acres  and  improvements. 
Years  afterwards  we  meet  with  the  names  of  John  F, 
Sherwood,  Nathan  J.  Sherwood,  Munson  Sherwood, 
and  Amos  O.  Sherwood  as  prominent  men  in  business 
and  property. 

Benjamin  Wheeler  settled  on  that  pleasant  farm 
now  owned  by  W.  P.  Kennedy.  He  w^as  the  father 
of  Hiram  J.  Wheeler,  of  Clinton,  and  of  Ambrose 
Wheeler,  of  Honesdale.  He  was  a  soldier  of  the 

Truman  Wheeler  was  oi  another  family.  He  set- 
tled on  the  north  and  south  road  below  Belmont.  He 
was  a  man  of  education  and  for  many  years  a  justice 
of  the  peace.     He  removed  to  the  West. 

Aaron  G.  Perliam  was  assessed  in  1818  with  one 
liundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land,  with  buildings  and 
appurtenances,  situated  south-east  of  the  Bigelow 
lake.  This  is  supposed  to  be  the  farm  now  owned  by 
S.  G.  Peril  am. 

The  persons  above  named,  whose  places  of  nativity 
are  not  mentioned,  were  natives  of  the  Eastern  States. 
Joseph  Monroe,  a  native  of    Connecticut,  about  1820 



settled  near  where  the  Johnson's  creek  crosses  the 
Stockport  road.  In  1822,  lie  was  assessed  as  having- 
tifty-tive  acres  of  hind.  He  was  the  fatlier  of  N.  A. 
Monroe,  and  was  an  excellent  mason. 

Patrick  Connor,  Panl  Mc  Avoy,  Wilhani  McAvoy, 
and  John  Fhinagan  were  the  first  Irishmen  we  lind 
assessed  in  the  township.  Before  1840  Philip  Brady 
and  Patrick  McDermot  settled  near  the  Kock  pond. 
Others  settled  on  the  road  extending  from  Paul 
O'NeilFs  to  the  Stockport  road.  The  settlement  was 
called  Bangall,  so  named  by  Joseph  Bass,  of  Lebanon, 
w^io,  admiring  the  rnpid  progress  of  the  settlers,  ex- 
(^laimed,  "They  bang  all!"  whence  it  took  the  name 
of  Bangall.  In  a  few  years  the  sturdy  yeomanry 
felled  the  forest  and  cleared  up  good  farms,  making 
the  country  to  bud  and  blossom  like  the  rose,  and  in  a 
few  years  built  the  St.  Juliana  Roman  Catholic 
(^hun^li,  now  in  chai'ge  of  Rev.  John  J.  Judge,  as  pas- 
tor. At  South  Pleasant  Mountain  is  the  St.  Cecdlia 
Roman  Catholic?  church,  attended  once  a  month  from 
Rock  Lake.  The  post-olMce  in  Bangall  is  called  Rock 
Lake  post-officie.  I^aul  O'Neill,  at  an  early  day,  settled 
on  the  old  Jolm  S.  Rogers  farm,  at  what  exact  time 
w^e  cannot  say,  but  he  w^as  there  according  to  our  re- 
meml)rance  forty  years  ago.  He  was  a  good,  genial, 
kind  man.  No  one  ever  went  hungry  from  his  door. 
The  O'Neills  in  the  township,  who  are  all  prosperous 
farmers,  are  too  numerous  to  be  named. 

About  1840,  the  McGiverns  settled  on  the  west 
side    of    tlie    Dyberi-y,  bchnv  Paul  O^Neill's,  and  n(>w 


have  good  farms.  About  1852,  a  settltMnent  was  be- 
gun bj  the  Fives,  Haggertys,  and  others,  west  of  the 
Dyberry,  in  the    south-east  corner    of    the    township. 

The  vilhige  of  Pleasant  Mt.  has  all  tlie  conveniences 
of  a  village,  with  a  numl)er  of  stores,  shops,  a  black- 
smith-shop, two  taverns,  a  Presbyterian,  a  Methodist, 
and  an  Episcopal  church. 

The  Pleasant  Mount  Academy  within  a  few  years 
past  has  acquired  a  high  celebrity  and  is  deserving  of 
a  liberal  share  of  public  patronage. 

Whites  Yalley  has  a  M.  E.  church,  store,  post-office, 
several  shops,  a  saw-mill,  and  a  good  school  building. 
Joseph  L.  Terrell,  deceased,  lived  many  years  in  this 
place  as  a  merchant  and  a  man  of  business.  There 
are  many  agreeable  associations  connected  with  the 
past  history  of  this  village. 

Mount  Pleasant  produces  good  crops  of  corn,  rye, 
oats,  buckwheat,  and  potatoes;  but  the  soil  is  best 
adapted  for  grazing,  and  for  the  production  of  apples, 
pears,  and  cherries.  More  attention  is  paid  to  dairy- 
ing than  to  any  other  branch  of  farming. 

Until  about  1835,  the  most  of  the  people  were  of 
New  England  origin,  since  wdiich  time  large  acces- 
sions have  been  made  by  Irish  settlers,  wdio  now  com- 
pose nearly  if  not  one-third  of  the  population.  There 
are  a  few  Germans  along  the  Clinton  line,  near  which 
they  have  a  German  Lutheran  church. 

Forty  or  fifty  years  ago,  the  Pages,  Abbots,  Fitzes, 
and  other  English  emigrants  settled  at  different  times 
and  in  different  places,  and  by  tact  and  industry  be- 


came  the  owners  of  good  farms,  among  whom  is  Sam- 
uel Brooking,  who  has  demonstrated  that  farming 
can  be  made  highly  remunerative  in  Mount  Pleasant. 
The  township  has  sixteen  common  scliools,  including 
one  independent  district,  and  four  hundred  and  nine- 
ty-one taxables. 

They  only  who  felt  and  saw  the  suiferings  and  pri- 
vations of  the  first  settlers,  could  justly  descril)e  their 
trials.  They  could  not  live  without  shelter,  food,  and 
raiment;  to  procure  these  required  all  their  care  and 
industry,  and,  after  they  had  done  their  best,  their 
sufferings  were  appalling.  The  howling  wolf  stood 
i>utside  their  folds  ready  to  devour  their  flocks,  while 
the  gaunt  wolf  of  want  entered  their  huts  and  stared 
them  in  their  faces,  but  they  wavered  not.  They  over- 
came almost  insurmountable  obstacles  and  forced  na- 
ture to  yield  them  a  subsistence,  for  they  were  no  ordi- 
nary men.  There  were  no  pigmies  among  them.  The 
taper  lingers  of  modern  effeminacy  could  not  per- 
form the  wonders  which  they  wrought.  After  the 
storm  was  passed  they  smiled  and  forgot  its  ravages. 
Hence  Samuel  Stanton  Avrote  some  poetry,  and,  in 
1796,  sent  it  to  Judge  Preston ;  from  its  tone  one 
might  be  led  to  suppose  that  there  had  never  been 
mucli  want  in  Stanton's  neighborhood,  but  perhaps  he 
claimed  some  poetic  license.  It  is  evident  that  he  was 
not  studying  English  grammar  at  the  time.  The  caption 
of  his  poetry  was  ''The  Golden  Age  of  Mount  Pleas- 
ant, from  1791  to  1796,  while  eighty-two  miles  from 
Easton,  the  seat  of  justice." 


[There  was  no  law  put  in  force  but  the  law  of  forbearance.    Having  no 
law,  the  people  were  a  law  unto  themselves.] 

Secluded  here  from  noise  and  strife, 

We  lead  a  quiet,  peaceful  life. 
No  loungers  here  with  poisonous  breath, 

No  doctors  here  to  deal  out  death. 

No  trainings  here,  nor  such  like  trash. 
To  waste  our  time  and  spend  our  cash ; 

Nor  town-meetings  to  choose  our  masters, 
To  make  us  slaves  and  breed  disasters. 

No  priest  sends  round  his  man  for  pay. 
Because  that  he  did  preach  and  pray ; 

For  we  believe  that  grace  is  free 
To  all  who  wish  to  taste  and  see. 

No  jockey  merchants  here  prevail, 

To  trust  their  goods,  then  send  to  jail ; 

Nor  fiddling,  strolling  players  dare 
Infest  the  place,  our  youth  to  snare. 

8ome  slaves,  to  forms  may  now  inquire, 
Have  you  no  court-house,  jail,  or  squire? 

While  all  are  honest  and  sincere, 
What  need  of  court  or  prison  here  ? 

Have  we  a  cause  to  settle?  then 

We  leave  it  to  judicious  men 
To  search  the  matter  well,  and  we 

To  their  just  judgments  do  agree. 

The  noise  of  war,  or  the  excise, 

Does  neither  vex  our  ears  nor  eyes ; 

For  we  are  free  from  every  tax. 

And  stay  at  home  and  swing  the  ax . 

Our  com  we  pound,  our  wheat  we  boil. 

Thus  eat  the  product  of  our  soil. 
Sweet  Independence  here  does  reign, 

And  we've  no  reason  to  complain. 


Yet  we,  like  others,  still  look  on 

Till  we  shall  get  our  mill  to  run ; 
Then  we'll  not  jjound  and  boil  again, 

But  live  in  style  like  other  men. 

From  sheep  we  make  our  clothing  warm, 
In  which  we  face  the  wintry  storm ; 

They  likewise  give  us  meat  and  light. 
To  feast  by  day  and  see  by  night. 

Do  we  want  wild  meat,  then  we  kill 
Elk,  deer,  or  bear,  and  eat  our  fill. 

Sometimes  we've  fowl  and  sometimes  fish, 
But  rarely  meet  an  empty  dish. 

Here  healing  herbs  and  roots  do  grow. 
And  sugar-jiiice  from  maples  flow. 

Molasses,  vinegar,  and  beer. 
Are  made  from  sugar- orchards  here. 

Sometimes  we  live  on  pork  and  peas,  • 
Then  milk  and  honey,  butter,  cheese; 

Plain  food  and  exercise  agree 

To  make  us  happy  while  we're  free. 

Saimiel  Stanton,  near  the  close  of  his  life,  removed 
from  Mount  Pleasant  to  reside  in  the  western  part  of 
this  State.  He  had  l)een  appointed  a  commissioner  to 
construct  a  State  road  in  that  region.  He  left  his 
family  on  the  west  l)ranch  and  went  on  business  to 
Harrisburg.  On  his  return  lie  came  to  Belief  on  te  in 
Centre  county  and  stopped  with  his  friend,  Judge 
Burnside,  where  he  was  taken  sick  and  died,  April  15th, 
1816.  He  assisted  in  organizing  the  first  Baptist 
Church  in  Mount  Pleasant.  He  is  represented  as  hav- 
ing been  a  most  worthy  man. 



rpniS  was  one  of  the  original  townships,  and  once  in- 
1  eluded  Manchester,  Scott,  and  part  of  Preston.  In 
its  present  contracted  limits  it  is  bounded  eastward  by 
the  Delaware  river,  south  by  Manchester,  west  l)y 
Mount  Pleasant,  Preston,  and  Scott,  and  terminating 
in  its  northern  extremity  upon  Shrawder's  creek.  High 
ridges  of  hills,  except  where  they  are  broken  by  the 
passage  of  streams,  rise  above  the  river  alluvions. 
Westward  of  the  hills  are  some  good,  arable  lands, 
including  Kingsbury  Hill,  Jericho,  Brownsville,  Wal- 
lersville,  tlie  southern  part  of  tlie  township,  and  the 
vicinity  eastward  and  northward  of  the  village  of 
Como.  Fork  Mountain  pond.  Lizard  lake.  High  lake, 
Preston  lake,  and  Nabby's  lake  are  tlie  chief  bodies 
of  water.  The  main  streams  running  into  the  Dela- 
ware are  the  Shehawken,*  Big  Equimmk,  and  Tock 
Pollock.  The  river  flats  were  taken  up  and  settled  at 
an  early  day.     It  was  many  years  before  any  clearings 

*This  is  the  orthography  used  in  okl  records.  In  one  in- 
stance it  is  spelled  "  Sliehocking. "  But  the  word  is  now  some- 
times spelled  "Chohocking,"  which  is  neither  Indian  nor  Eng- 



woi'o  iiifule  or  any  house  built  upon  the  uphmds.  From 
an  assessment  made  by  Bhickall  W.  Ball,  in  1806,  it 
appears  that  there  were  in  the  township  twenty-live 
houses,  assessed  to  twenty-one  persons,  valued  at 
5^6,229 ;  N'aluation  of  personal  property  and  seated 
lands  in  180B,  $11,454;  valuation  of  same  in  1878, 
$280,273;  number  of  neat  eattle  in  1806,  sixty;  valu- 
ation of  same,  $635.00;  number  in  1878,  one  hundred 
and  twenty-seven ;  valuation  of  the  same,  $3,360. 

Copy  of  part  of  said  assessment  of  1806,  showini*: 
the  names  of  persons  owning  houses,  mills,  neat  cat- 
tle, etc.: 

2-       S 














in   ; 


mackallW.  Ball...       8 

John  Bavriger 5    ...I 

Simon  Peter  Cole. .       2!  ... 

Nathan  Cole 5|  ... 

Joseph  Cole '      2   255 ' 

Peter  Cole 5   249, 

Abraham  Dillon...,    12   328, 
Geo.  W,  Hubhell...!     4    ...; 

Adam  Kniver j    40  560 

eTohn  Knight •   ...' 

Nathan  Mitchell.. i  ...| 
Thaddeus  Newton,  i    20 

Paul  Newton j      5|  ...j 

Benjamin  Owen...!    30|  ... 
Samuel  Preston...    130     711 
Sylvester  Roylston    . . .  i  ... 
Benjamin  Sands...     20    ...! 

Thomas  Travis 20  470 

Benjamin  Thomas      4  256 

Oliver  Tyler '  ...,  445 j 

William  White....'      4'  ... 

Eleazer  Ogden |  ...    ...| 

Ezra  Newton i  .,.!  ...1 




2  '$ 



1  ! 
1  I 
1  i 

1  i 
1  i 

1  i 
1  i 

1  ! 
1  i 

1  I 

1  I 
4  ! 



!  2, 

s  I  > 

1  %  20 


$  10 

1  <     80 
. .   75 

3  I  '366 































The  first  man  who  commenced  on  the  Delaware  river 
in  Buckingham,  was  Samuel  Preston,  Sen.,  a  Quaker, 
born  in  Bucks  county,  Pennsylvania.  He  began  to 
make  an  improvement  as  early  as  1789.  He  had  been 
all  through  Luzerne  county  and  the  northern  part  of 
Wayne  county  examining  the  country  for  the  selection 
of  a  proper  site  for  starting  a  village,  under  the  patron- 
age of  Henry  Drinker,  a  wealthy  Quaker  of  Phila- 
delphia, and  a  large  land-holder.  A  place  was  selected 
upon  tlie  Susquehanna  river,  now  in  Susquehanna 
county.  Pa.,  and  called  Harmony,  which  location  suit- 
ed Drinker,  but  Preston  preferred  Stockport.  He, 
however,  assisted  in  laying  out  and  building  up  Har- 
mony, from  wdience  men  went  to  help  Preston  on  wdtji 
his  improvements,  and  a  road  was  cut  out  from  Stock- 
port to  Harmony.  Mr.  Preston  named  his  chosen 
location  Stockport,  and  the  township  Buckingham — 
names  well  known  in  England  from  whence  the  Pres- 
ton family  came  in  the  days  of  William  Penn.  His 
correspondence  was  very  extensive,  the  most  of  which 
he  preserved.  He  was  a  man  of  genius  and  a  good 
mathematician.  He  built  the  first  mills  in  Bucking- 
ham, and  in  1806  had  cleared  up  one  hundred  and 
thirty  acres  of  land.  He  greatly  promoted  the  settle- 
ment of  the  town,  every  one  being  welcome.  He  made 
frequent  journeys  to  Bucks  county.  He  brought  his 
iron  and  merchandise  up  the  Delaware  river  in  Dui-- 
ham  boats,  which  were  pushed  up  the  river  by  setting- 
poles,  except  in  ascending  Foul  Rift  and  other  swift 
waters,  w^here  tlie  boats  were  drawn  upward    by  long 



ropes  extending  to  the  shore.  In  1793,  he  was  mar- 
ried in  Bucks  county  to  Mercy  Jenkins,  a  Quakeress. 
Within  a  year  he  moved  his  wife  to  Stockport.  He 
had  many  peculiarities,  l)ut  they  were  harmless.*  For 
one  lialf  of  the  men  that  he  knew  he  had  nicknames, 
and  many  of  them  were  laughal)ly  appropriate.  He 
was  appointed  the  lirst  associate  judge  of  the  county, 
and  at  December  sessions,  1798,  charged  the  first  grand 
jury  impaneled  in  the  county.  At  a  good  old  age  he 
died  peacefully  at  his  residence  at  Stockport. 

Samuel  Preston,  Sen.,  left  three  sons  and  one  daugh- 
ter. Paul  S.  Preston,  the  oldest  of  the  sons,  married 
Maria,  a  daughter  of  Samuel  H.  Mogridge,  who  came 
from  England  and  settled  in  Mtmchester  township. 
She  was  a  cousin  of  the  celebrated  Matthias  Mogridge, 
Esq.,  and,  although  older  than  her  luisband,  outlived 
liim  several  years.  She  was  a  remarkable  woman,  in- 
dustrious, frugal,  hospitable,  and  never  forgetful  of 
the  poor  and  needy.  She  brought  up  fifteen  orplian 
children.     Surely  her  memory  is  blessed.     Having  his 

*Once  the  Judge  asked  a  man  to  dine  with  him  who  said  he. 
was  not  at  all  hungry.  Soon  after  the  man  said,  "I  guess  I 
will  take  some  dinner,"  and  drew  up  to  the  table.  The  Judge 
reached  over  and  took  away  the  man's  plate,  knife,  and  fork. 
Supposing  it  to  be  a  joke,  the  man  asked  Mrs.  Preston  for  a 
new  set.  "Thee  need  not  let  him  have  any,"  said  the  Judge. 
Then  addressing  the  man,  he  said,  "Thee  cannot  now  eat  at 
my  table.  Thee  said  thee  was  not  hungry.  If  thee  is  not  hmi- 
gry,  thee  ought  not  to  eat ;  and  if  thee  is  hungry,  then  thee 
hast  told  a  lie,  and  I  tlo  not  wish  to  eat  with  a  liar."  The 
man  left. 


father's  assistance,  Paul  early  acquired  a  good  educa- 
tion, and  in  1828  was  elected  sheriff  of  the  county, 
and  in  1835  was  appointed,  bv  Gov.  Ritner,  clerk  of 
tlie  several  courts  of  Wayne  county,  and  register 
and  recorder.  He  had  a  good  library,  was  Avell  ac- 
(juainted  with  all  the  English  classics,  and  fully  under- 
stood the  history  and  Constitution  of  his  own  country. 
Having  Quaker  proclivities,  he  was  conscientiously 
opposed  to  slavery.  He  was  honest  in  all  things  and 
he  never  attempted  to  make  the  worse  appear  the  l)et- 
ter  reason.  His  professions  were  his  convictions.  As 
he  advanced  in  life  he  was  often  heard  to  say  that  he 
had  received  his  three  sufficient  warnings  and  that  he 
hoped  that  his  exit  would  be  sudden.  His  prayer  was 
Nouchsafed  him.  He  died  suddenly  at  Stockport  sta- 
tion, in  September,  1873,  aged  about  seventy-seven 
years.     "  After  life's  fitful  fever  he  sleeps  well." 

Samuel  Preston,  Jr.,  Avas  an  excellent  farmer,  and 
while  he  was  able  to  work,  superintended  the  whole 
business  upon  the  farm.  He  was  an  unwavering 
abolitionist.  His  hatred  of  slavery  was  intense.  He 
was  ever  ready  to  contribute  of  liis  means  to  aid  the 
fugitive  slave.  His  opposition  to  slaAcry  arose  from 
his  hatred  of  all  wrong,  and  lie  could  not  bear  to  see 
pain  unnecessarily  inflicted  upon  any  of  God's  crea- 
tures. ''  Blessed  are  the  merciful  for  they  shall  ohtain 
mercy."  Samuel  died  at  Stockport  about  three  years 
before  Paul. 

Warner  M.  Preston  was  a  lumberman  and  spent 
much  of  his  time  in  Philadelphia  in  selling  the  lumber 


that  was  yearly  run  from  Stockport.  He  was  a  niatlie- 
matician  and  surveyor;  quiet  and  unobtrusive,  with  a 
well-balanced  mind.  His  views  were  never  extreme 
upon  any  subject.     He  died  in  Philadelphia  in  1872. 

Hannah,  the  only  daughter  of  Judge  Preston,  mar- 
ried Benjamin  Randall,  an  Englishman.  She  is  yet 
living  in  the  township  and  is  the  mother  of  Benjamin 
Randall,  Jr.,  and  Peter  Randall,  who  are  well-known 
lumbermen.  J.  A.  Pitcher  married  a  daughter  of 
Mrs.  Randall.  Mrs.  Pitclier  was  a  great  favorite  with 
the  Preston  family. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Preston  bequeathed  and  devised  their 
property  to  Ann,  their  only  living  daughter.  They 
had  one  other  daughter  who  married  Allan  Hoxie. 
She  died  many  years  ago. 

Stockport  is  almost  a  village  of  itself.  Two  dwell- 
ing-houses, with  numerous  barns  and  sheds,  one  store, 
a  blacksmith  sliop,  a  grist-mill,  a  steam  circular  saw- 
mill, and  a  school-house  whicli  was  built  by  the  Pres- 
tons,  with  about  two  hundred  acres  of  improved  land, 
make  up  the  place. 

Knowing  as  I  do  the  moral,  social,  and  intellectual 
excellencies  of  the  Preston  family,  and  making  all  due 
allowance  for  the  frailties  of  human  nature,  truth 
compels  me  to  say,  that  I  never  shall  look  upon  their 
like  again. 

Before  the  building  of  the  New  York  and  Erie 
Railroad,  long,  capacious,  and  graceful  canoes  were 
numerous  along  the  Delaware  river,  nearly  all  of 
which    have   disappeared.       Warner    P.    Knight,    of 


Stockport,  1ms  one,  which  would  have  been  admired 
in  former  times.  Such  is  its  capacity  that  he  has  con- 
veyed the  burthen  of  a  ton  in  it  from  Equinunk  to 

The  Knight  family.  In  or  about  1789,  Capt.  John 
Knight,  then  about  eleven  years  old,  came  with  Sam- 
uel Preston  to  the  large  flats  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river  below  Stockport,  where  Canope  and  another 
Indian  lived.  Being  very  hungry,  they  saw  a  cow 
that  was  eating  a  pumpkin,  and  they  took  it  away  from 
her,  built  up  a  fire,  roasted  and  ate  it.  Capt.  John 
Knight  afterwards  married  Kebecca  Jenkins,  a  sister 
of  Judge  Preston's  wife.  The  sons  of  Captain  John 
Knight  were  AVilliam,  Daniel,  John,  and  Richard. 
A¥illiam  Knight,  Sen.,  a  brother  of  Captain  John 
Knight,  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  in  1775.  In  1802 
he  was  appointed  by  Jefferson  as  sailing-master  of  the 
frigate  Philadelphia,  and  was  sent  by  Bainbridge  to 
intercept  a  Tripolitan  vessel.  His  vessel  ran  on  a 
rock  and  he  and  the  ship's  crew  of  three  hundred  and 
eleven  men  were  taken  prisoners  and  kept  about  two 
years,  when  they  were  ransomed  by  the  payment  of 
$60,000  by  the  government.  Pine  lumber  was  cut  at 
Stockport,  ran  down  the  river,  and  sold  to  the  govern- 
ment wdiich  shipped  it  to  Tripoli  and  turned  it  in  to 
pay  a  part  of  said  ransom  money. 

Abram  Dillon,  from  Bucks  county,  began  above 
Equinunk.  John  K.  Dillon,  deceased,  William  Dil- 
lon, deceased,  and  Hamilton  Dillon,  living  in  Han- 
cock township,  Delaware  county,  Is .  Y.,  were  his  sons. 


The  old  homestead  is  in  the  possession  of  tlie  Dillon 

John  Barrager  was  from  near  Albany,  IS^.  Y.  One 
of  his  sons,  Henry,  Hves  near  Great  Bend  ;  another, 
George,  lives  in  the  town,  near  the  river;  and  John 
K.  Barrager  was  killed  in  the  late  war. 

George  W.  Hnbbell,  a  Avheelwright,  was  the  father 
of  Hon.  Thomas  J.  Hnbljell,  who  once  represented 
the  county  in  our  Legislature. 

Jonathan  Jones,  once  a  commissioner  of  Wayne 
county,  lived  near  the  mouth  of  the  Shehawken,  where 
some  of  his  family  are  now  located. 

The  names  of  Thaddeus  Newton,  Paul  I^sewton, 
and  Ezra  [N^ewton  are  found  among  the  oldest  records 
of  the  township.  Ezra  ^N^ewton,  Jr.,  now  lives  near 
the  suspension  bridge  whicli  spans  the  Delaware,  near 

Benjamin  Sands  and  Thomas  Travis  made  import- 
anl:  improvements  at  an  early  day. 

Blackall  W.  Ball  lived  below  the  mouth  of  Shraw- 
der's  creek,  and  BalFs  Eddy  was  named  after  him. 
From  what  we  can  learn  al)out  him  he  Avas  a  Quaker, 
from  near  Philadelphia.  The  fai'm  Avas  owned  many 
years  by  James  More,  Esq.  Previous  to  his  purchase 
at  Ball's  Eddy,  Mr.  More  lived  in  Preston  township. 

Gideon,  James,  and  Thomas  Woodman  see  located 
on  the  road  called  the  *'  Stockport  road,"  eastward  of 
the  Upper  Twin  pond;  they  having  come  from  Connec- 
ticut. They  were  there  in  1819,  perliaps  earlier. 
Gideon  Woodmansee  was  the  o-randfather  of  J.  Man- 


uiiig,  Jedediah,  Samuel,  Lvinan,  and  Horace  Wood- 
mansee.  Lyman  Woodmansee  was  a  carpenter ;  the 
rest  were  farmers  and  lumbermen. 

Brownsville  took  its  name  from  a  man  by  the  name 
of  Brown,  wlio  built  a  tannery  upon  the  outlet  of 
High  lake,  which  tannery  is  now  owned  by  Mr.  E-. 
H.  Wales.  There  is  a  post-office  at  the  place,  and  a 
large  store. 

The  first  settler  above  BalFs  Eddy  was  Peter  Cole 
who  died  there  and  left  his  possessions  to  his  son, 
John  Cole,  w^ho  was  known  to  every  lumberman  on 
the  Delaware. 

Elias  Kingsl)ury,  from  Connecticut,  was  the  first 
settler  at  Kino^sburv  Hill.  He  married  Rachel,  a 
daughter  of  Thomas  Travis.  He  has  two  children 
yet  living  at  the  pi  nee,  namely,  Thomas  Kingsbury, 
and  Rachel,  wife  of  William  Coddington. 

Abel  Belknap,  from  Stillwater,  N.  Y.,  had  a  large 
family  who  settled  in  different  parts  of  the  county. 
George  H.  Belknap,  and  D.  B.  Belknap,  Esq.,  are 
prominent  citizens  of  the  place.  The  latter  was  from 
Fnadilla,  N.  Y.,  and  was  of  another  family. 

Equinunk  will  be  described  under  Manchester,  be- 
ing mostly  in  that  township.  Buckingham  has  ten 
common  schools. 



rpiIIS  township  is  bounded  north-west  by  Buekini;'- 
A  ham,  north-east  and  east  by  the  Delaware  river, 
and  south  by  Damascus  and  Lebanon,  and  was  taken 
from  Buckingham  and  erected  into  a  township,  Aug. 
30th,  1826.  For  many  years  before  its  erection  it 
was  known  as  "  The  Union  Settlement."  It  took  that 
name  from  the  following  circumstances:  Samuel 
Preston  and  John  Hilborn,  in  tlie  spring  of  1790, 
made  a  quantity  of  maple-sugar  and  sent  it  to  Henry 
Drinker.  Tlie  kettle  in  wliich  tlie  su2,ar  was  made 
was  taken  from  Trenton  to  Stockport  in  a  Durham 
boat.  Miss  Ann  Preston  says  that  the  kettle  is  yet  at 
Stockport.  Mr.  Drinker,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Preston, 
dated  Philadelpliia,  1st,  7mo.,  1790,  wrote  about  tlie 
sugar  as  follows  :  "  I  sent  a  box  of  thy  sugar  to  Rob- 
ert Morris,  desiring  it  miglit  be  presented  to  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  who  was  pleased  to 
signify  his  satisfaction  at  the  receipt  thereof,  in  a  let- 
ter directed  to  me,  of  which  the  following  is  a  copy : 

*New  York,  June  18,  1790. 
Sir  : — Mr.  Morris  lias  presented  me,  in  your  name,  with  a 
box  of   maple- sugar,  which  I  am  much  pleased  to  find  of   so 
good  a  quality.     I  request  you  to  accept  my  thanks  for  this 


mark  of  attention  ;  and  being  persuaded  that  considerable  ben- 
efit may  be  derived  to  our  country,  from  a  due  prosecution 
of  this  promising  object  of  industry,  I  wish  every  success  to  its 
cultivation,  which  the  persons  concerned  in  it  can  themselves 
desire.     I  am,  Sir,  your  most  obedient  servant, 

George  Washington.' 

So  thee  sees  liow  I  am  advanc^ed  to  a  correspond- 
ence with  the  Kino;  of  America.  Upon  the  whole, 
it  is  my  opinion  the  subject  deserves  the  countenance 
and  encouragement,  not  only  of  one,  but  of  all  the 
great  men  of  the  United  States. ")  A  good  deal  of 
time  has  been  spent  with  J.  Hilborn  in  forming  di- 
rections for  pursuing  this  business  in  the  best  way, 
and  in  describing  the  necessary  utensils,  &c.  It  has 
been  concluded  that  to  diffuse  the  same  through  the 
country  where  it  may  be  useful,  it  would  be  best  to 
print  a  small  pamphlet,  and  in  pursuance  of  this  con- 
clusion, Joseph  Jones  and  partner  have  committed 
part  to  tlie  press."  In  those  days  the  land-owners, 
having  lands  covei-ed  with  hard  wood,  imagined  that 
upon  burning  the  wood  the  ashes  might  be  profitably 
made  into  potash. 

Stimulated  by  the  ardor  of  Henry  Drinker,  who 
owned  a  large  quantity  of  land  in  Manchester,  a  com- 
pany was  formed  in  Philadelphia,  18th  of  September, 
1792,  "  To  be  called  the  Union  Society,  for  promoting 
the  manufacture  of  sugar  from  the  maple-tree  and  fur- 
thering the  interests  of  agriculture  in  Pennsylvania. 
The  Society's  attention  to  be  primarily  and  principally 
confined  to  that  purpose  and  to  tlie  manufacturing  of 
pot  and  pearl  ashes."    The  trustees  were  Henry  Drink- 


226  HIkSTORY    of    WAYNE    COUNTY. 

er,  Samuel  Preston,  Timothy  Pickering,  Samuel 
Ilodgdon,  Samuel  Pleasants,  and  Samuel  M.  Fox. 
The  society  l)ought  of  Henry  Drinker  eight  tracts  of 
land  in  the  warrantee  names  of  Thomas  Stewardson, 
Benjamin  Wilson,  Mary  Sandwith,  Samuel  Simpson, 
T.  P.  Cope,  John  Thomas,  George  Drinker,  and  John 
Drinker,  making  three  thousand  one  hundred  and 
thirty-three  acres,  called  for  convenience  three  thou- 
sand acres,  divided  into  sixty  shares  at  live  pounds  per 
share;  total  three  hundred  pounds,  (probably  Penn- 
sylvania currency,  S2.66|  to  the  pound.)  One  half 
was  to  be  paid  down.  Thirty  persons,  mostly  Quakers, 
took  the  shares.  Besides  the  trustees  there  were  other 
noted  men  among  the  sliare-holders,  viz:  Samuel 
Meredith,  Thomas  Stewardson,  Dr.  Benjamin  Push, 
Judge  James  Wilson,  Robert  Smitli,  John  Nicholson, 
Pobert  Morris,  Jeremiah  Warden,  and  others.  The 
Society  had  a  constitution  and  by-laws,  dated  August 
23d,  1792.  In  1796  the  property  was  inventoried. 
There  were  thirty-seven  potash  kettles.  Some  of  them 
were  brought  up  the  Delaware  in  Durham  boats,  others 
of  them  vrere  conveyed  fifty  miles  overland  from 
Esopus.  They  had  two  hundred  pine  and  ash  troughs, 
and  one  thousand  made  of  bass-wood;  they  had  cleared 
up  tliirty-eight  acres  of  land,  built  three  houses  and  a 
saw-mill.  The  personal  property  was  sold  to  Samuel 
Preston  and  Henry  Drinker.  From  an  exhibit  made 
by  Samuel  Preston,  the  sli are-holders  did  not  lose  by 
the  enterprise,  but  it  probably  did  not  prove  as  profi- 
table as  tliey  expected  it  w^ould.     The    business   was 


discontinued  in  1796.  Afterwards  Samuel  Meredith 
undertook  the  manufacture  of  potash  near  Behnont 
and  could  not  make  it  pay.  An  undertaking  like 
that  of  the  Union  Society  under  like  circumstances  in 
the  present  day,  on  account  of  a  better  understanding 
of  the  business,  could  probably  be  made  profitable.  It 
is  not  probable  that  the  motives  of  the  Society  were 
mercenary,  but  the  land-holders  were  benefited  by 
having  their  lands  brought  into  notice. 

The  main  streams  in  the  town  are  the  Big  Equinunk 
and  its  south  branch,  and  Little  Equinunk  wdth  its 
divers  tributaries.  Tlie  main  branch  of  this  stream  is 
the  outlet  of  Duck  Harbor  lake.  The  chief  ponds  are 
Price's  and  Lord's.  High  steep  hills  crowd  the  Dela- 
ware. The  south-western  and  south-eastern  parts  are 
thinly  settled,  while  the  central  portion  and  the  lands 
along  the  Little  Equinunk  are  the  most  thickly  peo- 
pled. There  is  yet  much  good  land  wliich  lies  in  its 
primitive  state,  though  it  may  have  been  stripped  of 
its  timber. 

According  to  the  first  triennial  assessment  made  in 
1827,  there  were  twenty-nine  taxables  with  twenty-one 
houses  valued  at  $410.  Nathan  Mitchell  w^as  assessed 
as  living  in  this  town  in  1804  and  called  a  mill-wright. 
James  Lord,  American  born,  though  his  father  w^as  an 
Englishman  and  his  mother  a  Welsh  woman,  was  as- 
sessed, in  1812,  as  owning  four  acres  of  plow^-land, 
and  439  acres  of  unimproved  land,  and  one  house, 
though  it  is  claimed  that  he  ])egan  in  1810.  He  set;- 
tled  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  the  Taylors,  one  mile 


below  Eqniimnk  bridge,  and,  in  or  about  1836,  sold 
out  said  lands  and  farm  to  William  Weston,  Esq.,  and 
removed  and  boviglit  land  about  the  pond  Avhicli  was 
named  after  him.  "There  are  Lords  many."  James 
Lord  was  the  progenitor  of  the  Lords  in  Manchester, 
except  the  one  called  "  Equinunk  John,"  who  lived  at 
Lordville  depot. 

The  following  names  are  found  up(^n  said  assessment 
of  1827:  Jonathan  Adams,  farmer;  William  Adams, 
single;  James  Carter,  farmer;  Isaac  Cole,  farmer; 
Emanuel  Cole,  farmer;  Abraham  Hoover,  laborer; 
David  Howell,  mechanic ;  Jolm  Kellam,  farmer;  Jacob 
Kellam,  farmer;  George  Kellam,  single;  Zepthah  Kel- 
lam, single  ;  John  Jenkins,  farmer ;  James  Lord,  farm- 
er; John  Lord,  Jr.,  farmer;  Ricliard  Lord,  steersman; 
David  Lay  ton,  farmer;  Jacob  Lord,  single;  Samuel  K. 
Mogridge,  farmer;  Charles  Mogridge,  farmer;  Mat- 
thias Mogridge,  farmer;  Anna  Mitchell,  widow;  Sam- 
uel Price,  blacksmith ;  Jonathan  Peirce,  single ;  Henry 
Peirce,  single;  Sabina  Smeed,  laborer;  Thomas  Todd, 
tailor;  Nathaniel  Tyler,  farmer;  Anson  Tyler,  single; 
Jacob  W.  Welsh,  justice. 

John  Kellam  was  taxed  in  1818  as  having  eighteen 
acres  of  improved  land  and  three  hundred  and  fifty 
acres  of  unimproved,  and  in  1827  as  having  ninety 
acres  of  improved  and  three  hundred  and  eighty  acres 
of  unimprov^ed  land  and  one  mill.  Jacob  Kellam, 
who  was  a  farmer  and  lumberman  extensively  known, 
lived  near  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Equinunk,  and  had 
sixty  acres  of  improved  and  live  hundred  and  sixty-nine 


acres  of  unimproved  land.  George  Kellam,  a  mer- 
chant for  many  years  at  Pine  Flats,  had  forty-six 
acres  of  improved  and  two  hundred  and  ninety-four 
acres  of  unimproved  land,  and  two  houses  assessed  at 
one  hundred  dollars  each.  Jacob  Kellam  had  a  large 
number  of  sons  of  vigorous,  powerful  physiques,  some 
of  whom  are  yet  residing  in  the  neighborhood  of  Lit- 
tle Equinunk.  Jacob  W.  Welsh  was  by  trade  in  Lon- 
don a  cabinet-maker,  and  came  to  this  country  about 
1813.  He  was  taxed  in  1827  as  having  seventy-five 
acres  of  improved  and  seventy-live  acres  of  unimprov- 
ed land.  He  was  an  intelligent  man  and  was  for 
many  years  a  justice  of  the  peace.  He  had  two  sons, 
George  and  Henry.  The  latter  is  a  practicing  attor- 
ney in  Hancock,  N.  Y.  George  is  dead.  William 
J.,  a  son  of  Henry,  is  engaged  in  the  practice  of  the 
law  in  partnei'ship  with  his  father,  and  in  1877  repre- 
sented his  district  in  the  State  Assembly.  William 
Adams  made  said  assessment;  he  w^as  from  Delaware 
Co.,  N.  Y.,  and  afterwards  removed  to  Lebanon. 

Samuel  K.  Mogridge  started  for  the  United  States 
in  1812,  before  the  declaration  of  war  by  the  United 
States  against  Great  Britain,  and  the  ship  in  which 
he  and  his  family  took  passage  was  diverted  from  its 
intended  destination  and  put  into  Quebec.  It  caused 
him  much  trouble,  delay,  and  expense  to  make  his 
way  through  the  two  armies  to  Manchester  township, 
which  was  afterAvards  named  by  him.  But  the  noble 
old  Englishman,  inspired  by  that  resolution  which 
(characterized  the  early  settlers  of  New  England,  never 


faltered,  but  settled  in  the  very  heart  of  Manchester, 
midst  the  dark  and  tangled  forests,  encircled  at  night  by 
hooting  owls  and  howling  wolves.  He  was  the  nucleus 
around  which  many  of  his  countrymen  gathered,  until  it 
was  called  the  Union  English  Settlement.  The  assess- 
ment aforesaid  stated  that  he  had  thirty  acres  of  improv- 
ed and  seventy  acres  of  unimproved  land.  Afterwards 
he  acquired  other  lands.  He  was  the  father  of  Maria 
Mogridge,  the  wife  of  Paul  S.  Preston,  that  noble 
woman  whose  deeds  of  goodness  and  charity  cannot 
be  forgotten,  and  whose  mantle,  upon  her  departure, 
fell  most  gracefully  upon  Ann,  hei*  only  surviving 
daughter.  Matthias  Mogridge  was  a  nephew  of  Sam- 
uel R.  Mogridge  and,  of  course,  was  a  cousin  of  Mrs. 
Paul  S.  Preston.  To  use  the  language  of  Mr.  Mog- 
ridge, he  says :  "  I  was  born  in  England,  and  sailed  in 
a  British  frigate  that  fought  Jackson  at  New  Orleans 
under  Packingham  and  Gibbs  and  took  back  to  Eng- 
land what  few  the  Yankees  left  alive.  Then  I  went 
in  the  Nortliumberland,  that  conveyed  Napoleon  Bo- 
naparte to  St.  Helena.  I  was  an  officer's  servant,  or,  in 
other  words,  a  ''  powder-monkey.'''  I  returned  to  Eng- 
land, was  paid  off,  took  my  money,  and  shortly  sailed 
to  New  York,  in  1817.  In  1820,  I  came  to  Wayne 
county,  and  have  lived  here  ever  since.  After  the 
organization  of  the  township,  I  sat  at  the  first  election 
board,  voted  the  first  ticket,  and  had  the  first  child 
born  in  the  new  township.  I  have  now  thirty-two 
grandchildren  and  nine  great-grandchildren,  and  ex- 
pect more  soon.  One  of  my  grandsons  served  three  years 


in  the  late  civil  war.  I  am  seventy-eight  years  old. 
When  I  first  came  into  these  woods  I  left  my  trunk 
and  box  of  tools  at  Benjamin  Conklin's  tavern,  on  the 
Newburg  turnpike,  eight  miles  from  uncle  Samuel's 
house.  I  wanted  uncle  to  let  me  take  the  oxen  and 
sled  and  go  for  tliem.  He  said  it  was  impossible  as 
the  road  was  full  of  trees  turned  up  by  the  roots ;  but 
at  last  I  went.  Some  of  the  trees  I  cut  out,  some  I 
drove  over,  some  I  went  under,  and  some  I  drove 
around.  It  took  me  longer  to  make  that  trip  than  it 
would  now  to  go  to  New  York  city  and  back." 

Mr.  Mogridge  had  some  peculiar  gifts.  He  had  a 
strong,  sonorous,  far-reaching  voice.  "If  I  had  his 
voice,"  said  the  Hon.  Geo.  W.  Woodward,  "  I  could 
command  or  control  any  legislative  body  in  the  United 
States."  Besides,  he  had  an  inexhaustible  fund  of 
wit,  and  in  amplification  was  unrivaled.  He  could 
transform  a  minnow  into  a  whale,  enlarge  an  ant-hill 
into  a  mountain,  and  magnify  a  lightning-bug  into  jv 
thunder-storm.  Mogridge,  having  been  naturalized, 
was  elected  constable  of  the  township,  and  afterwards 
elected  justice  of  the  peace,  and,  being  in  the  central 
part  of  the  township,  was  appointed  postmaster.  As 
the  two  offices  cannot  by  law  be  held  at  once  by  the 
same  person,  some  one,  envious  of  his  popularity, 
caused  him  to  be  indicted  for  holding  two  offices  of 
profit  and  trust,  one  under  the  State  and  the  other  un- 
der the  general  government.  Upon  being  asked 
whether  he  was  guilty  or  not  guilty,  he  assured  the 
court  that  lie  was  wrongfully  indicted  for  holding  two 


offices  of  proiit  and  trust;  he  admitted  that  he  held 
tlie  two  offic^es,  l)iit  declared  tliat  there  was  no  proiit 
in  either  of  them,  and  th*it  they  were  purely  ottices  of 
trust,  as  lie  trusted  all  his  fees  and  all  tlie  postage. 
The  judge  was  very  much  amused  upon  hearing  Mat's 
plea,  and  in  consequence  of  some  flaw  in  the  indictment, 
a  nolle  2)>"ose(jui  was  entered.  Mogridge  went  over  to 
see  the  great  exhibition  at  the  Crystal  Palace,  at  Lon- 
don. "  Having  been  adopted  as  an  American  citizen," 
says  he,  "  I  passed  myself  off  for  a  Yankee.  I  knew 
that  I  should  not  attract  much  attention  as  an  Englisli- 
man,  as  they  can  see  one  there  every  day,  and  having 
hecomfe  well  acqnainted  with  Yankee  slang,  they  gave 
me  credit  for  heing  a  live  American.  I  could  out-talk 
the  best  of  them.  I  told  them  that  their  island  was  a 
very  neat,  pretty  place,  and  had  been  well  looked  af- 
ter, l)ut  that  it  lacked  size ;  that  their  rivers  were  mere 
brooks,  and  their  mountains  small  hills;  that  some  of 
our  rivers  are  so  long  that  we  never  before  strangers 
speak  of  their  whole  length  at  once;  that  onr  moun- 
tains are  so  high  that  presumptuous  persons  in  trying 
to  reach  their  summits  had  either  starved  or  frozen  to 
death.  That  their  cataracts  (compared  with  our 
Niagara  were  only  like  a  stream  from  the  nozzle  of  a 
coffee-pot;  that  if  some  power  (^ould  steal  away  from 
our  territories  an  area  of  land  as  large  as  all  the  British 
Isles,  it  would  not  be  snd<lenly  missed,  but  there  would 
be  a  nuiss  when  the  theft  was  found  out.  That  you 
have  produced  great  men  in  everything,  we  admit;  we 
are  proud  of  you  as  our  relations,  but  when  we  swarm- 


ed  and  went  to  America,  yon  claimed  our  honey,  we 
wonld  not  give  it  up,  and  yon  stung  and  we  stung 
back,  until  you  concluded  not  to  disturb  our  hives.  If 
you  could  do  such  wonders  on  your  little  island,  what 
could  you  expect  that  your  sons  could  not  do  in  the 
vast  fields  of  America;  and  they  caved." 

The  reader  who  is  not  acquainted  with  Mogridge, 
should  understand  that  he  can  outtaJk  any  Yankee 
living,  and  that  he  never  gives  up  an  argument,  and, 
though  vanquished,  he  can  argue  still.  Being  a  great 
admirer  of  Horace  Greeley,  whom  he  resembles  and 
whose  paper  he  always  took,  and  being  in  Kew  York, 
he  called  on  Greeley,  introduced  himself,  told  how  he 
went  to  New  Orleans,  thence  to  St.  Helena,  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  and  other  places,  told  what  he  had  seen 
in  England,  and  what  he  had  experienced  in  America. 
Then  said  he,  "Now,  Horace,  you  talk."  "No,"  said 
Greeley,  "Mr.  Mogridge,  I  give  up.  I  can  write  some, 
but,  in  rapidity  of  delivery,  you  exceed  any  man  that  I 
ever  knew.  I  thank  you  for  your  visit,  for  I  have 
been  amused,  surprised,  and  instructed."  Shortly  after, 
Greeley,  in  the  Tribune^  gave  an  amusing  account  of 
his  interview  wdth  Mr.  Mogridge. 

Samuel  Price,  an  Englishman,  who  was  a  black- 
smith, was  an  early  settler.  His  wife  was  a  very  use- 
ful and  excellent  woman,  who  went  far  and  near  in 
the  exercise  of  her  obstetrical  knowledge.  A  descrip- 
tion of  her  may  be  found  in  the  31st  chapter  of  Pro- 
verbs, from  the  10th  to  the  21st  verse,  inclusive. 

There  were  afterwards  many  settlers    who  deserve 



honorable  mention,  among  whom  were  Gideon  Chas^, 
who  was  of  New  England  origin,  and  Anthony  Lloyd, 
who  settled  on  the  south  branch  of  the  Eqiiinunk  and 
built  his  house  near  the  stream,  which  house  Avas 
swept  away  in  the  night  during  a  thunder-storm,  him- 
self and  family  barely  escaping  with  their  lives.  He 
afterwards  sold  out  his  property  and  lands  and  remov- 
ed to  Equinunk  village,  where  he  kept  a  temperance 
tavern  during  his  life.  He  was  a  self-taught,  ingen- 
ious mechanic.  The  Teeple  family  were  English. 
Phineas  Teeple  climbed  every  hill  and  crossed  every 
stream  in  Manchester  and  adjoining  townships  as  a 
hunter.  He  had  the  honor  of  killing  the  last  wolf 
that  ever  howled  in  the  county.  Christopher  Teeple 
was  for  many  years  the  constable  of  the  township. 
The  Denny  and  Gifford  families  are  old  residents,  and 
Moses  Billings  is  well  remembered  as  an  old  farmer. 
In  or  about  the  year  1830,  Paul  S.  Preston  sold  the 
Equinunk  Manor  to  Israel  Chapman  and  Alexander 
Calder,  who  then  began  improveinents  thereon.  The 
mouth  of  the  Big  Equinunk  has  always  been  an  im- 
portant rafting  place. 

Tlie  village  of  Equinunk  was  commen(ied  soon  after 
the  bidlding  of  a  tannery  in  the  place  by  Isaiah  Scud- 
der  and  brother.  The  large  tannery  now  in  the  place, 
belongs  to  A¥illiani  Holbert,  Esq.  The  village  is  di- 
^dded  by  the  creek.  The  western  part  is  in  Bucking- 
ham, where  are  situated  the  residence  of  the  Hon. 
William  M.  Nelson,  State  Senator,  the  residences  and 
stores  of   Knight  &   Gardiner,  and  of  H.  K.  Farle.t, 


the  M.  E.  Cliurcli,  and  other  Iniildings.  But  the  larg- 
er part  of  the  village  is  on  the  east  side  of  the  creek. 
One-half  mile  helow  the  town  is  a  bridge  across  the 
Delaware  to  the  Lordville  depot.  Chapman  and  Cal- 
der  divided  their  lands.  Chapman  took  the  upper 
flats  and  built  a  house  and  saw-mill.  He  was  a  man 
of  perseverance  and  industry.  Both  lie  and  Calder 
were  local  Methodist  preachers.  Alexander  Calder 
took  the  lower  part  of  Equinunk.  He  was  a  lumber- 
man of  great  business  capacity,  and  a  man  of  merit 
and  talent.  He  died  at  Equinunk,  May  26th,  1879, 
aged  eighty-one  years.  Equinunk  is  well  situated  for 
trade.  The  Delaware  river  road  passes  through  the 
place.  Here  end  the  roads  coming  down  the  south 
branch,  and  from  Preston  and  High  Lake,  and  from  Da- 
mascus, through  the  middle  of  Manchester.  The  great 
tannery  at  Little  Equinunk  is  now  owned  by  Hoyt  & 
Brothers,  of  N.  Y.  There  is  a  turnpike  leading  up 
the  Little  Equinunk  from  its  mouth  to  the  road  lead- 
ing from  the  old  '^gate  house"  to  Big  Equinunk.  The 
number  of  taxables  in  the  towaiship,  in  1878,  was  867. 
Number  of  common  schools.  10. 



AT  its  erection,  this  township,  in  1821,  inchided  a 
part  of  Preston.  It  is  now  bounded  north  by 
the  State  of  I^ew  York,  east  by  the  Delaware  and 
Buckingham,  south  by  Preston  and  Starrucca,  and 
west  by  Starrucca  and  Susquehanna  county.  It  is  the 
fourth  township  in  point  of  size.  It  is  watered  by  the 
branches  of  the  Shehawken,  running  south-east, 
Shrawder's  creek,  running  north-east  to  the  Dehiware, 
and  by  Hemlock  creek,  in  the  north-west,  and  which 
runs  northward  into  New  York  State.  The  chief  nat- 
ural reserv^oirs  of  water  are  Four  Mile  pond,  in  the  south- 
ern part,  and  Island  pond  above  Stanton  Hill.  The 
south-western  and  north-eastern  parts,  and  the  region 
about  the  Four  Mile  pond  are  sparsely  inhabited. 
The  river  hills  are  precipitous  and  unfit  for  cultiva- 
tion. The  land  is  high  in  the  center  of  the  township, 
from  w^hich  the  streams  descend  in  every  direction. 
Thouo^h  some  of  the  lands  are  rous^h  vet  there  are 
many  good  farms  which  produce  as  good  crops  as  are 
raised  in  other  parts  of  the  county!  The  orchards  are 
flourishing  and  productive.  There  is  yet  much  un- 
cleared land  of  good  quality,  and  it  has  been  and  is 
still  a  matter  of  surprise    that    the    township  is   not 


more  thickly  populated  as  it  has  great  advantages  for 
reaching  market,  having  the  Jefferson  Railroad  at 
Starrncca,  and  the  Erie  Railroad  near  its  eastern  bor- 
ders. Within  a  few  years  an  enterprising  body  of 
men  have  built  up  a  village  in  the  north  part  of  the 
town,  called  Sherman,  (alias  New  Baltimore,)  estab- 
lished or  built  a  tannery,  manufacturing  shops,  stores, 
&c.,  and  erected  a  fine  building  for  religious  purposes, 
called  the  Union  church. 

Soon  after  the  erection  of  Scott,  in  1821,  when  it 
embraced  one-half  of  Preston,  there  were  only  thirty- 
seven  houses  all  valued  at  $250;  seven  mills  all  valued 
at  $1,300;  fifty-seven  cows  valued  at  $750.  The  whole 
number  of  taxables  was  forty-seven,  the  tax  on  all 
seated  property  being  $53.18J-,  according  to  a  trienni- 
al assessment,  made  by  Jolm  Starbird,  Jr.,  Esq.,  for 
the  year  1823.  Elihu  Tallman,  one  of  the  first  set- 
tlers, and  Jirah  Mumford,  Jr.,  were  each  taxed  for  a 
mill,  and  so  were  Gershom  Williams,  'Squire  Sampson, 
Jacob  Edick,  Silas  Crandall,  and  David  Babcock.. 
Some  of  the  other  settlers,  named  as  farmers,  were 
Samuel  Alexander,  Abel  Belknap,  John  and  David 
Cole,  George  Cortright,  Ezra  Cargill,  Beniah  Jayne, 
of  Maple  Hill,  Harvey  Kingsbury,  Elias  Kingsbury, 
Uriah  Smith,  William  Starbird,  Jesse^  and  'Squire 
Whittaker,  Michael  and  Townsend  Weyant,  Rev. 
Gershom  Williams,  father  of  Melancthon  B.,  Calvin 
P.,  Philander  K.,  and  Hervey  D,  Williams.  The  said 
John  Starbird,  Jr.,  was  justice  of  the  peace  at  the  time 
that  he  made  said  assessment.      The  Rev.  Gershom 


Williams  settled  in  the  central  part  of  the  township  at 
an  early  day.  He  was  from  the  State  of  I*^ew  Jersey. 
He  bought  at  different  times  many  tracts  of  land,  and, 
being  a  man  of  means,  contributed  much  to  encourage 
the  settlement  of  the  township.  In  1847  his  second 
wife  was  murdered  by  a  tramp,  who  called  himself 
Harris  Bell.  (Upon  his  trial  it  came  out  that  this 
was  an  assumed  name.)  The  murderer  was  convicted 
and  hung  at  Honesdale  in  1848.  Beniah  Jayne, 
brother  of  the  celebrated  Dr.  D.  Jayne,  of  Philadel- 
phia, was  one  of  the  early  settlers. 

Jirah  Mumford,  Elihu  Tallman,  and  others,  are  men- 
tioned in  the  sketches  of  Mount  Pleasant  and  Preston. 

Under  the  head  of  Preston  w^ill  be  found  a  detailed 
account  of  the  hardships  and  privations  of  the  old  pi- 
oneers in  the  northern  townships. 

In  December,  1774,  David  Rittenhouse,  on  the  part 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  Samuel  Holland,  on  tlie  part  of 
Kew  York,  set  a  stone  on  a  small  island  in  the  west- 
ern branch  of  the  Delaware  river,  for  the  north-east 
corner  of  Pennsylvania.  They  marked  the  stone  with 
the  letters  and  figures,  "New  York,  1774,"  cut  on  the 
north  side,  and  the  letters  and  figures  "Lat.  42  de- 
grees, var.  4  degrees  20  min.,"  cut  on  the  top  of  the  stone. 
The  island  is  at  Hale's  Eddy,  and  the  north-east  cor- 
ner of  Pennsylvania  is  the  north-east  corner  of  Scott 

In  1878  there  were  eleven  public  or  common  schools, 
and  three  hundred  and  tliirteen  taxables  in  the  town- 



THIS  township  was  formed  April  28tli,  1828,  from 
parts  of  Mount  Pleasant  and  Scott.  It  is  the  third 
township  in  size,  and  is  bounded  north  hy  Starrncca 
and  Scott,  east  by  Buckingham,  south  by  Mount 
Pleasant,  and  west  by  Susquehanna  county.  With' 
great  propriety  it  might  have  been  called  Lake  town- 
ship, as  it  abounds  with  lakes  or  ponds  of  uncommon 
beauty,  among  which  are  the  Shehawken,  Como, 
Twin,  Sly,  Spruce,  Seven  Mile,  Poyntell,  Long,  Big 
Hickory,  Little  Hickory,  Five  Mile,  Bone,  Long 
Spruce,  Independence,  Wrighter's  and  Coxtown 
ponds,  and  perhaps  some  others.  These  ponds  are  the 
head-waters  of  streams  running  in  every  direction. 
From  Five  Mile  and  Independence  ponds  starts  the 
Lackaw^anna ;  from  the  Wrighter,  Coxtown,  and  Long 
Spruce  ponds,  the  Starrucca;  from  the  Shehawken, 
the  creek  of  that  name;  and  from  Poyntell,  Little 
Hickory  and  Big  Hickory  ponds,  the  Big  Equinunk. 
Water-power  is  abundant  and  conveniently  extended. 
Ararat  and  Sugar-loaf  mountains  are  in  this  tow^nship. 
At  the  formation  of  the  town  it  was  proposed,  as  ap- 
pears from  the  records,  to  name  it  Ararat;  but,  as  it 
was  mostly  taken  from  Scott,  wliich  was  named  after 


Judge  David  Scott,  the  Judge  deemed  it  proper  to 
name  it  Preston,  in  honor  of  Judge  Samuel  Preston, 
who  was  tlie  first  settler  in  Buckingham,  to  which 
township  Scott  and  the  most  of  Preston  originally  be- 
longed. By  an  assessment  made  by  Peter  C.  Sher- 
man, in  1829,  the  number  of  taxables  was  sixty-nine; 
number  in  1878,  four  hundred  and  fif t^^-eight ;  num- 
ber of  houses  in  1829,  thirty-nine;  valuation  of  same, 
S488.  Yaluation  of  neat  cattle  in  1829,  $1,986,  and 
of  same  in  1878,  $13,160. 

Although  some  parts  of  the  lands  are  hilly,  yet 
they  are  not  of  such  height  as  to  interfere  very  ma- 
terially with  cultivation.  Good  crops  of  rye,  oats, 
corn,  and  buckwheat,  are  raised,  and  abundanc^e  of  po- 
tatoes. But  the  lands  are  more  particularly  litted  for 
grass,  and  the  township  bids  fair  to  be  one  of  the 
most  important  butter-making  districts  in  the  county. 
A  small  section  only  of  the  township  was  benefited  by 
the  Oghquaga  turnpike,  and  there  were  not  roads  to 
invite  tlie  taking  up  of  lands  at  an  early  day.  The 
lands  lying  near  the  road  from  Mount  Pleasant  to 
Stoc^kport  were  first  bought,  as  a  public  road  was  laid 
out  from  Stockport  through  this  township  to  Mount 
Pleasant  in  1799.  Among  the  early  settlers  were 
Peter  Spencer  and  Ezra  Spencer,  who  came  from  the 
State  of  Connecticut,  in  or  about  the  year  1812. 
The  first  named  commenced  on  the  farm  now  ow^ned 
by  Nathan  A.  Monroe.  He  bought  about  3-10  acres 
of  land,  of  one  Poyntell,  of  Philadelphia,  and  gave 
his  bond  and  mortgage  for  the  purchase  money.      He 


was  ejected  from  the  land  by  Peter  Gaskell,  and  took 
title  under  Gaskell.  The  heirs  of  Poyntell,  after  the 
death  of  Spencer,  made  vigorous  efforts  to  collect  the 
moneys  due  on  the  mortgage,  but  failed.  Deacon 
Spencer  was  an  ingenious  mechani<?,  an  industri- 
ous farmer,  and  morally,  without  spot  or  blemish. 
Russell  Spencer,  late  of  Pleasant  Mount,  was  his  son. 
He  had  three  daughters ;  Dr.  Urial  Wright  married 
the  oldest  one;  Silas  Freeman  the  second;  and  Wil- 
liam Labar  the  youngest.  Ezra  Spencer  settled  about 
a  mile  southward  of  his  brother,  paid  for  his  land, 
and  lived  there  during  tlie  rest  of  his  life.  His  son, 
Ezra  Spencer,  now  owns  the  old  homestead. 

Joseph  Dow  moved  from  Deeriield,  Massachusetts, 
a])out  1817,  and  settled  in  Dyberry  township,  on  the 
place  where  John  Hacker  lived  before  the  death  of 
his  father,  cleared  up  some  land,  built  a  house  and 
barn,  made  some  payments,  and  lost  the  whole.  As 
property  depreciated  in  value  lie  could  not  keep  up 
his  payments,  and  he  was  left  quite  poor.  After  this 
he  moved  to  Preston  and  ran  the  Shadigee  mill  for 
Manning,  King,  and  Lillibridge.  He  and  his  wife 
were  well  educated  and  descended  from  very  respecta- 
ble families.  He  was  a  relative  of  Lorenzo  Dow,  the 
great  preacher.     He  died  near  Tallmanville,  in  1852. 

Daniel  Underwood  removed  from  Connecticut,  in 
1830,  and  settled  upon  tlie  Stockport  road,  north-east 
of  Amos  O.  Sherwood's.  Lewis  A.  Underwood,  Nel- 
son F.  LTnderwood,  present  Representative  of  Wayne 
county    in    the  Legislature,  W.  G.  Underwood,    an<i 



Prescott  Underwood  are  sons  of  the  said  Daniel  Un- 
derwood. Prescott  Underwood  removed  to  Kansas; 
the  other  sons  are  living  in  the  eonnty.  Said  Daniel 
Underwood  was  a  noted  carpenter  and  huilt  the  Meth- 
odist church  near  Nathan  Kennedy's,  in  Mt.  Pleasant. 

John  Stephens,  an  Englishman,  began  in  the  early 
settlement  of  the  town  upon  the  farm  now  occupied 
by  Stanley  H.  Hine.  The  exact  date  of  his  settle- 
ment cannot  be  ascertained.  In  1829,  he  was  assess- 
ed as  having  two  hundred  and  twenty-live  acres  of 
land,  mucli  of  which  w^as  of  superior  quality.  In 
1880,  he  was  licensed  to  keep  a  public  house,  in  which 
business  he  continued  during  his  life.  The  farm  ivS 
now  in  the  possession  of  Perry  Hine. 

All  the  Spencers  in  Mount  Pleasant  and  Preston 
are  lineal  descendants  of  either  Peter  or  Ezra  Spen- 
cer. John  and  William  Fletcher  were  from  New 
England,  and  were  early  settlers  and  worthy  and  in- 
dustrious farmers. 

The  Starbird  family.  John  Starbird,  Sen.,  was 
.born  in  tlie  state  of  Maine,  in  1754,  and  served  in  the 
Revolutionary  war;  then,  after  tea(;hing  school  in 
Trenton  and  in  Easton,  he  came  to  Stroudsburg  and 
taught  one  term,  and,  in  1783,  was  there  married  to 
Hannah  Stroud.  Their  son,  John  Starbird,  Jr.,  was 
born  in  1786,  and  AVilliam  Starbird  in  1798.  Said 
sons  moved  from  their  old  homestead,  in  East  Strouds- 
burg, into  what  is  now  Preston  township,  Marcli  20, 

1817.  John  Starbird,  Jr.,  made  his  first  clearing  in 

1818.  He  made  an  assessment  of  wdiat  then  (1823)  was 


Scott  township,  and  no  school-teacher  of  the  present 
day  wonld  Ije  ashamed  if  the  handwriting  should  be 
imputed  to  him.  He  was,  at  that  time,  the  only  jus- 
tice of  the  peace  in  the  township.  In  1824,  he  built 
a  saw-mill  on  Shehawken  creek.  William  Starbird, 
now  living,  made  his  first  clearing  in  1822.  He  had 
thirteen  children,  all  of  whom  grew  up  to  manhood 
or  womanhood.  One  of  his  sons,  Alfred,  was  killed 
in  the  late  civil  war.  In  1851,  he  rebuilt  the  saw- 
mill, erected  by  his  brother  John,  doing  all  the  work 
himself,  excepting  the  ironwork,  and  raised  it  without 
tackles,  with  only  two  of  his  sons  to  help  him.  The 
timbers  were  very  heavy;  the  plates  were  sixty  feet 
long  and  twelve  inches  square.  This  mill  was  rebuilt 
by  S.  T.  Wliittaker,  last  year.  William  Bortree,  late 
of  Sterling  township,  married  a  sister  of  William 

Abner  Stone  began  at  an  early  day  upon  the  beau- 
tiful place  now  occupied  by  H.  K.  Stone,  north  of 
Samuel  Brooking's,  but  business  connected  with  the 
settlement  of  his  father's  estate,  induced  him  to  return 
to  Connecticut. 

After  the  building  of  the  Gghquaga  turnpike 
road,  Clark  Grardner  took  up  the  farm  now  owned  by 
W.  H.  Chamberlain,  lived  there  several  years,  kept 
the  toll-gate  and  tlien  removed  to  Mount  Pleas- 
ant. The  toll-gate  was  removed  to  Hine's  Corners, 
and  continued  there  as  long  as  toll  was  taken.  Royal 
Hine  and  his  father  started  and  built  up  the  place 
which  has  been  improved  and  enlarged  by  the  family. 


After  tlie  building  of  said  Ogliqiiaga  turnpike,  Ira 
Cargill,  from  Connecticut,  started  a  flourishing  settle- 
ment on  the  public  road  leading  from  said  turnpike  t(.> 

Peter  C.  Sherman  began  at  Preston  Center.  In 
1829,  he  assessed  to  himself  ten  acres  of  improved 
land,  and  four  hundred  and  thirtj-six  acres  of  unim- 
proved, and  one  house  of  the  vahie  of  eight  dollars. 
The  township  and  general  elections  were  held  at  this 
place,  until  a  few  years  ago,  when  the  township  was 
divided  into  two  election  districts.  The  Sherman 
place  fell  into  the  hands  of  J.  Carr,  who  disposed  of  it 
to  C.  B.  Dibble,  its  present  occupant.  Merrill  liine 
appears  to  have  been  a  very  early  settler  at  Hines 
Corners,  and  Perry  Hine  settled  in  another  part  of 
the  township. 

The  following  account  is  from  manuscript  furnished 
by  C.  P.  Tallman,  Esq.,  regarding  the  early  settle- 
ment of  Mount  Pleasant,  Preston,  and  Scott.  AYant 
of  space  has  obliged  me  reluctantly  to  abridge  his 
contribution.  What  he  herewith  presents  cannot  fail 
to  be  interesting  : 

"My  father,  Elihu  Tallman,  was  born  in  T^ew  Bed- 
ford, Mass.,  in  1780.  Mj  grandfather,  William  Tail- 
man,  was  a  real  estate  and  ship  owner ;  and  as  he  took 
a  iirm  stand  for  the  cause  of  Independence,  much  of 
his  property  was  destroyed  by  the  tories,  which  left 
him  much  reduced.  My  grandfather,  (on  my  mother';^ 
side)  Christopher  Perkins,  married  a  Palmer,  in  Ston- 
ington,  Conn.     They    moved  to  what  they  called  the 


far  West,  one  horse  carrying  grandmother  and  all 
their  movable  goods,  and  grandfather  going  on  foot. 
Tliey  went  to  and  settled  at  Saratoga,  abont  one 
mile  from  the  Rock  spring.  There  were  several  of 
the  native  Indians  near  them,  and  my  mother  has  of- 
ten told  me  that  her  mother  had  snch  an  abhorrence 
and  feai*  of  the  Indians  and  tories,  that  she  had  sev- 
eral times  taken  her  and  her  older  brother,  John, 
when  her  father  was  gone  from  home,  and  hid  them 
away  to  lie  and  stay  in  the  wilderness  during  the 
long,  dismal  nights.  At  an  early  age,  my  father  was 
put  on  a  coasting  vessel  as  a  cabin-boy  and  cook,  and 
subsequently  learned  the  shoe-making  trade.  He  mov- 
ed to  Saratoga,  and  was  married  on  the  iTtli  of  De- 
cember, 1799,  and  soon  after  came  to  Mount  Pleasant 
to  look  up  a  new  home.  Samuel  Stanton,  the  first 
prominent  settler  of  that  place,  was  my  mother's  half- 
uncle,  which  was  their  probable  motive  for  (coming  to 
that  place. 

They  commenced  on  a  piece  of  new  land  north  of 
where  Pleasant  Mount  now  stands  on  the  rond  then 
running  east  and  west.  Subsequently  father  bought 
on  an  adjoining  lot  about  sixty  rods  east  of  where 
William  Wright,  Esq.,  now  lives.  I  was  born  there 
in  1806.  In  that  year  father  made  one  mile  of  the 
Oochecton  and  Great  Bend  turnpike  road.  Then  lie 
l)Ought,  about  three-fourths  of  a  mile  northward,  and 
cleared  up  a  good-sized  farm.  In  1813  or  1814,  he 
,sold  this  place  to  a  Mr.  Hall,  of  Connecticut,  for  $1400, 
.nnd  bought  the  place  where  Godfrev  Stevenson  now 


lives,  and,  also,  a  carding-machine  of  Jacob  Plum,  who 
had  run  it  one  summer  on  the  stream  below  where  the 
Seth  Kennedy  mill  now  stands.  This  was  the  only  place 
where  wool  was  carded  by  macliinery  in  the  region. 
Wool  was  brought  from  all  parts  of  the  country.  The 
business  was  excellent.  He  also  built  and  ran  a  saw- 
mill. In  or  about  tlie  winter  of  1818,  father  sold  said 
property  to  Heaton  Atwater,  and  took  in  payment 
$1500  in  patent-rights,  and  $1500  in  an  exhibition  of 
wax-figures  and  paintings.  These  payments  were  a 
little  better  than  $3000  lost.  Tiie  next  spring  he 
Ijought  a  property  in  Susquehanna  county,  and,  liaving 
paid  $750  down,  lost  that.  These  losses  of  $3750  left 
him  with  only  his  farming  utensils  and  a  few  uncol- 
lected accounts." 

The  following  episode  is  designed  to  show  what 
were  the  hardships  of  the  tirst  settlers.  Mr.  Tallman 
relates  the  following  account  which  he  had  from  his 
father : 

"About  1805  tlie  neighborhood  was  entirely  out  of 
salt,  and  there  was  none  nearer  than  Shehawken. 
Father  had  made  a  start  so  that  he  had  a  breeding  mare, 
but  had  nothing  wherewith  to  buy  salt  but  some  maple 
sugar,  so  he  took  enough  of  that  to  buy  a  half  bushel 
of  it,  which  would  cost  $2.00,  put  his  sugar  in  a  bag 
and  started  for  Shehawken,  (now  Hancock,  N.  Y.,) 
twenty  miles  distant,  on  a  road  where  only  the  under- 
brush was  cut  out.  He  exchanged  his  sugar  for  salt, 
and,  putting  it  in  his  bag,  he  started  liomeward  on  a 
cold,  windy  fall  day,  when  tliere  was  nearly  a  freshet 


in  the  Dela-ware,  rendering  the  fording  of  the  same 
dangerous.  Wlien  about  midway  of  the  river,  the  old 
mare  made  a  bhmder  and  down  she  went,  throwing 
the  rider  and  the  salt  clear  from  her.  After  swimming 
about  twenty  rods  quartering  down  stream,  loaded 
down  with  winter  clothing,  overcoat  and  boots,  he 
readied  shore,  (the  mare  did  the  same,)  but  his  salt 
and  hat  were  gone,  and  he  had  no  funds  with  which 
to  buy  more." 

How  his  father  succeeded  in  getting  along  without 
the  salt  we  are  not  told.     But  to  resume  the  narrative: 

"  Since  my  recollection  our  goods  were  teamed  from 
Newburg,  eighty-one  miles  distant,  at  a  cost  of  $2.50 
per  hundred  pounds.  Rock-salt  was  worth  S-i  per 
bushel,  rye  fifty  cents,  and  oats  tw^enty-five  cents.  The 
worst  feature  in  the  case  was  we  had  only  rock  and 
packing  salt.  All  we  used  for  butter  and  for  the  table 
was  pounded  in  a  hand  mortar.  I  can  recollect  when 
we  had  no  carding-machines  or  cloth-dressing  mills. 
All  our  clothes  made  of  flax,  tow,  cotton,  or  wool, 
were  carded,  spun,  and  woven  at  home,  in  which  work 
our  mothers  and  sisters  were  well  skilled.  Yery  scanty 
were  the  means  afforded  for  the  education  of  children. 
I  have  heard  father  speak  of  Truman  Wheeler  as  one 
of  our  first  teachers.  Eber  Dimmick  was  my  first 
teacher,  and  a  Miss  Bigelow  the  first  female  one. 

'^In  1819  real  estate  and  personal  property  had  be- 
come so  depreciated  in  value  that  father  despaired  of 
paying  for  his  farm  in  Susquehanna  county,  and,  hav- 


iug  more  ambition  than  {)i-udence,  determined  to  re- 
trieve liis  fortune  and  made  a  dash    into  the    luml)er- 
woods  and  bouglit  the  pine  lot  at  Six  Mile  lake,  (now 
Coino.)     Samnel  P.  Green,  of   the  east  branch,  had 
contracted  for  tlie  lot  and  commenced  a  dam  and  saw- 
mill on  the  outlet  of    the  lake.     Father    bouglit    out 
Green,  iinished  the  mill,  and  sawed  out  and  liauled  to 
Stockport  a  i-aft  of  pine  boards  to  run  in  the  spring  of 
1820.     Tliis  was  the  first  raft  ever  manufactured  and 
hauled  to  the  Stockport  banks.     At   that    time    there 
was  no  road  running  north  or  south  for   many   miles 
except  the  Mount  Pleasant  and  Stockport  road.     The 
first  road  was  what  was  called  the  Hannony  road    in 
Sus(]uehanna  county.     The  lirst    road    east    was    the 
LTnion  Woods  road,  which  connected  with  the  Oochec- 
ton  and  Great  Bend  turnpike  at  (Jonklin's    Gate,  six 
miles  west  of  Cochecton.     The  old  Stockport  road  had 
nothing  but  the  small  trees  and  Inrush  cut  out,  and  the 
large  trees  marked  so  as  to  enable  any  one  to   follow 
the  course  in  deep  snows.    On  our  new  farm  was  about 
half  an  acre  partly  (bleared,  and  two    or   three    acres 
chopped.      At  this  time  there  were  very  few   settlers 
in  Buckingham  ex<iept  on  the    river  fiats.     Three    of 
the  Kingsbury  family,  and  two  men  by  the  name    of 
Wlielpy,  had  commenced  on  Kingsbury  Hill.     Fred- 
erick Stid  and  Thomas  Holmes  had  commenced  about 
a  mile  up  the  Shehawken.    Holmes  ran  a  little  tannery 
and  ground  all  his  bark  with  a  stone,  and  tanned    in 
(;old  liquor.     He  also  did  some  shoe-making.     There 
were  a  few  settlers  in  the  Union  Woods.    Jirah  Mum- 

TOWNSH  f  TON.  249 

ford  and  Ezekiel  and  I  ■       ^on  had  commenced 

in  Starnicca. 

There  was  a  private  roau  ^uL  jat  by  the  way  of 
Maple  hill  to  Hale's  Eddy.  About  this  time  Michael 
Weyant  and  Uriah  Smith,  from  Long  Island,  settled 
on  said  road  near  the  top  of  Maple  hill.  We  had  no 
communication  with  any  of  these  families  without  go- 
ing a  great  way  romid.  Kobody  lived  at  Equinunk 
until  several  years  after  our  location  at  Six  Mile  lake. 
The  families  living  on  the  Stockport  road  toward 
Mount  Pleasant  were  John  Tiffany,  one  of  the  pioneer 
settlers,  John  Stearns,  Chandler  Tiffany,  (on  the  John 
Page  place),  Joseph  Monroe,  and  Ashbel  Stearns,  near 
or  on  the  Deacon  Wilcox  place.  John  Fletcher  and 
William  Fletcher  lived  near  Peter  Spencer,  who 
located  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Nathan  A.  Monroe. 
Our  nearest  neighbor,  south  four  miles,  was  Peter 
Spencer,  and  one  mile  north  was  E-ufus  Geer.  A  lit- 
tle east  of  the  Upper  Twin  pond,  about  three-fourths 
of  a  mile,  were  Gideon,  James,  and  Thomas  Wood- 
mansee.  There  were  no  other  settlers  until  we  reacls- 
ed  Stockport.  Abner  Stone  commenced  w^here  H.  K . 
Stone  now  lives.  Esaias  Wilcox  liad  commenced  on 
the  lot  adjoining  said  Stone.  It  was  impossible  to 
concentrate  a  sufficient  number  of  children  to  mak(^ 
up  a  school  between  Mount  Pleasant  to  one  mile  above 
Stockport  on  the  New  York  side.  During  the  four 
years  that  we  lived  at  Six  Mile  lake,  there  was  no 
school-house  between  Mount  Pleasant  and  Stockport — 
sixteen  miles — and  no  place  where  the  preaching  of  tli<: 


250  HISTORY  ■■ '  ■  -'NE    COUNTY. 

gospel  could  be  su  the  time  of  our  sojourn 

at  Six  Mile  lake,  1  .       •pulation  of  what  is  now 

Preston  consisted  :  ^   aight  men,  women,  and 

children.     Our  family  made  up  twelve  of  the  number. 

In  1822,  father  purchased  the  large  pine  lot  known 
as  the  Kryder  tract.  This  was  situated  five  miles 
northwestward  of  Six  Mile  lake,  and  four  miles  east- 
wardly  from  Starrucca.  It  was  seven  miles  northward 
to  the  nearest  inhabitants  at  Ball's  and  Hale's  Eddy, 
and  seven  and  one-half  miles  southward  to  Abner 
Stone's.  There  was  no  road  in  either  of  these  direc- 
tions. There  had  been  a  road  laid  out  from  Mount. 
Pleasant  to  Hale's  Eddy,  nineteen  and  a  half  miles. 
Tliis  road  crossed  the  pine  lot,  but  it  was  merely  run 
through  and  marked  so  it  was  impossible  to  make  a 
road  on  the  route  where  it  was  laid  that  could  be  trav- 
eled, as  the  viewers  paid  no  regard  to  hills,  ledges,  or 
swamps,  only  aiming,  apparently,  to  get  a  line  from 
one  end  to  the  other.  Not  the  first  blow  had  been 
made  to  open  it,  and  when  this  was  afterwards  done, 
in  many  places  it  was  made  a  mile  from  the  survey. 
There  had  l^een  a  road  laid  out  from  Starrucca  to 
Stockport,  and  in  some  places  the  underwood  cut  out, 
and,  on  other  parts,  the  down  timber  had  been  cut  up, 
but  not  cleared  out.  The  marks  for  this  road  were 
a])out  one  mile  from  the  said  pine  lot.  In  August, 
1822,  my  brother-in-law,  David  Balmock,  my  older 
brother,  William,  and  myself,  took  an  outfit  and  went 
to  commence  an  improvement  on  said  land." 

Omitting  the  interesting,  and,  no  doubt,  truthful  ac- 


connt  of  tlie  mMnner  in  which  the  said  youthful  ad- 
xenturers  contrived  to  live  in  the  wilderness  until 
necessity  compelled  them  to  build  a  cabin,  we  resume 
the  narrative: 

"The  cold  nights  of  November  reminded  us  that  a 
further  improvement  of  our  cabin  was  necessary.  We 
now  cut  out  a  road,  such  as  it  was,  and  hauled  in  some 
half-inch  boards  for  a  roof  and  cutting  and  splitting 
some  pine  for  floors,  we  built  part  of  a  chimney,  and 
made  up  some  bunks  to  sleep  in;  my  brother-in-law 
moved  his  wife  and  child  in  and  then  we  set  up  house- 
keeping on  a  different  scale.  When  winter  set  in  we 
moved  back  to  Six  Mile  lake  to  lumber  through  the 
winter.  In  the  spring  of  1823  we  moved  the  whole 
family  to  the  Kryder  lot,  cleared  up  the  fallow  that 
we  had  chopped  the  fall  before,  built  a  saw-mill,  cut 
another  fallow,  and  commenced  on  a  larger  scale.  In 
1824,  my  father  hired  a  young  woman  for  three 
months  to  teach  four,  and  part  of  the  time,  fl\^e  chil- 
dren, in  the  log-house  that  we  first  built.  Her  name 
was  Sarah  Jane  Stoddard.  The  next  summer  a  Miss 
Sally  Kennedy  taught  the  same  children  three  months, 
and  the  summer  thereafter  Miss  Miranda  Chittenden 
taught  them,  making  in  all  one  year's  private  school. 
Each  teacher  was  paid  seventy-five  cents  per  week. 
There  was  no  other  school  in  wdiat  is  now  Preston 
township  until  the  public  schools  in  1830.  When 
about  fifteen  years  old,  while  living  at  Six  Mile  lake, 
I  became  satisfied  that  if  I  e\^er  obtained  an  education 
I  sliould  have  to  dig  it  out  myself.     I  accordingly  pre- 


pared  some  fat  pine,  a  single  stick  of  which  made  a 
l>eautiful  light  by  which  to  study.  I  read  such  books 
as  I  could  get;  our  common  school-books  were  Web- 
ster's spelling-l)ook,  Dilwortli's  and  Dai^oll's  arithme- 
tics, Second  and  Third  Part,  English  reader,  Hale's  His- 
tory of  the  United  States,  and  the  New  Testament. 
We  had  no  novels  or  newspapers.  My  father  had  an 
extra  library,  namely,  two  volumes  of  the  life  of  Christ 
and  his  Apostles,  a  Bible,  and  Walker's  dictionary. 

I  occasionally  borrowed  such  books  as  I  could.  In 
1825  I  worked  doing  chores  to  pay  my  board,  and 
went  to  school  six  weeks;  I  did  the  same  again  in 
1826,  for  about  twelve  weeks.  Tliat  was  all  the  school- 
ing I  had  after  I  was  twelve  years  old.  From  1823 
to  1827,  we  engaged  in  pine  lumbering  and  cleared  up 
a  large  quantity  of  land.  At  this  time  the  settlement 
at  Starrucca  sustained  a  public  school,  and  had  occa- 
sional preaching  by  Ezekiel  Sampson,  a  Baptist.  In 
the  fall  of  1823,  we  cut  out  the  road  from  our  place 
to  Mount  Pleasant.  In  the  fall  of  that  year,  David 
Babcock  settled  on  the  place  now  owned  by  John 
Clark,  and  Luther  Chafee  on  the  lower  part  of  my 
present  farm ;  John  Stanton  on  the  farm  now  occupied 
by  D.  W.  Tallman;  Peter  C.  Sherman  on  the  present 
farm  of  C.  B.  Dibble,  (at  Preston  Centre);  and  Wil- 
liam Tallman  on  the  A.  D.  Reynold's  farm.  About 
\\\Q  same  time  Joseph  Dow  settled  on  the  flat  now 
owned  by  Alplieus  Dix,  Joseph  Dow,  Jr.,  on  the  lot 
where  Arnold  Lloyd  now  lives,  and  Jeremiah  Flynn 
on  the  farm  now  owned  bv  Kol)ert  K.  Iviuii:.    We  now 


l)egan  to  feel  hs  if  we  had  gained  a  great  victory,  for 
the  forest  was  fairly  broken  up,  and  we  had  neighbors. 

Rev.  Gershom  Williams  began  about  1823  or  1824 
at  what  is  now  called  Scott  Centre,  built  a  saw-mill, 
and  cut  a  road  to  the  private  road  near  Uriah  Smith's. 
John  Starbird  commenced  on  the  lot  where  Wm.  P. 
Starbird  now  lives  soon  after  we  began  on  the  pine  lot. 

The  order  of  our  new  settlement  was  as  follows : 
[n  1820,  Willet  Carr  commenced  on  the  place  where 
Amos  O.  Sherwood  now  lives.  In  1822,  Messrs. 
Henry  and  Yancott  bought  adjoining  I.  M.  Ivellogg's 
farm  and  hired  a  piece  chopped,  only  to  grow  up 
airain.  About  the  same  time  James  Moore,  David 
Wooley,  and  Franklin  Duval  bought  in  w^hat  is  now 
called  Little  Yoi*k.  The  three  last-named  were  from 
K.  Y.  city  and  paid  for  their  land  in  advance.  The 
next  settler  was  a  Joseph  Marguerat,  then  Joseph 
Simpson,  then  James  Simpson;  began  near  the  creek 
south  of  Sherwood's,  and  John  Stanton,  from  Conn., 
settled  on  twenty-two  acres  of  land  north  of  the  upper 
Sands  pond,  and  George  Hall  on  the  south  side  there- 
of. About  1822,  Daniel  Kose  commenced  on  a  wild 
lot  now  owned  by  George  Wainwright.  Charles  Case, 
of  Gibson,  Susquehanna  county,  and  his  son,  Riley 
Case,  began  where  Samuel  Decker  now  lives.  All  of 
these  new  settlers,  excepting  those  of  Little  York, 
and  the  Charles  Case  family,  were  in  indigent  circum- 
stances. The  locality  and  position  of  their  families 
were  such  as  to  preclude  the  possibility  of  sustaining 
a  school  or  the  preaching    of    the    gospel    among    us. 


Some  attempts  were  made  for  those  purposes,  but 
were  necessarily  abandoned,  and  as  a  natural  conse- 
(_[uence,  our  Sabbaths  were  very  loosely  spent,  and  the 
ehildren  left  to  grow  up  witli  but  little  education  or 

In  1826,  I  had  become  acquainted  with  a  large 
scope  of  the  wilderness,  and  had  iixed  on  the  piece  of 
land  on  which  to  make  a  farm,  and,  though  not  of 
age,  fearing  that  some  one  would  get  ahead  of  me,  in 
October,  carrying  provision  enough  to  last  me  to 
Philadelphia  and  part  of  the  way  back,  I  started  on 
foot  and  bought  nothing  going  but  three  nights'  lodg- 
ing, at  six  cents  a  night.  I  found  the  man  who  own- 
ed the  land  and  the  timber  about  it.  He  wanted  four 
dollars  per  acre  for  the  land.  I  offered  him  two  dol- 
lars. He  finally  agreed  to  my  proposals,  binding  me 
to  put  a  family  on  the  land,  clear  up  three  acres  a 
year,  build  a  house  and  barn  on  it,  and  to  pay  for  it 
in  three  years.  This  contract  was  dated  in  October, 
1826,  and  I  obtained  my  deed  on  the  29th  day  of 
April,  1829.  Tliis  was  the  first  piece  of  land  paid  for  in 
this  region  of  country.  The  man  that  sold  me  the  land 
^vas  so  well  pleased  with  my  promptitude  tliat  he  gave 
off  the  interest  and  made  me  a  parchment  deed  for 
one  hundred  and  seventy-five  acres  of  land.  I  bought, 
also,  three  lots  of  timber,  enough  to  last  three  years' 
lumbering.  On  the  20th  of  May,  1827,  I  was  mar- 
ried to  my  first  wife,  Lucinda,  daughter  of  Benjamin 
King,  Esq.,  of  Mount  Pleasant.  In  the  spring  of 
1829  or  1830,  we  agreed   to  start  a  school  and   fixed 


on  a  site  on  tlie  east  side  of  my  lot,  where  the  ma- 
ple grove  is  now  growing  up,  on  the  road  as  it  then 
ran.  I  found  nails,  glass,  and  sash,  costing  four  dol- 
lars and  eighty-four  cents,  which  the  neighbors  agreed 
shoidd  be  my  share.  This  was  the  first  money  ever 
used,  in  what  is  now  Preston  township,  for  public  im- 
provements and  the  first  school-house  erected.  The 
first  school  therein  was  taught  by  a  Miss  Watrous,  at 
one  dollar  per  week.  She  was  an  old,  experienced 
teacher,  and  some  of  the  scholars  came  two  and  a  half 
miles.  Each  parent  paid  in  proportion  to  the  num- 
ber of  days  that  he  sent  his  children.  If  any  were 
too  poor  to  school  their  children,  on  application  to  the 
assessor,  return  of  the  fact  was  made  to  the  county 
commissioners,  and  the  tuition  of  such  children  was 
paid  by  the  county.  Oar  school-house  was  sixteen  by 
twenty  feet,  built  of  logs,  chimney  in  one  end,  and 
burned  four-foot  wood.  The  roof  and  floor  were 
made  of  rough  hemlock,  and  the  door  of  the  same 
with  wooden  hinges  and  a  latch  of  our  own  make. 
Our  benches  were  made  of  slabs,  our  writing-desks 
were  a  board  fastened  to  a  log  across  the  back  end  of 
the  house,  which  was  chinked  and  mossed  instead  of 
being  mudded.  On  the  whole  it  had  a  very  respecta- 
ble appearance  for  the  times.  After  our  first  school, 
I  think  we  never  paid  more  than  seventy-five  cents  a 
week  for  a  woman  teacher,  and  ten  dollars  per  month 
for  a  male  teacher.  This  house  was  a  very  worthy 
enterprise  for  the  time.  The  summer  following,  n 
Sunday-school  was  organized  by  Sheldon  Norton,  who 


then  lived  on  the  phice  now  owned  by  his  son,  E.  K. 
Norton.  This  school  wiis  made  auxiliary  to  the  Sun- 
day-school of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church.  I  pur- 
chased of  Mr.  Norton  a  few  Testaments,  at  ten  cents  a 
piece,  and  he  left  us  a  number  of  tracts  and  papers. 
We  had  a  large  school,  and  scholars  came  from  near 
Como  and  Little  York  by  marked  trees  and  also  from 
Shadigee  and  Flynn's.  Quite  a  large  number  of 
them  came  from  two  to  four  miles  and  barefoot  at 
that.  Some  began  with  the  alphabet,  others  in  spell- 
ing lessons  of  one  or  two  sylables,  and  some  of  tlu> 
pupils  wxre  twenty  years  old.  The  next  spring  J 
bought  of  the  Methodist  Book  Room  ten  dollars' 
worth  of  books,  including  some  Testaments,  and  made 
a  present  of  them  to  said  school.  Our  school  succeed- 
ed admirably  and  we  ran  it  about  six  months  in  the 
year  for  several  years  with  the  most  satisfactory  success. 
At  this  time  (1879)  there  are  fourteen  school-houses 
averaging  in  value  1^500  apiece,  all  well  arranged 
and  painted,  which  is  an  increase  in  lifty  years  from 
nothing  to  $7,000  in  value.  Sixty  years  ago  we  had 
six  voters,  now  there  are  about  four  hundred.  The 
first  and  oldest  religious  society  between  Mt.  Pleasant 
and  the  Delaware  river,  was  a  close-communion 
Gliurch,  started  about  1820,  at  Starrucca,  under  Eze- 
kiel  Sampson.  The  next  was  a  class  of  Methodists, 
consisting  of  nine  persons,  at  Tallmanville,  in  1830. 
This  society  increased  rapidly,  till  it  numbered  about 
forty  members,  and  it  originally  (M)'\'ered  the  ground 
where  there  are  now  four  societies.     In  the  town  now 


there  ai-e  six  societies  with  two  hundred  and  lifty 
members;  three  churches,  one  at  Como,  one  at  Tall- 
manville,  and  another  at  Hine's  Corners,  witli  a  good 
parsonage  at  Como.  The  close-communion  Baptists 
have  a  very  i^ood  society  at  Preston  Center,  and  a 
small  society  at  East  Preston.  There  are  large  and 
prosperous  lodges  of  Good  Templars  at  Como  and 
Preston  Center,  with  about  two  hundred  and  forty 
members.  The  Odd  Fellows  have  a  lodge  at  Como. 
There  is  no  licensed  tavern  or  beer  saloon  in  the  town. 
There  are  two  stores,  thirteen  sawMnills,  one  small 
grist-mill,  two  turning-establishments,  and  three  cabi- 
net-shops. Yery  little  timber  remains  to  support 
lumbering,  but  the  town  will  very  soon  l>e  one  of  the 
best  dairy  districts  in  the  county.  Tw^enty-one  natur- 
al ponds  of  clear  water,  well  supplied  with  lish,  are 
scattered  over  the  town.  A  large  number  of  fruit- 
trees  has  been  obtained  from  the  most  approved  nurser- 
ies, and  they  are  thrifty  and  promising.  There  is  very 
little  waste  land.  The  Erie  Railroad  on  the  east,  and 
the  Jeiferson  Branch  on  the  west  afford  convenient 
access  to  market." 

Mr.  Tallman  relates  the  following  amusing  hunting- 
story  : 

"Wlien  father  moved  back  from  Susquehanna 
county  to  Mount  Pleasant,  he  had  an  old  queen's-arni 
musket,  a  charge  for  whic^h  was  an  ounce  ball  and 
nine  buckshot,  which  made  up  nearly  two  ounces  of 
lead.  This  load,  if  the  game  was  near  by,  made  dead- 
ly  Avork  and  injured  tlie  skin  badly.     There  were  no 



rifles  in  those  days.  My  father  was  not  a  great  hunt- 
er but  killed  a  large  part  of  his  own  meat.  On  a  cer- 
tain time  he  and  his  brother-in-law,  Chandler  Tiffany, 
concluded  to  hunt  some  larger  game  than  deer,  and, 
consequently,  rigged  out  for  a  bear  hunt.  When 
they  had  advanced  four  or  five  miles  into  the  woods, 
they  saw  a  large  bear  which  had  not  discovered  them ; 
by  concert  they  both  shot  at  the  same  time,  and  doing 
so,  down  went  the  bear.  They  were  so  elated  that 
they  forgot  to  load  their  guns,  and  both  ran  their 
best,  and,  when  in  close  proximity  to  their  game,  the 
bear  discovered  them  and  came  to  her  feet  and  made 
battle,  approaching  them  with  her  mouth  wide  open. 
Father  made  a  lucky  thrust  and  jammed  his  gun  into 
her  mouth.  She  seized  it,  crushing  the  stock  and 
denting  the  barrel  with  her  tushes,  as  she  reared  up 
on  her  haunches;  he  threw  her  nearly  on  her  back,  in 
reach  of  Tiffany,  telling  him  to  take  his  hatchet  to 
her;  he  did  so,  but  struck  her  with  the  head  of  it. 
She  struck  him  on  the  breast  with  one  paw  and  strip- 
ped him  of  every  vestige  of  clothing  as  well  as  his 
moccasins  and  stockings.  Father  cried,  "Strike  her 
with,  the  edge ! "  and  tlie  third  blow  was  given  edge 
first,  square  between  her  eyes,  which  checked  her 
fury,  and,  the  blows  being  promptly  repeated,  she  was 
overcome.  Father's  nmsket  was  badly  crushed  and 
Tiffany  half  naked,  and  though  they  were  lords  of 
the  forest  by  virtue  of  good  luck,  they  estimated  a 
bear  hunt  of  less  importance  than  before  their  adven- 


Starkucca.  This  borough  was  erected  m  1853,  and 
then  called  the  borough  of  Wayne.  It  is  three  miles 
long  on  the  Susquehanna  line,  and  two  miles  wide.  It 
was  taken  about  equally  from  Scott  and  Preston  town- 
ships. Benjamin  T.  West,  Esq.,  lived  in  the  place  in 
1824.  He  was  a  son  of  Jones  West,  a  blacksmith 
from  Albany  Co.,  N.  Y.  According  to  'Squire  West, 
Henry  Sampson  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  at  Star- 
rucca.  His  children  were  Esquire  .  Sampson,  John 
Sampson,  Benjamin  Sampson,  Henry  Sampson,  Jr., 
Stephen  Sampson,  Hasadiah  Sampson,  and  William 
Sampson.  He  had  three  daughters.  Hasadiah  Samp- 
son married  a  sister  of  Benj.  T.  West.  Jirah  Mum- 
ford,  Jr.,  a  son  of  Jirah  Mumford,  Sen.,  the  progeni- 
tor of  all  the  Mumfords,  was  one  of  the  first  if  not 
the  first  settler  of  the  place,  and  the  father  of  Hon. 
James  Mumford,  deceased,  who  lost  two  sons  in  the 
Hebellion.  E.  C.  Mumford,  the  present  district-attor- 
ney of  the  county,  is  one  of  the  Judge's  sons,  also,  W. 
W.,  late  Representative  of  Wayne,  Clinton  D.,  and 
Clarence  G.  Mumford.  W.  W.,  and  Clinton  D.,  have 
a  manufactory  of  pyroligneous  acid  and  naphtha,  the 
only  one  in  the  county.  David  Spoor  early  lived  at 
Starr ucca,  and  'Squire  Whitaker,  who  removed  to 
Lizard  Lake.  Henry  Sampson,  Sen.,  built  the  first 
grist-mill.  All  the  men  were  more  or  less  engaged  in 
lumbering  pine  which  was  taken  to  Hale's  Eddy.  El- 
der Peck  was  the  first  minister,  and  Elder  Smitzer 
formed  the  first  Baptist  church  in  the  place.  Nelson 
M,  Benedict  lived  in  the  place  almost  fifty -three  years 


ago,  and  had  eight  children.  One  of  his  sons,  Kelson 
M.  Benedict,  n(^)w  living,  is  a  justice  of  the  peace. 
Dr.  Thomas  was  the  first  physician,  and  Dr.  J.  P. 
81iaw  has  lived  in  the  place  twenty-two  years. 

H.  McMurray,  a  well-known  and  intelligent  man, 
lives  in  the  place.  Wm.  Graham  and  John  McMnr- 
ray  began  the  first  tannery  and  were  succeeded  hy 
Mr.  Cowan,  then  by  Drake  &  Salisbury,  and  finally 
l)y  Major  E.  P.  Strung,  who  now  owns  one  of  the 
largest  tanneries  in  the  county.  The  Jefferson  rail- 
road passes  near  the  place.  The  village  is  kept  very 
neat  and  tasteful.  There  is  a  Koman  Catholic  and  a 
M.  E.  Church,  and  three  common  schools.  There  is 
also  a  Baptist  society  in  the  place,  of  whicli  Rev.  S. 
W.  Cole  is  the  pastor. 


THIS  township  was  set  off  from  Canaan,  in  1808, 
that  of  Sterling  was  taken  therefrom  in  1815,  and 
the  Wallenpaupack  was  made  the  dividing  line,  leav- 
ing: it  bounded  north  bv  South  Canaan  and  Chenw 
Ridge,  east  ])y  Palmyra,  south  by  Sterling,  and  west 


l)y  Luzerne  (now  Lackawanna)  county.  The  north 
part  of  Salem  lias  lately  been  erected  into  a  new 
township,  called  Lake,  but  it  is  more  convenient  to  de- 
scribe it  as  it  was  after  the  separation  of  Sterling, 
hi  1799,  there  were  but  four  settlers  in  Salem  at  the 
most,  namely,  Moses  Dolph,  Edward  London,  Elisha 
Potter,  and  Joseph  Wheatcraft.  Soon  after,  how- 
ever, we  find  the  names  of  William  Dayton,  Samuel 
Hartford,  and  James  Hartford  among  old  papers. 
Moses  Dolph  lived  at  Little  Meadows.  According  to 
the  accounts  given  by  the  old  settlers  in  Paupack,  a 
man,  by  the  name  of  Strong,  first  built  here,  in  1770. 
Soon  after  the  battle  at  Wyoming,  he,  with  some 
others,  had  a  desperate  fight  with  the  Lidians  at  this 
place.  Strong  and  his  family  were  all  massacred, 
and  Jacob  Stanton  was  the  only  white  man  that 
escaped.  He  fled,  and  notified  the  settlers  upon  the 
Paupack  of  their  danger.  Late  in  the  fall  of  1779, 
Stanton  came  back  to  the  place  and  found  that  the 
Indians  had  burned  down  the  house.  He  dug  a  grave, 
and  gathered  up  the  bones  of  the  wliites  and  Indians, 
and,  placing  them  together,  raised  a  mound  over 
them.  My  father,  Seth  Goodrich,  who  afterwards 
owned  the  place,  would  never  allow  the  moimd  to  be 
disturbed.  There  was  a  very  old  orchard  there  which 
must  have  been  planted  by  the  Indians,  as  Little 
Meadows  had  been  a  favorite  rendezvous  for  their 
hunting  parties.  Jacob  Stanton  built  a  house  and 
moved  his  wife  and  family  to  Little  Meadows,  in  1780, 
or  in  1781,  where,  during  his  life,  he  kept  a  public- 


house,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  same  business  until 
1801,  by  his  son-in-law,  Moses  Dolph,  wlio  then  sold 
the  possession  to  Dr.  Lewds  Collins.  He,  in  his  turn, 
in  1803,  sold  the  same  to  Seth  Goodrich,  who  lived 
on  the  place  during  his  life.  He  kept  a  house  of  en- 
tertainment for  many  years,  but  he  never  took  a 
license  to  sell  intoxicating  liquors. 

Edward  London  took  up  four  hundred  acres  at  Sa- 
lem cross-roads,  now  Hamlinton,  and  l)uilt  a  log-house 
near  where  Clearwater's  tavern  now  stands,  and,  in 
1801,  sold  out  his  possessions  to  Charles  Goodrich, 
Sen.,  who  built  a  new  log-house  above  a  large  spring, 
about  twenty  rods  east  of  Salem  Corners.  The  log- 
house,  built  by  London,  w^as  some  years  afterwards 
used  as  a  school-house,  and  a  man,  by  the  name  of 
Benedict,  was  the  teacher.  Charles  Goodrich,  Sen., 
died  at  Salem  Corners.  Charles,  Jabez,  and  Enos 
were  his  sons.  His  daughters  were  as  follows :  Anna, 
who  married  Gideon  Curtis;  Mary,  who  married  Jas. 
Huttze;  Lucy,  who  married  Ellery  Crandall;  and 
Laura,  who  married  Henry  Matthews,  all  of  whom 
are  dead.  Elisha  Potter,  who  w^as  a  weaver  by  trade, 
settled  on  the  old  road  from  Paupack  to  Capouse,  on 
a  creek,  which  was  named  after  him.  He  was  really 
in  Luzerne  county,  although  for  many  years  assessed 
in  Salem.  Joseph  Wheatcraft  settled  near  Hollister- 
ville.  He  was  from  Maryland,  and  late  in  life  his 
family  removed  to  Ohio.  William  Dayton  located 
about  a  half  a  mile  east  of  the  Five  Mile  creek,  on 
the  right  hand  side  of   the  road  leading  from    Little 


Meadows    to    Piirdytown.      He    married    Arsenetli 
Wright,  and  was  the  "  Old  Grimes,"  of  his  day. 

"His  heart  was  open  as  the  day, 
And  all  his  feelings  true, 
His  hair  was  some  inclined  to  gray. 
He  wore  it  in  a  cue. " 

Samuel  Hartford  located  about  one  mile  east  of 
Little  Meadows.  He  had  two  daughters,  Betsey,  who 
married  Aaron  Gillet,  Esq.,  and  is  yet  living  in  the 
township,  and  Philena,  who  married  a  Methodist  min- 
ister named  Kendall,  and  has  been  dead  many  years. 
In  or  about  1825,  Mr.  Hartford  started  the  first  card- 
ing-mill  in  Salem,  in  the  hollow  east  of  Salem  Corners. 
James  Hartford,  a  brother  of  Samuel  Hartford,  al- 
though taxed  in  Palmyra,  really  lived  in  Salem  on  the 
north  of  the  Purdytown  road  and  half  a  mile  from 
William  Dayton.  He  used  to  make  his  scantily-clad 
children  go  to  school  every  day  a  distance  of  three 
miles,  but  they  were  among  the  briglitest  scholars  in 
the    town. 

Betwen  1799  and  1803,  seventeen  new^  settlers  ar- 
rived and  took  up  lands  and  built  huts  or  houses  ac- 
cording to  their  ability.  They  came  from  Connecticut 
via  Newburg  and  Carpenter's  Point,  below  Port  Jer- 
vis,  on  to  Milford,  thence  by  the  way  of  Shohola, 
Blooming  Grove,  and  Palmyra,  to  Major  Ansley's,  and 
finally  through  the  Seven  Mile  swamp  to  Little  Mead- 
ows.    In  alphabetical  order  they  were  as  follows : 

Ephraim  Bidwell  was  a  soldier  during  the  Revolu- 
tionary war,  was  present  at  the  battle  at  Monmouth, 


suffered  at  Oamptown,  I^.  J.,  and  participated  in  tlie 
last  ]>attle  at  Yorktown.  He  was  an  enthusiastic  ad- 
mirer of  AYatsliington,  and  denied  the  charge  that  the 
Greneral  was  (told  and  distant;  on  the  contrary,  "The 
Cireneral,"  he  said,  "often  came  among  his  soldiers, 
cordially  sliook  hands  with  them,  and  conversed  freely 
with  them  about  their  sufferings  and  grievances/' 
Some  of  his  grandsons  fell  in  the  late  war,  and  others 
of  liis  grand(;hildren  are  living  in  tlie  town.  His  sons 
were  Luther,  Jabez,  William,  Orrin,  and  Ashbel.  His 
daughters  were  Prudence,  Lucy,  and  Rachel.  Pru- 
dence nuirried  a  man  by  tlie  name  of  Samuel  Pease. 
Being  a  great  trapper  he  skinned  a  wolf  that  he  found 
(lead  in  a  trap  and  threw  the  skin  around  his  neck, 
where  were  some  sores  which  absorbed  a  deadly  virus 
from  the  skin  and  he  died  w^ith  the  horrors  of  hydro- 

Josiah  Curtis  settled  half  a  mile  or  more  west  of 
Salem  Corners  on  the  east  and  west  I'oad.  His  sons 
were  Gideon,  Fitch  H.,  and  Edward.  Gideon  Curtis, 
a  farmer,  \vas  for  many  years  a  noted  supervisor  of 
the  town.  Fitch  H.  Curtis  and  Edward  Curtis  were 
excellent  workmen  as  carpenters  and  joiners.  Lie  had 
three  daughters,  one  the  wife  of  Edmund  Nicholson, 
one  the  wife  of  Amasa  Jones,  and  one  named  Morilla, 
who  died  unmarried  and  bequeathed  the  most  of  hei- 
property  to  the  Presbyterian  church  in  Salem. 

Harris  Hamlin  settled  in  1802,  tw^o  miles  west  of 
the  Corners.  He  w^as  a  lu'ickmaker  by  trade,  and  he 
built    the    tirst  frame  house  in  the  town.     His    sons 


were  as  follows :  1st.  Oliver  Hamlin,  who  kept  it 
store  many  years  and  a  public  house  at  Hamlin  ton. 
From  thence  lie  removed  to  Bethany  and  traded 
awhile,  and  then  to  Honesdale,  and  there  continued  as 
a  merchant  during  his  life;  he  was  a  county  commis- 
sioner three  years  and  associate  judge  five  years;  2d, 
Harris  Hamlin,  Jr.,  a  farmer,  who  is  yet  living  near 
Hollisterville ;  3d,  Ephraim  W.  Hamlin,  who,  in  early 
life  removed  to  Bethany,  where  he  is  yet  living.  He 
was  many  years  county  treasurer,  then  a  State  Repre- 
sentative and  afterward  State  Senator.  4th,  Butler 
Hamlin,  who  when  a  young  man,  commenced  as  a  mer- 
chant at  Salem  Corners,  (since  called  Hamlinton  in 
honor  of  the  family,)  and  by  strict  attention  to  busi- 
ness acquired  a  competence.  In  1861  he  was  elected 
associate  judge  of  the  county  and  served  out  his  time, 
since  which  he  has  rejected  all  proffered  nominations 
for  office. 

Harris  Hamlin,  Sen.,  had  five  daughters;  of    these, 

Sarah,  now  aged  ninety  years,  married  John  Bonham, 
and  Philena  married  Yolney  Cortright,  and  both  are 
living.  Catharine,  the  wife  of  Horace  Lee,  Buey, 
wife  of  Daniel  Baldwin,  and  Amanda,  wife  of   John 

Andrews,  are  all  dead. 

David  Hale  took  up  the  place  afterward  owned  by 
Abisha  Peet.  It  was  claimed  that  Hale's  wife  made 
fifty  pounds  of  sugar  one  spring  and  boiled  down  all 

(^)f  the  sap  in  a  tea-kettle  and  a  frying-pan. 

Timothy  Hollister  settled  on  the  road  from  Little 
Meadows  to  Jonestown,  cleared  up  a  good  farm,  sold 
it,  and  in  his  old  age  moved  to  Michigan,  being  a  loser 



hy  leaving  his  iirst  home.     He  had  two  sons  and  two 

daiigliters,  all  of  wiioni  are  dead. 

Asa  Jones,  generally  called  Deacon    Jones,  had    a 

large  family,  all  of  whom  are  dead,  excepting  his 
daughter,  widow  Polly  Hollister,  who  is  the  oldest  of 
the  family,  and  is  now  ninety-two  years  of  age.  His 
sons  were  Asa  Jones,  Jr.,  Amasa  Jones,  and  Joel 
Jones.     The  family  need  no  eulogy. 

Salmon  Jones,  a  brother  of  the  Deacon,  was  elected 
sheriff  in  1816  and  removed  to  Bethany.  He  had  a 
respectable  family,  all  of  w^hich  are  gone  to  the  grave. 
Jesse  Morgan  and  George  Morgan,  his  son,  Iirst  be- 
gan on  Morgan  Hill,  but  having  some  dilficulty  about 
the  land,  tliey  removed  to  Canaan  township.  George 
Morgan  died  in  that  township  within  the  past  year, 
aged  ninety-seven  years. 

Michael  Mitchell  began  about  1802,  and    then  re- 
moved to  Providence,  Luzerne  (county,  iinally  return- 
ing to  Salem.     He  ^\'as  an  ingenious  mechanic,  mason, 
carpenter,  shoemaker,  school-master,  and  music-teacher. 
In  later  years  he  taught  all  to  sing  that  could  learn  the 
old    minor-keved    fuo-ue    tunes.      Gne    of   them    was 
'' Whitestown,"   which  his    choir  used    to    sing    witli 
strong,  natural  voices  to  the  appropriate  words: 
*  *  Where  nothing  dwelt  but  beasts  of  prey, 
Or  men  as  fierce  and  wild  as  they; 
He  bids  the  oppressed  and  poor  repair, 
And  build  them  towns  and  cities  there. 
They  sow  their  fields,  their  trees  they  jDlant^ 
Whose  yearly  fruit  supplies  their  want; 
Their  race  grows  up  from  fruitful  stocks, 
Their  wealth  increases  with  their  Hocks. " 


Aside  from  his  otlier  qualifications,  Mr.  Mitcliell 
was  an  expert  mathematician ;  indeed  he  was  no  botch 
at  anything  he  undertook.  He  died  in  elanuary,  1855, 
aged  eighty  years,  and  his  wife  died  in  February,  1867, 
in  the  ninety-second  year  of  her  age.  They  have  three 
sons  living,  namely,  Jairus  Mitchell,  living  near  Hol- 
listerville,  well  known  as  the  manufacturer  of  Mitch- 
ell's rakes,  John  P.  Mitchell,  who  lives  on  Potter's 
creek,  above  IloUisterville,  and  owns  a  valuable  farm 
and  saw-mill,  and  Shepherd  Mitchell,  who  is  unmar- 
ried and  lives  near  his  brothers. 

Elizur  Miller  settled  north  of  Timothy  Hollister  on 
the  Jonestown  road.  He  was  the  father  of  Joseph, 
Jesse,  Ashbel,  and  Hervey  Miller.  Joseph  Miller 
built  the  court-house  in  Bethany  in  1816,  and  was 
twice  elected  sheriff  of  the  county.  Jesse  Miller  lived 
and  died  near  the  old  homestead.  Ashbel  Miller  clear: 
ed  up  a  farm  near  RoUisonville,  then  removed  to  Burnt 
Ridge,  south  of  his  first  farm,  lived  there  several  years 
and  cleared  up  a  farm  which  he  finally  sold  to  Thomas 
Bortree  and  moved  West.  Hervey  Miller  settled  in 

Francis  Nicholson,  a  Revolutionary  soldier,  who 
located  immediately  west  of  Josiah  Curtis,  died  soon  af- 
ter he  settled  in  the  township.  He  left  a  widow  and  a 
lar^e  familv  of  children,  of  whom  were  Jonathan 
Nicholson,  who  had  seven  sons  in  the  late  war,  tmd 
Edmund  Nicholson,  who  married  a  daughter  of  Josiah 
Curtis,  and  lived  one  mile  south-west  of  Salem  Cor- 
ners.    One  of  his  sons  fell  in  the  late  war. 


Zenas  Nicholson  was  a  carpenter  and  mill-wriglit. 
He  lived  on  the  old  homestead  until  about  1830,  when 
he  removed  to  Hamlinton.  He  died  of  epilepsy.  He 
had  six  sons  and  three  daughters.  His  sons  were  H. 
W.  Nicholson  and  G.  Byron  Nicholson,  late  attorneys 
at  law,  deceased ;  Lyman  Nicholson,  lieutenant  in  the 
late  war  and  who  was  killed  at  Gettysburg;  Seth  G. 
Nicholson,  farmer  in  Sterling ;  Milton  Nicholson,  and 
Oscar  Nicholson,  of  Luzerne  county. 

Ambrose  Nicholson,  one  of  the  original  family,  re- 
moved a  few  years  ago  to  Nebraska.  Henry  Heermans 
married  Fanny  Nicholson,  and  Solomon  Purdy  also 
married  one  of  the  daughters.  Jeremiah  Osgood,  who 
was  a  Revolutionary  soldier  and  was  afterwards  pen- 
sioned by  the  government,  took  up  land  one  mile  north 
of  Hamlinton.  He  died  at  the  age  of  ninety-nine 
years.  His  sons  were  Jeremiah,  Daniel,  and  Joseph. 
The  latter  is  a  physician  yet  practicing  in  the  town, 
and  is  the  only  survivor  of  the  family.  Lydia,  the 
only  daughter,  married  Ebenezer  Cobb. 

Theodore  Woodl)ridge,  about  1803,  took  up  twelve 
hundred  acres  of  land,  moved  his  family  into  tlie  town, 
and  built  a  house  of  hewn  logs  one  mile  east  of  Ham- 
linton. He  was  the  wealthiest  man  in  the  place.  He 
v\'as  a  major  in  the  Kevolutionary  wai-,  belonged  to 
the  order  of  "The  Cincinnati,"  and  was  often  visited 
])y  othcers  of  disthiction.  He  built  the  first  saw-mill 
in  the  town  at  the  outlet  of  tlie  Bidwell  pond,  which 
mill  was  soon  afterwards  burnt  down ;  he  then  built  a. 
oirist-mill    and  saw-mill  on  a  branch  of  the  Faupack, 


Inilf  a  mile  east  of  Salem  Corners,  as  it  was  then  call- 
ed. He  was  active  in  every  good  work  tliat  would 
l)enelit  the  community.  He  established  a  small  library 
for  the  benefit  of  the  young  people,  furnishing  most 
of  the  books  himself.  He  held  several  offices  in  the 
county,  but  was  indifferent  to  the  emoluments  of  office. 
He  had  two  sons  and  two  daughters.  They  were  well 
educated  before  they  came  into  the  county. 

Ashbel  Woodbridge  was  a  good  and  competent 
school-teacher  and  taught  several  years  in  the  school- 
house  near  his  home.  After  many  years  he  removed 
to  Falls  township,  Luzerne  county,  and  taught  in  their 
schools  to  a  very  advanced  age.  William  Woodbridge 
married  Almira,  the  only  daughter  of  John  Weston, 
and  remained  many  years  on  the  old  homestead. 
Anna,  the  oldest  daughter,  was  a  noble  woman;  she 
married  Clement  Paine,  a  wealthy  merchant  of  Tioga. 
Laura  married  a  Presbyterian  clergyman  named  Bas- 
com.  Rev.  William  Woodbridge,  Sen.,  a  Presbyte- 
rian minister,  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  the  chief 
author  of  Woodbridge's  geography,  and  who  had 
passed  most  of  his  life  as  a  teacher  in  high  schools, 
came  and  lived  three  or  four  years  with  his  nephew, 
William  Woodbridge,  after  the  death  of  his  brother, 
Major  Woodbridge,  who  died  in  or  about  1815.  Rev. 
AVilliam  Woodbridge,  while  in  Salem,  passed  his  time 
in  preaching  and  giving  instruction  in  geography  and 
astronomy  to  chisses  of  young  people.  He  said  that 
the  Major  came  to  the  Beech  woods  because  he  had 
not  the  means  of  keeping  up  that  style  of  living  ex- 


pected  of  him  in  Connecticut.  The  old  Woodl)ridge 
farm  is  now  owned  by  T.  J.  Watson.  Joseph  Wood- 
bridge  was  a  relative  of  Major  Woodbridge.  He 
took  up  four  hundred  acres  of  land.  He  liad  a  large 
familjy  all  of  whom,  excepting  one  son  living  on  the 
old  farm,  are  in  the  grave.  He  was  a  very  competent 
man,  had  a  good  library  of  books,  and  was  the  first 
justice  of  the  peace  in  the  town.  He  died  in  the  very 
meridian  of  life. 

Nathan  Wright  settled  one  mile  south  of  Salem 
Corners  about  1803.  He  came  by  the  encouragement 
of  Major  Woodbridge,  who,  knowing  him  to  be  a  good 
blacksmith,  said  tlie  settlers  must  have  a  blacksmith, 
and  could  not  do  without  one,  as,  in  those  days,  the 
plowshares  were  all  made  out  of  wrought  iron  and' 
steel.  Mr.  Wright  worked  at  his  trade  during  his 
life-time.  He  had  four  sons,  namely.  Miles,  a  farmer 
who  was  never  married;  x\bel,  who  was  married, 
died  recently,  leaving  a  family;  Moses,  who  married, 
but  left  no  family;  and  Sanford,  who  is  unmarried 
and  yet  living.  There  were  four  of  his  daughters  as 
follows:  Anna,  Lucina,  and  Kuth,  were  married  in 
the  towm;  Polly,  the  oldest  of  the  girls,  died  un- 

The  settling  of  the  sons  of  the  pioneers  above  de- 
scribed added  materially  to  the  advance  of  the  wealth 
and  population  of  the  town,  but  there  was  only  a  small 
incoming  of  new  settlers  between  1805  and  1825. 

John  Weston.  Though  we  remember  him  well,  we 
are  unable  to  state  the  exact  time  of   his  settlement, 


but  it  was  near  1809.  He  married  the  widow  of 
Francis  Nicholson,  deceased.  His  oldest  son,  Luther 
Weston,  cleared  up  a  large  farm  west  of  Joseph 
Woodbridge,  Esq.  He  married  Leury,  a  daughter  of 
Deacon  Asa  Jones,  and  after  her  death  widow  Sally 
Hewitt.  Altliough  a  lame  man,  he  acquired  a  com- 
petency by  farming.  He  removed  to  Hamlinton, 
where  he  lived  many  years,  and  there  died,  an  honor- 
ed and  worthy  maii.  Another  son  was  Elijah  Wes- 
ton, who  married  a  daughter  of  Major  Torrey.  Both 
are  dead.  Their  son,  Edward  Weston,  Esq.,  a  noted 
civil  engineer  in  the  employ  of  the  Delaware  &  Hud- 
son Canal  &  Railroad  Company,  resides  at  Provi- 
dence, Pa.  William  Woodbridge  married  Almira, 
the  only  daughter  of  John  Weston. 

Amos  Polly,  who  lived  in  Jonestown  in  1815,  was 
the  second  justi(?e  of  the  peace  in  the  town,  w^hicli  of- 
fice he  held  until  1839.  His  wife  was  a  sister  of  the 
late  Joseph  Headley,  of  Prompton.  For  many  years 
Esquire  Polly  resided  at  Hamlinton,  and  Dr.  Hiram 
Blois  married  Sophia,  his  daughter. 

Henry  Avery,  who  was  from  near  New  London, 
Connecticut,  came  to  the  county  about  1812.  He 
had  doubled  Cape  Horn  eight  times,  and  to  escape 
the  perils  of  the  sea,  (having  on  his  last  voyage  been 
shipwrecked,)  he  came  to  the  Beech  woods.  He  was 
a  man  of  reading  and  deep  reflection,  and,  at  the  re- 
quest of  his  neighbors,  held  the  ofiice  of  justice  of  the 
peace  for  many  years.  A  few  years  since  he  died, 
aged  ninety-five  years.     One  daughter,  widow  Almira 


Wetlierit,  his  oldest  child,  now  living  in  Salem,  alone 
remains  of  his  family.  Others  say  that  there  are  two 
i>f  the  family  li^dng  in  the  State  of  New  York. 

Bethuel  Jones,  father  of  Ebenezer  R.  Jones,  wlio 
was  twice  commissioner  of  the  connty,  took  up  land 
at  one  time  occupied  by  Eliphalet  Flint.  Before  Mr. 
Jones  died,  he  and  his  son,  El)enezer,  had  cleared  up 
and  improved  an  excellent  farm.  Many  years  ago 
one  of  the  old  gentleman's  sons  came  from  Connecti- 
cut, his  father's  native  home,  on  a  visit.  Supposing 
that  there  would  be  ]*are  sport  in  hunting  deer,  lie 
went  with  his  bi'other,  Ebenezer,  to  the  w^oods,  shot 
at  a  deer,  which  fell;  he  eagerly  jumped  upon  the 
deer  to  cut  its  throat,  but  the  struggling  animal  struck 
the  knife  with  his  hind  foot,  changing  its  direction, 
and  causing  the  knife  to  sever  the  femoral  artery  of 
the  young  man's  left  leg.  He  fell  over  and  died  in  a 
few  minutes. 

John  Andre w^s,  about  1813,  took  up  a  farm  east  of 
Harris  Hamlin's  first  farm.  He  had  four  sons;  Adriel, 
the  oldest,  is  living,  aged  ninety-two  years;  John, 
Charles,  and  David  are  dead.  Anson  Goodrich  mar- 
ried Eunice,  his  only  daughter,  who  was  an  excellent 
woman.  She  died,  leaving  a  family  of  ten  children, 
most  of  whom  are  living. 

Tlie  following  named  persons  settled  before    1823: 

John  Glossenden  settled  north-east  of  Anson  Good- 
rich, took  up  one  hundred  and  sixteen  acres  of  land, 
cleared  up  a  good  farm,  and  lived  there  duiing  his  life. 
Robert  Glossenden,  a  son  of  his,  was  born  there. 


Aaron  Gillett  was  from  Connecticut,  and  first  be- 
gan by  teaching  school  in  the  town.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  Samuel  Hartford,  and  he  and  his  wife  are 
both  living. 

Edmund  Hartford  lived  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Paupack  below  Luther  Weston's,  and  owned  a  grist-mill, 
which  was  built  by  Ephraim  Bidwell,  Ashbel  Wood- 
bridge,  and  William  Hollister  on  the  Sterling  side  of 
the  creek.  Hartford  probably  bought  the  mill  of 
Hollister.  Mr.  Hartford  was  always  considered  honest, 
an  excellent  quality  in  a  miller. 

Amasa  Hollister,  a  ])lacksmith,  began  about  1815. 
His  sons  were  Alpheus,  Alanson,  Amasa,  Wesley, 
and  John  F.  Alpheus  and  Alanson  built  a  saw-mill 
and  grist-mill  and  made  many  other  improvements. 
John  F.  Hollister  lives  at  Piano,  Illinois.  Amasa  and 
Wesley  went  South.  There  were  two  daughters; 
Ursula,  now  a  widow  living  in  Illinois,  married  Mar- 
cus Stewart,  and  Daphne  married  Hiram  Brown,  who 
went  West. 

Henry  Heermans  began  first  upon  the  place  last 
owned  by  Harris  Hamlin,  Sen.,  and  then  he  removed 
to  Salem  Corners,  which  place  was  in  part  built  up  by 
him.  He  was  elected  constable  in  the  spring  of  1818, 
and,  at  November  sessions,  1818,  he  was  licensed  to 
keep  a  public  house,  which,  with  a  store,  he  managed 
for  several  years.  He  was  a  stirring  business  man. 
In  1829  he  disposed  of  his  property  at  Salem  Corners 
and  removed  to  Providence,  Pa. 

Samuel  Morgan  bought  the  farm  first  taken  up  by 


(274  HISTORY    OF    WAYNE    COUNTY. 

liis  uncle,  Jesse  Morgan,  and'  called  Morgan  hill.  He 
was  a  shrewd  man  and  a  good  farmer.  He  so  much 
resembled  Ben.  Butler  that  had  they  been  dressed 
alike  it  would  have  been  hard  to  tell  them  apart.  His 
daughter,  Mary  Morgan,  now  owns  the  old  home- 
stead. Halsey  Morgan,  one  of  his  sons,  remains  in 
the  town,  but  his  other  children  have  removed. 

Aaron  Morgan,  a  brother  of  Samuel,  bought  and 
improved  land  north  of  his  brother.  Subsequently  he 
bought  of  Charles  Goodrich,  Sen.,  the  north-east  sec- 
tion of  the  old  London  lot,  at  Hamlinton,  containing 
one  liundred  and  twenty  acres,  and  exchanged  his 
northern  farm  with  Hammond  Fowler  for  the  George 
Lee  farm  lying  east  of  his  purchase  of  Charles  Good- 
rich. Aaron  Morgan's  old  farm  is  now  owned  by  A. 
R.  Jones,  which  farm  adjoins  the  one  of  that  ingen- 
ious orchardist  and  gardener,  T.  W.  Quintin.  Mr. 
Morgan  built  the  large  stone  dwelling-house  at  Ham- 
linton and,  upon  his  death,  bequeathed  all  his  property 
equally  to  his  four  daughters. 

Dr.  Asa  Hamlin,  who  originally  was  from  Con- 
necticut, came  to  Salem  about  1814.  He  was  the 
first  settled  physician ;  before  his  time  Dr.  Collins,  of 
Cherry  Bidge,  or  Dr.  Mahony,  of  Bethany,  was  called 
in  cases  of  great  extremity.  Dr.  Hamlin  bought  or 
rented  a  tavern-stand  of  Henry  Heermans  and  kept 
tavern  several  years  at  Hamlinton,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Jeffrey  Wells.  Dr.  Hamlin  had  three  sons  and 
one  daughter.  He  took  great  pains  to  educate  his 
children.     His  oldest  son,  William  E.  Hamlin,  mar- 


ried  a  daughter  of  David  Noble  and  has  been  a  promi- 
nent merchant  at  Nobletown  from  his  youth  up.  The 
other  sons  removed  to  western  Pennsylvania  and  have 
been  popular  men  in  the  Legislature.  The  only  daugh- 
ter, Eliza,  married  James  Noble,  of  Nobletown,  both 
of  whom  are  living. 

John  Roosa,  Esq.,  bought  the  corner  where  Dr. 
Hamlin  kept  tavern,  and  was  licensed  at'  April  sessions, 
1826.  He  had  previously  kept  a  popular  tavern  in 
Damascus.  No  reasonable  man  could  find  any  fault 
with  the  house  kept  by  Mr.  Roosa.  After  eight  or 
ten  years,  he  sold  out  to  John  Nash,  and  removed  to 
Orange  county.  He  was  the  father  of  Dr.  Isaac 
Koosa,  George  D.  Roosa,  and,  also,  of  Charles  P. 
Roosa,  who  kept  a  store  in  Hamlinton  several  years. 
Catharine,  the  only  daughter,  married  Anson  Northum, 
a  merchant. 

Jonathan  B.  Watrous  came  to  Salem  w^hen  young. 
He  was  known  to  be  the  best  boot  and  shoe  maker  to 
be  found.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Joseph  Moore, 
Sen.     He  is  one  of  the  oldest  men  in  the  town. 

Joseph  Moore,  Sen.,  was  originally  from  Connecti- 
cut. He  had  three  children  by  his  first  wife,  namely, 
Joseph  Moore,  Jr.,  who  married  Rebecca,  daughter  of 
Seth  Goodrich;  Abigail,  wife  of  George  Goodrich; 
and  Matilda,  wife  of  J.  B.  Watrous. 

Edward  Moore  bought  the  farm  first  owned  by  Har- 
ris Hamlin.  Dr.  Joseph  S.  Moore,  a  son  of  Edward 
Moore,  died  many  years  ago.  Horace  Moore,  anothei' 
son,  lives  in  Jonestown  and  owns  the  best  farm  in  the 


neighborhood.  Walter  Moore  lives  adjoining  the  old 
farm  of  his  father,  and  Lucy  Moore  lives  on  the  home- 

John  Raymond,  who  married  a  daughter  of  Thomas 
Spangenberg,  Esq.,  and  who  was  a  soldier  in  the  war 
of  1812  and  is  now  pensioned,  lived  and  traded  as  a 
merchant  several  years  in  Hamlinton.  He  is  now 
living  in  Scranton. 

John  Buckingham,  about  1818,  settled  on  the  farm 
now  owned  by  John  Pel  ton,  and  then  removed  to 
South  Canaan,  where  he  lived  the  rest  of  his  days. 
By  trade  he  was  a  calker  and  worked  much  at  Hones- 
dale  u.pon  canal-boats.  Ambrose  Buckingham,  a 
brother,  bought  land  and  cleared  up  a  good  farm  near 
the  line  between  Salem  and  Paupack  (really  in  Pau- 
pack).  He  was  father  of  Emma  May  Buckingham, 
the  authoress.  Asa  Johnson  married  a  sister  of  said 
Buckingham;  Harvey  Miller  married  one,  and  Jas. 
Carr  another.  The  family,  as  we  have  elsewhere  sta- 
ted, were  from  Saybrook,  Conn.  The  Peet  family 
settled  on  the  old  Samuel  Hartford  farm.  There 
were  Charles,  a  shoemaker,  and  Daniel  and  Abisha, 
farmers.  Moses  Wright  married  one  of  the  daugh- 
ters, and  Albert  Stocker  another.  Stocker  lived  on 
and  owned  the  Isaac  Hewitt  place,  east  of  Little 
Meadows,  w^hich  his  family  now  own. 

Dr.  Erastus  Wright,  from  Massachusetts,  com- 
menced the  practice  of  medicine,  at  Hamlinton,  about 
1823,  and  continued  there  during  his  life.  He  mar- 
ried Lydia,  a  daughter  of    Pliny  Muzzy,  of    Clinton, 


and  had  two  daughters,  Mary  and  Frances.  Mary 
married  Rev.  A.  R.  Raymond,  and  Frances,  Mr.  Cook. 

Salem  is  less  broken  by  hills  than  any  other  town- 
ship. The  soil  produces  good  crops  of  corn,  rye,  oats, 
and  buckwheat,  but  it  is  best  adapted  to  the  raising 
of  grass.  The  Wallenpaupack  and  its  tributaries  af- 
ford abundant  water-powxr.  Jones  pond  is  the  larg- 
est sheet  of  water  in  the  county,  and  the  Bid  well  pond 
is  also  large.  The  Cobb  pond  is  smaller,  and  the 
Marsh  pond  the  most  diminutive.  The  first  settlers 
located  on  the  old  north  and  south  and  east  and  west 
roads.  In  1821,  there  was  not  a  house  on  the  road 
from  Little  Meadows  to  the  Paupack,  a  distance  of 
seven  miles.  Fifty  years  ago  the  whole  region  east  of 
the  Five  Mile  creek,  with  little  exception,  was  an  un- 
broken wilderness.  Rollisonville  takes  its  name  from 
John,  Asa,  and  Nathaniel  Rollison,  who  first  began 

The  Osborn  family,  also,  contributed  to  enlarge  the 
settlement.  The  post-office  is  Arlington.  No.  19  is 
situated  at  the  head  of  Jones  pond,  on  the  light  track 
of  the  Peminsylvania  Coal  Co's  Railroad,  to  which 
position  it  owes  its  importance.  The  village  has  all 
the  buildings  necessary  for  the  convenience  of  a  tliriv- 
ing  population.  The  post-office  is  Ariel.  Number 
12  is  situated  on  the  loaded  track  of  said  railroad, 
north  of  No.  19,  and  is  fast  increasing  in  all  that  is 
necessary  to  form  a  prosperous  village.  Hamlin  ton 
has  two  stores,  one  tavern,  a  Methodist  Episcopal 
church,   a    Presbyterian,    and    an    Episcopal   church. 


Hon.  Butler  Hamlin  is  postmaster.  The  situation  of 
the  place  is  very  pleasant.  Hollisterville,  situated  on 
Potter  creek,  has  a  post-office,  two  grist-mills,  two 
saw-mills,  two  rake-factories,  three  stores,  two  black- 
smith-shops, two  wheelwright-shops,  one  carding-mill, 
one  Baptist  church,  and  one  Protestant  Methodist 

Ledgedale,  situated  on  the  Wallenpaupack,  owes  its 
origin  to  the  establishment  of  a  tannery  at  the  place 
by  G.  B.  Morss.  It  contains  a  saw-mill,  grist-mill, 
and  store,  witli  all  other  conveniences  appurtenant  to 
a  village.  The  population  is  Irish  and  German.  The 
Saint  Mary's  Roman  Catholic  church  is  located  near 
by  in  Pike  county.  Services  are  held  monthly.  There 
is  a  Methodist  Episcopal  church  in  Bidwelltown,  and 
a  Baptist  church  in  Jonestown.  The  first  store  in  Sa- 
lem was  kept  by  George  Harberger,  in  a  part  of  Major 
Woodbridge's  new  house.  He  kept  salt  at  five  dollars 
per  bushel,  leather,  paper,  bohea  tea,  and  pepper,  and 
took  in  pay  fox  and  deer-skins.  Oliver  Hamlin  kept 
the  next  store  at  Hamlinton.  Major  Woodbridge 
was  the  first  post-master  and  he  was  succeeded  by 
his  son,  William.  There  were  but  two  newspapers 
taken  in  the  town  up  to  1815.  Theodore  Woodbridge 
and  Seth  Goodrich  took  one  copy  of  the  Hartford 
Coitrant,  and  Joseph  Woodbridge  and  John  Weston 
another.  At  that  time  John  Searle  carried  the  mail 
from  Milford  through  Salem  to  Wilkesbarre  every 
fortnight.  When  the  papers  came  the  men  gathered 
in  to  hear  and  discuss  the  neW'S.     It  took  four  months 


for  the  news  about  the  battle  of  Waterloo  to  reach 
the  Beech  Woods.  Facts  illustrative  of  the  suffer- 
ings of  the  first  settlers  are  given  elsewhere. 

There  are  ten  public  schools  in  Salem,  and  the 
same  number  in  Lake.  Number  of  taxables  in  Salem 
in  1878,  455.     Number  in  Lake,  371. 


STEELING,  including  what  is  now  Dreher,  was  sep- 
arated from  Salem,  April  25th,  1815.  It  is  bounded 
north  by  the  west  branch  of  the  Wallenpaupack,  east  by 
the  south  branch  thereof,  south  by  Monroe  county,  and 
west  by  Lackawanna.  Other  streams  of  less  note  are 
Butternut  and  Mill  creek.  There  are  no  lakes.  The 
south-western  part  of  the  township,  about  the  head- 
waters of  the  Lehigh,  is  sterile  and  unimproved. 
The  lands  about  and  westward  of  Nobletown  and  in 
the  northern  and  eastern  part,  along  the  south  branch, 
are  of  good  quality  and  are  well  cultivated.  Below 
and  eastward  of  Captain  Howe's  location  and  between 
there  and  the  old  Bortree  settlement,  is  a  high  hill  of 
l)roken  ground,  worthless  except  for  pasturage. 


Henry  Stevens,  a  German,  was  the  first  settler  on 
the  old  north  and  sonth  State  road,  near  Butternut 
creek.  He  had  received  a  good  education  in  his  native 
country.  In  1800  he  was  taxed  as  a  laborer,  and  in 
1803  paid  taxes  on  two  hundred  acres  of  land.  He 
was  the  father  of  Valentine,  George,  Nicholas,  and 
Henry,  who  were  all  farmers,  and  of  Jane  and  Martha 

In  1805,  Robert  Bortree,  Sen.,  Edward  Cross,  Jno. 
Clements,  and  James  Simons,  each  paid  taxes  on  four 
hundred  acres  of  land,  from  which  it  appears  that 
each  one  took  np  a  wari*antee  tract.  These  men 
bought  their  lands  of  Edward  Evans,  of  Philadelphia, 
the  deed  of  John  Clements  being  dated  in  March, 
1804,  that  of  Robert  Bortree  in  May,  1805,  and  that 
of  James  Simons,  in  July,  1806.  The  lands  of  the 
above  were  described  as  located  on  the  south  branch 
of  the  Wallenpaupack.  In  the  same  year  (1805)  Jo- 
seph Simons  and  Abraham  Simons  paid  taxation  on 
two  hundred  acres  each.  The  above  named  came  up 
from  Philadelphia  and  from  Pocono  by  the  old  north 
and  south  State  road,  from  which  they  marked  out  a 
route  to  their  possessions.  What  few  goods  they  had 
were  brought  in  on  pack-horses.  With  axes  and  au- 
gers they  constructed  their  huts.  Of  so  little  value 
were  they  that  the   assessors  neglected  to  assess  them. 

Phineas  Howe,  Sen.,  or  Captain  Howe,  a  title 
which  he  acquired  in  Massacluisetts,  began  on  the  old 
north  and  south  road  and,  in  1805,  paid  taxes  on 
thirty  acres  of  land,  and  subsequently  on  2744  acres; 


consequently  he  paid  the  highest  tax  that  was  levied 
in  the  township.  During  his  life  he  was  a  noted  inn- 
keeper, and  erected  costly  and  convenient  buildings 
which,  in  or  about  the  year  1826,  were  consumed  by 
tire.  He  lost  all,  as  he  had  no  insurance.  He  was 
the  father  of  the  late  Hon.  Phineas  Howe,  Jr.,  for- 
merly an  associate  judge  of  the  county,  and  grand  fa- 
liter  of  Hon.  A.  R.  Howe,  once  register  and  recorder 
and  Representative  of  the  county.  He  had  one  other 
son,  named  S.  Howe,  now  deceased ;  some  of  his  chil- 
dren are  yet  living  in  the  township.  Ezra  Wall,  Esq., 
a  merchant  of  Nicholson,  Luzerne  county.  Pa.,  married 
one  of  his  daughters,  and  Capt.  A.  H.  Avery,  of  Sa- 
lem, who  removed  to  Illinois,  married  another. 

The  resident  taxables  in  the  township,  at  the  time 
of  its  erection,  were  Wm.  Akers,  Bartle  Bartleson, 
John  Bennett,  Jeremiah  Bennett,  Nathaniel  Bennett, 
Robert  Bortree,  Sen.,  Wm.  Bortree,  John  Bortree, 
Thomas  Bortree,  Jr.,  John  Burns,  John  Clements, 
Edward  Cross,  Andrew  Cory,  Richard  Gilpin,  Wm. 
Gilpin,  Wm.  Hollister,  Phineas  Howe,  Jonathan  Rich- 
ardson, and  John  Brown.  We  remember  that  in 
or  about  1821,  Edward  Bortree,  Thomas  Bortree,  Sen., 
Benjamin  Beach,  Robert  Cross,  George  Dobell,  Jas. 
Dobson,  George  Frazer,  Dawson  Lee,  Thomas  Lee, 
William  Lancaster,  Richard  Lancaster,  Amasa  Megar- 
gle,  Joseph  Megargle,  William  McCabe,  Edwin  Mul- 
linsford,  John  Nevins,  Heman  Newton,  David  Reed, 
David  Noble,  John  Simpson,  Henry  Trout,  and  Levi 
Webster,    together  with    those    aforementioned,    and 



their  children,  with  some  others,  were  then  residents 
of  Sterlhig  township. 

Prominent  among  the  above  named  was  Robert 
Bortree,  Sen.  He  built  the  first  grist-mill  and  saw- 
mill in  the  townsliip ;  he  did  many  other  things  for  the 
benelit  of  the  public,  and  was  an  open-handed  and 
free-hearted  Irishman.  William  Bortree,  his  oldest 
son,  for  several  years  a  farmer  and  merchant,  died  a 
few  years  since,  aged  over  ninety  years.  His  other 
sons  were  John,  Edward,  Thomas,  and  Robert.  Mucli 
to  their  credit,  they  settled  near  their  old  homestead. 
If  rightly  informed,  Robert,  who  lives  on  the  east  side 
of  the  south  branch  of  the  Wallenpaupack,  is  the  only 
survivor  of  the  family.  Thomas  Bortree  built  an  ex- 
cellent mill  on  the  S(juth  branch  of  the  Wallenpau- 
pack, about  one  mile  from  the  mill  that  his  fathe]- 
constructed,  and  ran  it  many  years  with  success.  Then 
he  bought  a  farm  of  Ashbel  Miller,  situated  in  the 
eastern  part  of  Salem,  on  the  old  turnpike  road,  i\\ 
which  place  he  died.  His  wife  was  a  daughter  of 
Rev.  Benjamin  Killam,  of  Palmyra.  There  was  an- 
other Thomas  Bortree,  who  was  an  older  man  and 
was  eitliei-  an  uncle  or  a  relative  of  the  younger 
Thomas,  who  began  at  an  early  date  on  a  farm  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  road  nortli  of  J^iobletown. 

William  Gilpin  was  the  first  constable,  and  Jere- 
miah Bennett  the  first  assessor.  He  was  the  son  of 
John  Bennett,  and  held  the  office  of  county  commis- 
sioner and  other  offices,  and  was  captain  of  a  militia 
company.     He    was    a    generous    and    public-spirited 


man  and  wielded  great  political  influence.  He,  for 
many  years,  kept  a  pul)lic-house  in  that  part  of  the 
town  called  Newfoundland.  Nathaniel  Bennett,  a  man 
much  esteemed  in  his  day,  was  Jeremiah's  brother. 

David  Noble  was  the  iirst  merchant  in  the  town. 
He  bought  a  large  tract  of  land  and  he  and  his  sons 
commenced  and  built  up  the  village  of  Nobletown, 
and,  judging  from  the  social  and  moral  character  of 
the  people,  the  name  of  the  place  is  very  appropriate. 
William  T.  Noble,  a  brother  of,  David,  was  for  many 
years  a  merchant  in  said  village. 

William  Hollister,  from  Connecticut,  in  early  days, 
was  interested  in  building  the  grist-mill  always  known 
as  the  Edmund  Hartford  mill.  After  clearing  up  a 
farm,  he  returned  to  his  native  place  and  remained  a 
few  years,  then  came  back,  and  died  at  Salem.  Asa 
Hollister,  his  only  son,  is  living  at  Hollisterville.  Three 
of  his  daughters  are  living.  James  Waite  married 
one,  Leonard  Clearwater  one,  and  A.  B.  Walker  an- 
other. Mrs.  Polly  Hollister,  his  widow,  is  jet  living, 
aged  over  ninety  years.  Mr.  Hollister  was  an  excel- 
lent man.  He  was  in  no  way  related  to  the  families 
of  Timothy  Hollister  and  Amasa  Hollister. 

Jonathan  Ricliardson  was  from  Philadclpliia,  and 
was  a  man  of  capacity  and  education. 

Richard  Lancaster  was  an  Englishman  and  a  silver- 
smith by  trade.  He  used  to  work  at  his  business  of 
making  silver  spoons,  and  took  them  to  Philadelphia 
for  sale.  He  held  the  oltice  of  justice  of  tlie  peace, 
and  was  elected  treasurer  and  sheriff  of    the  county, 


and  discharged  all  tlie  duties  pertaining  to  these  offices 
with  fidelity. 

Dawson  Lee  and  Thomas  Lee  lived  near  Thomas 
Bortree,  Sen.,  on  the  Newfoundland  turnpike.  Daw- 
son Lee  was  a  shrewd,  witty  man.  They  were  Loth 
good  farmers.  Thomas  Lee  once  had  a  number  of 
iine  shoats  in  a  pen  which  one  by  one  mysteriously  dis- 
appeared. At  last  he  set  a  trap  and  caught  a  large 
{)lack  bear  which  thus  fell  a  victim  to  his  un Jewish 
appetite  for  pork. 

Amasa  Megargle  was  a  miller,  and,  for  many  years, 
was  employed  in  the  Honesdale  inill.  KW.  the  Me- 
i>:ar2:les  were  ino-enious  mechanics. 

Levi  Webster,  in  1815,  moved  into  Salem,  and  after 
a  few  years  took  up  a  farm  in  West  Sterling,  Avliere 
he  remained  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  was  a  man  of 
quick  wit  and  well  read,  particularly  in  natural  histo- 
ry. He  has  three  sons  in  the  county,  who  are  very 
much  like  what  their  father  was. 

Such  were  the  original  settlers  of  Sterling,  the 
foundation  of  the  present  excellent  superstructure  of 
its  society.  After  the  erection  of  the  township, 
constant  accessions  of  the  same  moral  excellence  were 
made  to  the  population.  Excepting  Capt.  Howe,  Jer- 
emiah Bennet,  and  David  Noble,  the  most  of  the  first 
settlers  were  Irish. 

It  is  a  surprising  truth  that  notmthstanding  the 
mingled  nationalities  of  the  people,  no  township  in  the 
county  has  had  fewer  criminal  prosecutions  and  civil 
controversies  in   our  courts    than  Sterling.     Between 


thirty  and  forty  years  ago,  a  settlement  was  made  in 
East  Sterling,  or  Newfonndland,  by  a  body  of  worthy 
and  industrious  Germans,  who  have  greatly  promoted 
tlie  wealtli  and  advancement  of  the  township.  When 
the  Bortree,  Simons,  Gilpin,  Cross,  and  Clements 
families,  fresh  from  the  Emerald  Isle,  first  marked 
their  way  into  the  woods  and  built  their  huts  midst 
gloom  and  solitude,  how  desperate  was  their  condition, 
contrasted  with  the  enchanting  scenes  which  they  had 
left  forever  behind  them  !  They  suffered,  struggled, 
and  agonized  to  live  and  provide  homes  for  themselves 
and  their  children;  and  let  it  not  be  forgotten  that 
they  succeeded.  After  the  German  settlement  began 
to  ilourisli,  a  turnpilve  was  constructed  from  the  old 
turnpike  through  Newfoundland,  etc.  It  has  since 
l)een  thrown  up. 

Since  the  plan  for  this  history  was  adopted  the 
town  has  been  divided  and  the  southern  part  erected 
into  a  new  township  and  named  Dreher,  in  honor  of 
Hon.  Samuel  S.  Dreher,  late  president  judge  of  Wayne 
and  Pike  counties.  In  the  south-western  part  of 
Dreher,  the  Delaware,  Lackawaxen  and  Western  rail- 
road crosses  a  narrow  strip  of  the  county  at  a  place 
called  Sand  Cut,  where  there  is  a  depot  and  a  post- 
office.  Though  the  village  is  small,  the  business  is 

South  Sterling  is  a  small,  thriving  village  with  a 
post-office  and  a  M.  E.  church. 

There  is  a  post-office  at  Newfoundland  and  an 
Evangelical  church.     Nobletown  has  a  post-office  and 


H  M.  E.  church.  In  1878  Sterlmg  had  ten  common 
schools,  inchiding  those  in  Dreher.  The  number  of 
taxables  in  both  was  four  hundred  and  ninety-one. 


rpmS  township  Avas  formed  from  parts  of  Texas  and 
A  Canaan  townships,  at  December  sessions,  1843. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  north-east  by  Tex- 
as, on  the  south-w^est  by  Palmyra  and  Paupack, 
south  by  Lake,  and  west  by  South  Canaan  and 
Canaan.  The  chief  natural  ponds  are  Sand  and  Cajaw. 
The  Middle  creek,  Collins  brook,  Stryker,  and  Pond 
brooks  are  the  chief  streams.  There  are  no  very  high 
hills,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  land  is  cultivatable. 
There  is  much  land  in  the  township  of  superior  quality, 
but  the  lands  south  of  Middle  creek  are  mostly  rough 
and  uninviting,  excepting  about  the  Sand  pond  and  in 
the  neighborhood  of  John  R.  Hoadley's.  This  town- 
ship was  early  benefited  by  the  passage  of  the  Milford 
and  Owego  turnpike  road  througli  it,  and  at  a  later 
period  l)y  the  Ilonesdale  and  Cherry  Ridge  turnpike, 
which  was  afterwards  continued  to  East  Sterling.     A 


settlement  was  commenced  in  this  township  before  the 
organization  of  the  county,  but  at  what  exact  time  we 
cannot  ascertain.  By  an  assessment  of  Canaan  town- 
ship, made,  in  1799,  by  John  Bunting,  Esq,,  it  appears 
that  En  OS  Woodward,  John  Woodward,  Sihis  Wood- 
ward, Asahel  Woodward,  and  John  H.  Schenck  had 
at  that  time  made  quite  an  opening  in  the  woods. 
Enos  Woodward  had  then  more  land  cleared  than  any 
man  in  the  township,  excepting  Moses  Dolph;  having 
iif ty  acres  of  improved  and  one  hundred  and  seventy- 
five  acres  of  unimproved  land.  John  Woodward  had 
seventeen  acres  of  cleared  and  three  hundred  and 
eighty-three  acres  of  uncleared  land;  Silas  Woodward 
and  Asahel  Woodward  each  had  twenty  acres  of  im- 
proved, and  each  three  hundred  and  eighty  acres  of 
unimproved  land;  and  Col.  John  H.  Schenck  had 
forty  acres  of  improved  and  four  hundred  acres  of  un- 
improved land.  About  1794,  Benjamin  King  went 
from  Paupack  and  began  on  the  Schenck  farm,  and, 
in  1796,  left  it  and  went  to  Mount  Pleasant.  It  is 
supposed  that  about  this  time  Enos  Woodward  with 
his  sons  and  Col.  John  fl.  Schenck  commenced  and 
made  the  first  permanent  improvements.  They  were 
soon  after  joined  by  Daniel  Davis  and  Abraham  J. 

Enos  Woodward  was  a  native  of  Massachusetts. 
He  was  a  soldier  in  the  Pe volution ary  war,  and,  while 
at  home  upon  a  furlough,  mixed  in  an  Indian  fight  on 
the  Paupack.  He  was  tall  in  stature,  noble  in  bear- 
ing, and  much  reseml^led  his  grandson,  Hon.  George 


.  W.  Woodward,  deceased.  He  had  several  sons,  namely, 
John,  that  quiet  and  unobtrusive  man  wlio  lived  and 
died  upon  the  great  Woodward  farm  near  the  resi- 
dence of  J.  Jordan;  Silas,  who  bought  the  farm  of 
Phineas  Coleman  in  Dyberry;  EV)enezer,  who  owned 
the  farm  west  of  Clark's  Corners ;  and  Abisha  Wood- 
ward, whose  history  will  l)e  found  under  tlie  head  of 

Colonel  John  H.  Schenck  was  from  (3range  connty, 
I*^.  Y.  Owning  a  good  property  in  his  native  place, 
he  mortgaged  it  to  raise  money  to  equip  a  regiment 
to  serve  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  Such  was  the  pov- 
erty of  the  country  in  those  days  that  he  was  poorly 
remunerated  for  his  services,  and,  though  made  colonel 
of  the  regiment  that  he  raised,  he  was  not  able  to  re- 
deem the  farm  that  he  mortgaged.  He  removed  to 
Cherry  Ridge  and  took  up  the  land  known  as  the 
Darling  farm.  He  was  finally  pensioned  by  the  gov- 
ernment and  died  at  the  house  of  Dr.  Sweet  in  Canaan 
township.  He  was  a  patriot  whose  name  deserves  to 
be  remembered.  Some  of  his  descendants  are  living 
in  the  township.  Colonel  Jacob  Schenck  was  a  son  of 
Colonel  John  H.  Schenck.  Jacol)  had  the  following 
sons:  John  J.,  who  lived  and  traded  many  years  at 
Clark's  Corners,  a  most  estimal)le  man ;  Apollos  D., 
Henry,  Caleb  D.,  and  Isaac,  and,  also,  two  daughters. 

Abraham  J.  Stryker  ])ought  a  large  quantity  of 
land  south  of  the  Enos  AVoodward  farm,  and  made 
improvements  thereon.     In  his  old  age  he  removed  t«» 


Honesdale.     His  only    son,  Abraham  A.  Stryker,  is 
living  in  Damascus. 

Daniel  Davis  located  upon  the  farm  now  owned  by 
H.  L.  Phillips.  When  there  was  much  travel  npon 
the  turnpike,  Mr.  Davis  kept  a  good  public  house  for 
many  years.  Stephen  Kimble,  married  Catharine,  a 
daughter  of  Daniel  Davis. 

Thomas  Lindsley,  for  many  years,  kept  a  tavern  in 
Cherry  Ridge. 

Dr.  Lewis  Collins  was  born  in  Litchfield,  Connecti- 
cut. He  married  a  daughter  of  Hon.  Oliver  Hun- 
tington, of  Lebanon,  in  that  State.  He  removed  his 
family  to  Salem,  in  1801,  and  bought  of  Moses  Dolph 
the  old  Jacob  Stanton  farm  at  Little  Meadows.  About 
this  time  the  county  seat  was  fixed  at  Bethany,  and 
the  doctor  wishing  to  locate  nearer  the  centre  of  the 
county,  where  he  could  have  a  larger  field  for  his  prac- 
tice, sold  out  to  Seth  Goodrich,  removed  to  Cherry 
Ridge  in  1803,  and  bought  the  possessions  of  Enos 
Woodward  aforesaid.  The  farm  that  he  purchased  is 
now  owned  by  his  grandson,  Lewis  S.  Collins,  Esq. 
The  practice  of  the  doctor  was  very  extensive  and  em- 
braced the  whole  circuit  of  the  county.  He  had  a  sar- 
castic way  of  giving  gratuitous  advice  to  his  patients, 
whicli,  althougli  salutary,  was  not  always  agreeable. 
He  advised  a  woman  who  asked  for  medicine  to  re- 
store her  appetite,  to  go  without  eating  for  eight  and 
forty  hours,  and  if  that  failed,  to  go  without,  eight  and 
forty  hours  longer,  and  then  to  eat  old  bread  and  ap- 
ple-sauce.    The  following  were  the  names  of  the  chil- 



dren  of  Dr.  Lewis  Collins,  viz :  Aiigiistns,  who  owned 
and  lived  upon  the  farm  now  the  property  of  Charles 
Gc.  Reed  in  Dyberry ;  Oristns,  attorn ey-at-law,  generally 
known  as  Judge  Collins.  He  located  at  Wilkesbarre, 
and  at  times  practiced  at  the  Bar  in  Wayne  county. 
He  Avas  ten  years  president  judge  of  the  several  courts 
in  Dauphin  county,  Fa.  He  is  yet  living  with  his  son 
in  Princeton,  New  Jersey;  Abner,  a  farmer,  died  in 
Salem  an  aged  man  ;  Lorenzo  was  a  farmer  and  sawyer 
and  died  in  Cherry  Ridge,  leaving  no  enemies.  Decius, 
a  farmer,  removed  to  Salem  and  bought  a  farm  there, 
at  whi(;h  place  he  died.  Lucius  was  twice  elected 
sheriff  of  the  county;  consequently  he  lived  several 
years  at  Bethany  and  was  known  by  almost  every  man 
in  the  county.  He  returned  to  the  old  farm  of  his 
father  and  has  been  dead  but  a  few  years.  Alonzo,  a 
farmer,  bought  a  farm  in  Canaan  and  died  there.  He 
was  a  man  of  reading  and  culture.  Huntington,  who 
was  a  mill-wright,  learned  his  trade  of  Zenas  Nichol- 
son and  Henry  Heermans,  and  built  more  mills  than 
any  other  man  living  or  that  ever  lived  in  Wayne  and 
Pike  counties.  Theron,  a  farmer,  has  been  dead  many 
years.  Philena,  the  only  daughter,  married  Yirgil 
Diboll,  a  physician,  who  removed  to  the  Wyoming 

At  the  erection  of  the  town  there  were  many  good 
farms,  (which  number  has  been  largely  increased  since,) 
assessed  to  the  following  named  persons :  Samuel  Bar- 
tron,  E.  H.  Clark,  Lucius  Collins,  Samuel  S.  Darling, 
John    P.    Darling,  John    Kirby,    Jacob    S.    Kimble, 


David  Kenner,  Lewis  Leonard,  Wm.  R.  McLaury, 
Edward  Murray,  John  G.  Schenck,  A.  A.  Stryker, 
and  Isaac  Y.  Writer.  The  heavy  track  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Coal  Go's  railroad  runs  through  the  southern 
part  of  this  township,  and  it  crosses  the  Middle  creek 
above  the  most  splendid  fall  on  that  stream.  Here,  in 
coming  times,  will  be  found  a  manufacturing  village. 
Middle  Valley  owes  its  importance  and  develop- 
ment to  the  establishment  there  of  the  great  tannery 
of  L.  A.  Robertson  &,  Go.  Ten  years  ago,  it  did  the 
largest  tannery  business  in  the  county.  The  com- 
pany, for  the  benefit  of  themselves  and  the  region 
about  them,  cleared  up  a  large  quantity  of  land,  and, 
by  selling  a  portion  to  their  workmen,  were  the  means 
of  causing  several  farms  to  be  made.  The  place  is 
conveniently  located  near  the  loaded  track  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Goal  Go's  railroad;  it  has  a  large  store, 
a  post-office,  and  a  flourishing  school.  Tlie  tannery 
is  now  run  and  controlled  by  William  Gale,  Esq.  A 
daily  mail  passes  through  Middle  Valley,  running 
from  Honesdale  to  Hamlinton.  The  post-office,  call- 
ed Gherry  Ridge,  is  located  at  the  intersection  of  the 
Honesdale  and  Gherry  Ridge  turnpike  with  the  old 
Milford  and  Owego  turnpike  road.  The  office  was 
kept  in  the  dwelling-house  of  the  late  E.  H.  Glark, 
Esq.,  deceased,  until  the  house  was  burned  down,  a 
year  or  two  ago.  There  is  no  licensed  public  house  in 
the  town.  The  people  are  made  up  of  L*ish,  German, 
English,  and  American-born  citizens,  the  L-ish  ele- 
ment  probably    predominating.       The    township    of 


Cherry  Hidge  has  one  church,  formerly  called  the 
Union  church,  but  now  the  M.  E.  church,  and  iive 
common  schools.  The  abundance  of  cherry-trees  on 
the  old  Enos  Woodward,  John  H.  Schenck,  and  John 
Woodward  lands  gave  name  to  the  place  long  before  it 
was  erected  into  a  township. 


THIS  township  was  erected  in  1805,  and  was  the 
first  one  taken  out  of  the  original  townships.  It 
was  taken  from  Damascus,  Palmyra,  and  Canaan. 
The  excision  of  Texas  and  Berlin  greatly  diminished 
its  area.  It  is  now  bounded  by  Mount  Pleasant  and 
Lebanon  on  the  north,  on  the  east  by  Oregon,  on  the 
south  by  Texas,  and  west  by  Canaan  and  Clinton. 
The  main  streams  are  the  Dyberry  and  its  tributaries, 
and  the  Jennings  creek.  Part  of  the  Sand  pond  is  in 
the  north-west  part,  and  tliere  are  also  the  Third,  Sec- 
ond, and  First  ponds ;  from  the  last  two  most  of  the 
water  is  derived  which  supplies  the  borough  of  Hones- 
dale.  There  are  no  high,  uncultivatable  hills,  except- 
ing   in    the    upper  north-eastern  section.     The  soil  is 


varied,  but  much  of  it  is  of  superior  quality.  Accord- 
ing to  Thomas  Spangeuburg,  Esq.,  he  moved  up  from 
New  Jersey,  in  February,  1798,  with  one  ox,  har- 
nessed like  a  horse,  and  moved  into  a  hut  which  one 
Kizer  had  built,  the  year  before,  on  the  place  where 
John  Nelson  now  lives.  There  was  nobody  then  in 
Bethany.  Samuel  Smith  built  on  the  other  side  of 
the  George  Yan  Deusen  place.  The  very  night  that 
Esquire  Spangenberg  arrived,  Richard  Nelson,  and 
Conrad  Pulis,  a  German,  came.  The  latter  began 
and  cleared  up  a  farm.  So  numerous  were  his  sons 
that  we  may  fail  to  mention  them  all,  but  among  them 
were  Abraham,  Peter,  Henry,  William,  and  Ephraim. 
The  farm  of  Conrad  Pulis  was  below  Day's  bridge, 
on  the  Dyberry. 

Kichard  Nelson  bought  against  Big  eddy,  on  the 
same  stream.  He  had  five  sons,  namely :  Richard,  Jr., 
deceased;  John,  who  has  been  an  honest,  hard-work- 
ing farmer  and  lumberman,  yet  living  near  the  old 
homestead;  Charles,  who  is  an  expert  steersman  on 
the  Lackawaxen  and  Delaware  rivers ;  Stephen,  who 
located  in  Lebanon  and  died  there ;  and  James,  who 
first  settled  in  Girdland  and  then  removed  to  Nebras- 
ka. Henry  Brown  married  one  of  the  daughters  of 
Richard  Nelson,  William  Bolkcom  one,  and  Osborn 
Mitchell  another. 

About  1799,  Jonathan  Jennings  began  on  the  west- 
ern side  of  the  Dyberry,  near  the  junction  of  Thomas 
creek  therewith,  from  which  place  he  removed  to  and 
bought    the   farm   now  occupied  by  Hiram  G.  Chase, 


Esq.  Jonathan  Jennings  was  many  years  crier  of  the 
courts,  and  held  important  township  offices.  His  son, 
Henry,  exchanged  farms  with  Mr.  Chase,  taking  the 
one  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He 
was  a  justice  of  the  peace,  and  two  of  his  daughters 
now  own  his  last  residence. 

A  man  by  the  name  of  Dye  first  made  some  im- 
Drovement  on  or  near  the  residence  of  Martin  lviml)le. 
The  property  belonged  to  Sylvanus  Seely,  who  sold  it 
to  Isaac  Brink,  from  Brodhead's  creek.  After  a  while 
Brink  sold  it  to  Asa  Kimble,  who  was  a  son  of  Eph- 
raim  Kimble,  Sen.,  of  the  Narrows,  Pike  Co.,  and 
brother  of  the  first  svife  of  Joseph  Atkinson,  deceased. 
Kimble  married  Abigail,  a  daughter  of  John  Pellet, 
of  Palmyra,  Pike  Co.,  and  Mr.  Kimble  and  his  wife 
lived  and  died  where  his  son,  Martin,  now  lives. 
Their  children  are  Ephraim  B.,  Isaac  P.,  George  W., 
John  P.,  William,  and  Martin,  and  Mrs.  Nancy  Ge- 
nung,  widow  of  the  late  Ezra  M.  Genung,  of  Hones- 
dale,  deceased.  They  are  all  living  in  the  county  and 
partake  of  the  virtues  of  their  parents,  whose  memory 
is  blessed. 

Philip  Thomas  began  before  the  year  1805,  on  the 
farm  of  Albert  Butler,  on  the  road  from  Bethany  to 
Seelyville.     None  of  his  family  are  now  living. 

Abraham  Brink,  from  Mom*oe  county.  Pa.,  built  a 
grist-mill  on  the  outlet  of  the  Eirst  pond,  upon  the 
premises  now  owned  by  Thomas  O'Neill.  In  the  first  as- 
sessment made  in  the  township  by  Jonathan  Jennings, 
in  1805,  the  mill  was  assessed  at  $640.00.     It  was    a 


popular  mill  and  of  great  advantage  to  the  settlers. 
Pope  Buslinell,  Esq.,  says  that  it  used  facetiously  to 
be  said  that  the  mill  could  grind  wheat  so  that  it  was 
almost  as  good  as  rye.  But  let  it  be  remembered  that 
the  millstones  were  made  from  a  hard  quartz  rock 
found  on  the  Moosic  mountains.  Brink,  or  somebody 
else,  afterwards  built  a  saw-mill  below  the  grist-mill. 
The  whole  premises  afterwards  fell  into  the  hands  of 
Colonel  William  Greeley,  the  father  of  Willard 
Greeley,  of  Honesdale,  and  of  Kobert  Greeley,  of 
Prompton,  a  brave  soldier  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion. 

In  or  about  the  year  1816,  Stephen  Day,  from  Chat- 
ham, New  Jersey,  settled  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Dyberry,  where  his  son  Lewis  now  lives.  It  is  one  of 
the  pleasantest  places  on  that  stream.  He  died  there 
aged  ninety-six  years.  His  wife  was  a  daughter  of 
Benjamin  Bunnell.  Jane,  his  oldest  daughter,  married 
Moses  Ward,  and  was  the  mother  of  Rev.  E.  O.  Ward, 
of  Bethany.  The  rest  of  his  children  were  as  follows: 
Elias,  moved  to  Ohio,  thence  to  California,  where  he 
died  recently,  aged  ninety-three  years;  Barney  and 
Benjamin  removed  to  Ohio;  Mary,  the  wife  of  Levi 
Ketchum,  has,  with  her  husband,  been  dead  many 
years;  Damaris,  now  living,  is  the  wife  of  Hon.  E.  W. 
Hamlin,  of  Bethany,  and  as  a  florist  has  a  most  deli- 
cate taste  and  an  appreciation  of  the  beautiful ;  Edwin 
S.,  deceased,  was  the  father  of  George  and  Theodore; 
Lewis  lives  upon  the  old  homestead  and  is  an  expert 

Hon.  Pope  Buslmell,  a  son  of  Gideon  Buslinell,  was 


1>ori]  in  March,  1789,  in  Salisbury,  Connecticut.  He 
came  into  Dyberry  in  1817.  Joseph  Dow,  who  was 
a  brother  of  the  widow  of  David  Cramer,  deceased, 
and  of  Mrs.  Tallman,  the  wife  of  C.  P.  Tallman,  Esq., 
lii'st  began  on  his  place;  then  Joseph  Corbitt  bought 
out  Dow  and  sold  his  contract  to  Mr.  Buslmell,  who,  by 
industry  and  economy  paid  for  and  cleared  up  the  farm 
where  he  now  lives.  His  worth  was  not  unappreciated. 
He  was  appointed  major  of  the  first  battalion  of  the 
Seventieth  Regiment,  in  1821,  by  Gov.  Hiester,  and 
was  also  appointed  justice  of  the  peace  in  1824.  He 
was  the  first  county  commissioner  elected  by  the  peo- 
ple. In  1847  he  was  chosen  to  represent  the  county 
in  the  Legislature.  His  pure  life  and  abstemiousness 
have  prolonged  his  life  to  a  remarkable  age,  he  being 
now  in  his  ninety-second  year.  His  wife,  also  living, 
was  the  daugliter  of  Gideon  Hurlburt,  and  was  one  of 
three  of  his  triplet  daughters  who  were  born  in  Goshen, 
Litchfield  county,  Connecticut,  March  20th,  1788. 
The  first  daughter,  Mrs.  Susan  Grenell,  widow  of 
Michael  Grenell,  of  Brooklyn,  Susquehanna  county, 
was  the  mother  of  four  children.  She  died,  aged  about 
eighty-eight  years.  Mrs.  Sally  Buslmell,  now  in  hei* 
ninety-tiiird  year,  brought  up  six  of  her  own  cliildreii 
and  four  of  other  people's.  Sidney  X.  Buslmell,  Esq., 
is  her  only  surviving  (;hild.  Mrs.  Sibyl  Ludington, 
widow  of  Theron  Ludington,  had  but  one  child.  She 
was  a  widow  about  seventy  years,  and  died  aged  eigh- 
ty-eight years. 

Capt.  Homer  Brooks,  came  from    Vermont   in    or 


about  1816,  and  settled  on  the  place  where  widow 
Eliza  Brooks  now  lives.  His  sons  were  Ezra  Brooks, 
a  farmer,  who  lives  westw^ard  of  the  old  homestead ; 
Yirgil  Brooks,  farmer  in  Lebanon;  Major  E.  Brooks, 
deceased;  Horace  D.  Brooks,  of  Susquehanna  county, 
farmer ;  and  Wm.  D.  Brooks.  He  had  several  daugh- 
ters. Lephe,  the  wife  of  Lyman  Gleason,  Esq.,  is  the 
only  one  living  in  the  county.  Lucy,  the  widow  of 
Barney  Bunnell,  lives  in  Newark,  N.  J.  The  others 
are  dead  or  have  removed  elsewhere. 

Joseph  Gleason  began  near  where  his  son,  Lyman 
Gleason,  now  lives.  Alvin,  one  of  his  sons,  was  killed 
in  the  war  of  the  Bebellion.  Willard,  another  son, 
lives  near  the  old  homestead. 

Gideon  Langdon  began  about  1815  on  the  Thomas 
Hacker  farm.  His  son,  Solomon,  followed  him,  and 
Jonathan  T.,  another  son,  lived  in  Bethany.  They 
iinally  removed  to  Montrose,  Susquehanna  county. 
The  first  wife  of  Lewis  Day  was  a  daughter  of  Gideon 

Philemon  Ross,  from  Connecticut,  in  1815,  began 
where  his  son,  David  Boss,  now  lives.  All  the  rest  of 
the  family  have  removed.  Philemon  married  a  daugh- 
ter of  Pliny  Muzzy,  of  Clinton.  In  1817,  Mr.  Ross, 
who  was  one  of  the  freeholders  of  the  towTi,  brought 
in  a  bill  of  $12.00  for  warning  twelve  indigent  persons 
who  might  need  public  aid,  to  leave  the  town  with 
their  families.  There  was  no  law  to  justify  such  in- 
human ostracism,  but  it  had  become  a  custom  in  some 
places,  and   it    was  claimed   that  custom   made  law. 



Pope  Bushnell,  Esq.,  being  liiglily  incensedj  denounced 
the  custom  as  a  disgrace,  and  it  was  thereafter  discon- 
tinued, and  the  said  bill  was  never  paid. 

Jonathan  Arnold,  from  Connecticut,  settled  on  the 
west  branch  in  1810.  He  was  a  pensioner,  having 
been  in  some  of  the  severest  battles  of  the  Revolution. 
He  retained  his  faculties  unimpaired  to  a  very  old  age. 

He  was  assessor  of  the  town  when  eighty-four  years 
old.  "  His  eye  was  not  dim,  nor  hi&  natural  force 
abated."  He  had  a  large  family  who  are  mostly,  if 
not  all,  dead.  Hon.  Phineas  Arnold,  late  of  Promp- 
ton,  and  once  associate  judge  of  the  county,  and  David 
Arnold,  once  county  treasurer,  were  his  sons.  He  had 
twelve  children. 

Isaac  Dimmick  came  to  Bethany  about  1816.  He 
bought  the  farm  now  owned  by  Edwin  Webb.  He  was 
an  associate  jndge  of  the  county  four  yeare.  He  sold 
out  his  farm  to  Robei't  Webb,  Sen.,  and  removed  to 
the  West.     He  was  a  man  of  merit  and  ability, 

Hon.  Abisha  Woodward,  who  was  sheriif  in  1807, 
took  up  the  Henry  Webb  farm,  and  then  the  place  fell 
into  the  hands  of  Edmund  L.  Reed.  The  history  of 
Judge  Woodward  will  be  found  under  Bethany. 

Phineas  Coleman  and  Daniel  Bunting  were  the  iirst 
settlers  upon  the  west  branch;  after  them  were  Setb 
Hayden  and  Moses  Hayden. 

Eliphalet  Wood  came  from  Dutchess  Co.,  N.  Y., 
and  settled  on  the  west  branch  of  the  Lackawaxen,  in 
1816,  on  the  farm  now  o^vned  by  Michael  Moran. 
Mr.  Wood  bought  out  a  man  by  tbe  name  of   White. 


This  was  a  very  old  place  and  is  really  in  Clinton,  al- 
though it  was  once  said  to  be  in  Dyberrj.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  names  of  most  if  not  all  of  the  Wood 
family,  namely:  Enos,  Jesse,  Luman,  Charles,  Eliph- 
alet,  John  N,,  Ezekiel  G.,  William  F.,  Abigail,  wife 
of  Elias  B.  Stanton,  Esq.,  Jane,  wife  of  Hon.  Phin- 
eas  Arnold,  both  deceased,  and  Mary  Wood,  who 
died  young. 

The  farm,  now  owned  by  Oscar  Bunnell,  was  once 
if  not  at  first  occupied  by  Stephen  W.  Genung,  and 
then  owned  by  John  Leonard,  who  sold  it  to  Z.  M. 
Pike  Bunnell,  since  deceased.  O.  H.  Bunnell,  of 
Honesdale,  is  a  son  of  said  decedent.  One  of  his 
other  sons,  Ellery,  was  killed  in  the  battle  at  Gettys- 

Spencer  Blandin  was  the  first  settler  upon  the  pres- 
ent farm  of  Patrick  O'Neill,  on  which  is  the  great 
spring  above  the  road.  Daniel  Blandin,  who,  in  his 
life-time,  lived  near  Honesdale,  was  his  son.  The 
place  has  since  had  several  owners.  John  C.  Ham 
l)uilt  new  buildings  upon  the  farm,  and  then  sold  it  to 
O'l^^eill,  and  he,  with  his  family,  removed  to  Wauseon, 

Eli  Henshaw  settled  upon  the  farm  now  owned  by 
Joseph  Arthur.  At  what  particular  time  he  and  his 
brother,  Increase  Henshaw,  were  first  in  the  county  is 
uncertain,  but  we  know  that  they  were  here  in  1816, 
Increase  was  a  painter  and  an  ingenious  man.  Some- 
times he  lived  in  Bethany  and  then  in  Dyberry. 
D wight  Hensliaw  is  a  son  of  Eli. 


V"  Nathan  Kellogg  at  first  lived  in  Bethany  ;  he  mar- 
I'ied  Salinda,  a  daughter  of  Abisha  Woodward.  He 
was  a  relative  of  Silas  Kellogg.  He  built  a  house  on 
the  farm  of  Francis  Beere,  Esq.,  and  there  for  many 
years  kept  a  licensed  house. 

A  man  by  the  name  of  Freeman  began  on  the  Ethel 
Reed  place,  so  called,  and  w^as  succeeded  by  Ephraim 
Torrey,  wdio  sold  to  Ethel  Reed,  who  w^as  a  son  of 
Ethel  Reed,  Sen.,  of  Salisbury,  Conn.  Pie  came  in 
with  his  brother  William,  about  1832,  and  was  a 
wheelwright  by  trade.  His  only  living  children  are 
the  widow  of  Ezra  Brown,  deceased,  and  the  wife  of 
Dwdglit  Henshaw.  Wm.  Reed,  deceased,  settled  in 
Honesdale  and  was  many  years  a  noted  merchant. 
Charles  G.  Reed  and  Edmund  L.  Reed  were  sons  of 
Josiah  Reed,  of  Salisbury,  Conn.  The  former  located 
in  1832,  on  the  farm  where  he  now  lives.  Dr.  Dwight 
Reed,  Dr.  Wm.  Reed,  and  Egbert  Reed,  druggist 
of  Honesdale,  are  sons  of  the  former.  Edmund  L. 
Reed  w^as  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  and  kept  for 
years  the  academy  in  Bethany,  where  he  died. 

Jacob  Hole,  in  1817,  settled  on  the  Borchers  place. 
He  was  the  father  of  Lewis  Hole. 

William  Miller,  of  German  descent,  came  from  Lu- 
zerne county,  about  1820,  and  settled  on  the  place 
where  he  now  lives. 

Barney  Day  began  on  the  place  near  D.  M.  Kim- 
ble, then  removed  to  the  West,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Thomas  Andrews. 

Jacob    Schoonover,  a  son  of  William  Schoonover, 


began  on  Ids  farm  when  lie  was  a  young  man.  He 
was  a  native  of  the  county  and  has  three  sons. 

Jason  Torrey  built  a  saw-mill  at  Dyberry  falls, 
about  1830.  In  1857,  Barnet  Richtmyer  built  a  tan- 
nery there,  which  now  belongs  to  Coe  F.  Young,  Esq. 
Wm.  !N.  Alberty  is  the  general  superintendent,  and 
the  business  is  ably  conducted.  There  is,  also,  a  large 
steam  saw-mill.  The  water  is  used  in  and  about  the 
tannery.  The  village  is  now  called  Tanners  Falls.  It 
has  a  large  store,  a  blacksmith  shop  and  the  usual 
conveniences  of  a  village.  There  is  a  large  amount 
of  business  done  in  the  place. 

Dyberry  village.  E.  B.  Kimble  keeps  a  store,  tav- 
ern, and  post-oftice  at  his  residence.  There  is  a 
wagon  and  ])lacksmith  shop,  while  the  grist-mill  of 
Messrs.  Bates  adds  much  to  the  business  of  the  place. 

There  has  been  some  dispute  as  to  the  origin  of  the 
name  of  Dyberry.  It  was  said  by  Mrs.  Isaac  Brink, 
an  early  settler,  that  the  earliest  beginners  told  her 
that  a  man  named  Dyberry  built  a  cabin  on  the  east 
branch,  and,  being  the  first  man  that  died  in  tlie  town, 
the  place  was  called  after  him. 

In  1816,  C]u-istopher  Faatz,  Sen.,  Adam  Greiner, 
Jacob  nines,  Christopher  Hines,  Nicholas  Greiner, 
and  Christian  Faatz,  all  Germans,  ("ommenced  and 
built  a  factory  for  tlie  making  of  window-glass,  about 
one  mile  and  a  half  west  of  Bethany  and  east  of  the 
First  pond,  north  of  the  residence  of  Charles  Faatz. 
The  place  selected  w^as  entirely  surrounded  by  woods. 
The  stones  witli  which  to  build  arches  were  obtained 


from  the  Moosic  mountain,  and  clay  for  pots  wherein 
to  melt  the  glass,  was  brought  from  Philadelphia  hy 
wagons  and  sleighs.  They  made  good  glass  which 
they,  by  like  means,  had  to  convey  to  Wilkesbarre, 
Xewburgli,  and  Philadelphia,  from  which  places  they 
obtained  their  goods.  They  finally  failed.  James 
Manning  and  Jacob  Faatz  ran  the  factory  awhile  and 
stopped.  Then  Jacob  Faatz  and  William  Greeley 
started  it  again  in  1829.  Augustus  Greeley,  a  brother 
of  William,  furnished  the  capital.  This  firm  ran  ten 
years  and  failed  and  the  works  were  sold.  Then  Sloan 
(Sz  Stebbins  ran  them  for  two  years,  when  the  works 
were  finally  discontinued.  The  sand  which  was  used 
was  taken  from  the  ponds  in  the  town.  The  several 
firms  from  time  to  time  employed  from  thirty  to  fifty 
men.  The  enterprise  was  beneficial  as  it  led  to  the 
sale  and  clearing  up  of  the  lands.  Hiram  K.  Mumf  ord, 
son  of  Thomas  Mumf  ord,  of  Mount  Pleasant,  owns 
the  house  and  buildings  which  were  erected  by  Col. 
William  Greeley,  now  deceased.  Joseph  Bodie  and 
Jacob  Bodie  were  blowers  in  the  glass-house,  and  have 
good  farms  in  the  "  Bodie  Settlement." 

There  are  seven  common  schools,  two  hundred  and 
eighty  taxables,  one  Baptist  church,  and  a  Granger's 
hall  in  the  town.  The  population  is  made  up  of 
Americans,  Irish,  Germans,  and  English.  Of  the  lat- 
ter, within  forty-five  or  fifty  years  past,  the  following 
persons  have  settled,  viz :  John  Blake,  John  Y.  Blake, 
John  Bate,  Francis  Bate,  James  Pethick,  Nicholas 
Cruse,  Kichard  Clift,  Francis    Beere,  Joseph    Dony, 


Richard  Bryant,  Henry  and  Joseph  Arthur,  Matthew 
Clemo,  who  are  now  living;  also,  Thomas  Bryant, 
William  Bryant,  John  Dony,  Samuel  Dony,  Robert 
and  Richard  Webb,  Thomas  Crago,  Mr.  Reynolds, 
John  Bethick,  and  Thomas  Hacker,  all  of  whom  are 
deceased.  The  living  are  and  the  departed  were  the 
l)est  of  farmers,  and  with  their  families  made  up  the 
greatest  part  of  the  population  in  the  town. 


IT  having  been  settled  that  Bethany  was  to  be  the 
county  seat  of  Wayne,  as  stated  by  Judge  Wood- 
ward, in  the  introductory  chapter  to  this  work,  in 
1801,  Jason  Torrey,  Esq.,  surveyed  and  set  the  stakes 
for  the  public  square  and  court-house,  to  be  erected 
upon  the  999  acres  which  Henry  Drinker,  of  Phila- 
delphia, donated  to  Wayne  county,  the  proceeds  of 
wdiich  were  to  be  used  in  constructing  a  court-house, 
&c.  He  immediately  began  the  construction  of  a 
dwelling-house,  and,  while  building  it,  he  journeyed 
twelve  miles  daily  to  Mt.  Pleasant  and  back,  through 
the   woods,  to  supply  his  workmen  with   provisions. 


Daniel  Stevenson  used  to  say  that  he  cut  out  the  road 
from  Mt.  Pleasant  to  Bethany,  and  that  Jason  Torrey 
paid  him  twelve  dollars  for  doing  the  job.  Dyberry 
tOMiiship  was  not  then  erected,  and  Bethany  was  in 
Damascus  township.  Mr.  Torrey  laid  out  the  999 
acres  into  town  or  building  lots,  or  into  out  lots  of 
about  five  acres  each.  Tlie  Drinker  land  donated  as 
aforesaid  was  called  the  "Town  of  Bethany."  Mr. 
Torrey  had  not  wholly  finished  his  house,  which  was 
the  second  one  built  in  the  place,  when  the  lirst  court 
ever  held  in  the  place  was  convened  in  his  unlinished 
house,  on  the  6th  day  of  May,  A.  D.  1805,  before  the 
Hon.  John  Biddis,  president  judge,  and  Hon.  John 
Brink,  associate.  The  judges  sat  upon  chairs  placed 
upon  a  carpenter's  bench  and  could  have  been  very 
appropriately  called  tlie  "  Bench,"  while  the  jurors  sat 
on  board  seats  below.  At  that  court  a  grand  jury  ap- 
peared and  was  sworn,  who  ignored  three  bills  of  in- 
dictment, and  found  one  true  bill  for  assault  and  bat- 

The  first  court-house  was  built  upon  the  public 
square,  and  Avas  thirty-six  feet  in  front,  and  thirty-two 
feet  deep.  A  large  log-jail,  disconnected  from  the 
other  house,  was  built,  in  which  were  confined  not 
only  criminals  but  such  persons  as  were  unable  to  pay 
their  del>ts,  the  law  then  allowing  the  plaintiff  named 
in  an  execution,  to  sell  all  of  a  debtor's  property,  in- 
cluding his  last  knife  and  fork,  and  then  to  send  him 
to  jail,  where  the  plaintiff,  upon  paying  the  sheriff 
fourteen  c^nts  per  day,  could  keep  the  debtor  until  he 


could  be  released  by  a  tedious  and  expensive  applieti- 
tion  for  the  benefit  of  the  insolvent  laws.  The  law, 
allow^ing  imprisonment  for  debt,  was  repealed  July 
12,  1842.  After  some  years  the  log-jail  was  burned 
down,  and  the  back  part  of  a  building  called  the  re<l 
house,  north  of  Judge  Manning's,  was  fitted  up  and 
used  in  its  place,  until  the  building  of  a  new  court- 
house, in  1816,  when  a  strong  jail  was  built  in  tlie 
lower  story.  The  old  court-house  was  removed  to  the 
west  side  of  Wayne  street  and  is  now  used  as  a  store 
by  W.  W.  Weston  &  Brother. 

John  Bunting,  from  Canaan,  built  the  first  house  in 
Bethany,  wdiich  was  the  front  house  now  belonging  to 
John  Henderson.  It  was  built  for  a  tavern,  and  at 
December  sessions,  1805,  license  w^as  granted  to  Jolin 
Bunting.  That  year  the  house  was  valued  at  $200. 
This  was  probably  the  first  house  begun  in  the  place. 
The  next  was  the  dwelling-house  of  Major  Torrey,  in 
which  the  court  was  held  as  aforesaid.  Major  Torrey 
obtained  license  at  May  sessions,  1805,  two  terms  be- 
fore Buntin^:,  and  liis  house  was  licensed  until  1813. 
When  there  w^ere  houses  enough  to  iiccommodate  the 
public,  he  gave  up  keeping  tavern.  Jason  Torrey 
next  built  a  store  on  the  south-west  corner  of  the  Otis 
place  which  he,  in  company  with  Solomon  Moore,  ran 
until  Mr.  Moore  l)uilt  upon  the  lot  now  owned  hy 
Hon.  E.  O.  Hamlin,  and  started  a  store  for  himself. 
About  the  time  the  red  store,  aforesaid,  was  built,  the 
court-house  and  jail  were  put  up,  and  Sally  Gay 
built  a  small  house  below  Dr.  Scudder's.     Simultane- 



oiisly,  John  Bishop  erected  a  house  on  the  Bunnell 
place,  opposite  the  dwelling-house  of  Miss  Jane  Dil- 
lon. Then  David  Bunnell  built  at  or  near  the  dwell- 
ing-house of  Wm.  Stephens,  Esq.,  and  David  Wilder 
built  the  red  tavern  in  which  he  kept  a  public  house, 
until  he  built  the  brick  tavern.  Jason  Torrey  built 
the  Spangenburg  house  in  1815. 

The  only  written  evidence  as  to  the  person  who 
cleared  up  the  first  land  is  found  in  an  old  assessment 
made  of  Dyberry  township,  in  1805,  whereby  Jason 
Torrey  was  assessed  as  having  five  acres  of  improved 
land,  one  horse,  one  cow,  and  four  oxen;  David  Wil- 
der, as  having  one  acre  of  improved  land,  and  one 
cow;  John  Bishop,  Wm.  Williams,  and  John  Bunt- 
ing each  one  cow  but  no  cleared  land.  Jason  Torrey 
at  that  time  had  made  the  only  important  improve- 
ment on  the  lands. 

Jason  Torrey  was  bom  in  Williamstown,  Mass.,  and, 
when  scarcely  twenty  years  of  age,  in  the  spring  of 
1793,  came  on  foot  into  the  township  of  Mt.  Pleasant, 
where  he  found  Elijah  Dix,  whom  he  knew  in  his  na- 
tive place,  and  here  he  became  acquainted  with  Sam'l 
Baird,  of  Pottstown,  near  Philadelphia.  Mr.  Baird 
was  a  noted  surveyor  and  employed  Mr.  Torrey  to  as- 
sist him  in  making  some  surveys ;  after  he  had  trav- 
eled through  different  parts  of  New  York  and  this 
State,  he  finally  concluded  to  settle  in  Mt.  Pleasant. 
Having  selected  his  land,  he  began  to  make  improve- 
ments upon  it  and  built  a  log-house,  and  moved  into 
it  in  February,  1798.     He  continued  to  improve  his 


land  in  Mt.  Pleasant  nntil  he  removed  to  Bethany,  in 
1802.  He  was  endued  witli  a  great  capacity  for  busi- 
ness and  was  consulted  about  all  the  intricacies  per- 
taining to  county  accounts.  He  removed  to  Hones- 
dale  in  1826,  and  built  the  first  house  that  was  erected 
in  the  place,  and,  as  it  was  finally  used  as  a  church,  it 
was  called  the  Old  Tabernacle.  Jason  Torrey  was 
generally  called  Major  Torrey,  the  oftice  of  major 
having  been  conferred  on  him  by  an  election  in  his 
earlier  days.  He  had  eleven  children,  namely:  Will- 
iam, a  Presbyterian  clergyman,  deceased;  Ephraim, 
who  was  a  very  promising  young  man,  but  died  at  the 
age  of  twenty-four;  l!^athaniel,  who  died  young;  John, 
living  in  Honesdale ;  Asa,  living  in  Bethany ;  Ste- 
phen, Presbyterian  clergyman,  living;  Charles,  de- 
ceased ;  James,  who  died  young ;  David,  a  Presbyte- 
rian clergyman,  living ;  Maria,  who  married  Richard  L. 
Seely,  deceased;  and  Minerva,  married  Elijah  Weston, 
deceased;  both  daughters  are  deceased.  As  to  other 
matters  relating  to  Jason  Torrey,  see  under  the  chap- 
tera))out  land-titles. 

Solomon  Moore  was  from  the  State  of  New  York. 
In  connection  with  Jason  Torrey  he  kept  the  first 
store,  and  was  the  first  postmaster  in  Bethany.  He 
built  a  house  and  store  on  the  E.  O.  Hamlin  corner. 
He  was  elected  sheriff  in  1820,  and  afterwards  was 
appointed  clerk  of  the  several  courts  of  the  county,  in 
which  ofiice  he  died.  He  was  a  very  competent  man, 
and  assorted  and  numbered  the  papers  in  the  several 
courts  and  brought  order  out  of  chaos.     Edward  Wes- 


tc^ii,  Esq.,  of  Pj-ovi(lence,  inmTied  a  (laughter  of  Solo- 
mon Moore. 

David  Wilder  was  a  native  of  New  Hampshire,  and 
came  into  Bethany  and  settled  in  1803,  and  married 
Sophia,  a  daughter  of  Paul  Tyler,  of  Damascus.  They 
had  one  daughter,  Charity  B.,  who  married  the  Hon. 
James  Manning,  deceased.  Mrs.  Manning  and  Asa 
Torrey  are  the  only  surviving  persons  in  Bethany  who 
were  born  therein  of  parents  that  first  settled  there, 
Mr.  Wilder  commenced  keeping  a  licensed  house  in 
1811,  and  continued  in  the  business  the  most  of  his 
life.     He  was  tm  honest  innkeeper  and  a  good  farmer. 

William  Williams  was  a  Yankee,  who  built  a  hut 
below  the  church  lot,  but  it  was  of  such  humble  pre- 
tensions that  the  assessors  failed  to  value  it.  He  was 
in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  always  carried  his  dis- 
charge with  him  upon  the  top  of  his  head,  where  a 
ball  had  struck  him  and  plowed  a  furrow  through  his 
scalp.  He  was  pensioned.  John  Bishop  is  noticed 
under  the  head  of  Berlin,  and  John  Bunting  and  Asa 
Stanton  under  that  of  Canaan, 

David  Buimell  came  from  Stroudsl)urg,  and  settled 
upon  and  cleared  up  the  farm  and  l)nilt  the  house  that 
is  now  owned  by  William  Stephens,  Esq.,  and  was  a 
justice  of  the  peace  for  many  years.  He  devoted  the 
most  of  his  time  to  farming,  although  he  was  a  black- 
smith by  trade.  His  wife  was  Parthenia  Killam,  of 
Palmyra,  Pike  Co.  Their  sons  were  Z.  M.  Pike, 
Henry,  John  P.,  and  Charles;  and  daughters,  Elea- 
nor, deceased,  wife  of  Isaac  P.  Ohnstead ;  Eunic^e,  de- 


ceased,  married  to  Brooks  Lavo ;  Sarali,  tlie  wife  of 
Iie\'.  Mr.  Bailey  ;  and  one  daiigliter,  Jane,  who  mar- 
ried and  removed  West. 

Eliplialet  Kellogg.  When  the  connty  business  was 
iirst  transacted  at  Bethany,  Mr.  Kellogg  was  appoint- 
ed clerk  to  the  commissioners  of  the  county.  He  was 
a  brother  of  Silas  Kellogg,  who  moved  into  Mount 
Pleasant  in  1791,  and  Eliplialet  must  have  located 
there  soon  after,  as  in  1801  he  was  assessed  there  as 
owning  a  house  and  nine  acres  of  improved  land,  and 
as  then  being  a  clerk.  He  kept  a  tavern  many  years  in 
Bethany,  being  first  licensed  at  February  sessions, 
1813.  He  was  appointed  in  1809  register  and  recor- 
er,  and  clerk  of  the  several  courts  of  Wayne  county,  by 
Governor  Snyder,  and  held  said  otHces  during  Snyder's 
three  terms,  making  nine  years.  He  died  in  Bethany 
at  a  very  advanced  age.  He  had  five  children,  name- 
ly, Martin  Kellogg,  only  son ;  Mary,  wife  of  Dr.  Isaac 
Roosa;  Sarali,  wife  of  Benben  B.  Purdy;  Abigail, 
wife  of  Dr.  Halsey;  and  Eunice,  wife  of  AVashington 
E.  Cook. 

Thomas  Spangenberg.  Perhaps  the  history  of  this 
man  could  not  l^e  given  in  a  more  agreeable  manner 
than  as  told  to  us,  and  taken  down  at  his  request,  in 
the  same  3^ear  in  which  he  died.  "1  was  born  in  Sus- 
sex county,  in  New  Jersey.  When  I  came  into  Wayne 
county,  (or  what  is  now  Wayne  county,)  in  1794-,  1 
crossed  at  Monroe  ferry,  two  miles  below  Milford. 
At  the  latter  place  there  were  but  two  or  three  houses. 
The  first  house  west  of  Milford  was  an  old   stone  tav- 


ern,  built  bj  Andrew  Bray;  next,  old  Lot  tavern;  then 
seven  miles  to  Shohola  farms ;  next'to  Blooming  Grove 
where  Uriah  Chapman,  Esq.,  lived ;  there  I  stopped  a 
week  to  himt;  then  I  came  to  the  Narrows,  where 
Ephraim  Kimble,  Sen.,  the  fatlier  of  Asa  Kimble, 
lived.  There  I  found  William  Schoonover,  the  father 
of  Daniel,  Levi,  Jacob,  and  Simon  Schoonover.  Levi 
Schoonover,  born  that  year,  was  the  first  white  child 
born  on  the  Dyberry.  I  then  came  on  to  Wilsonville. 
Several  men  lived  there  who  were  at  work  on  a  factory 
at  the  mouth  of  Paupack  eddy.  The  next  place  was 
Paupack  eddy;  there  lived  Beuben  Jones,  an  enormous- 
ly large,  tall  man,  and  his  brother  Alpheus,  and  their 
sister.  Widow  Cook.  Elisha  Ames  lived  on  the  David 
Bishop  farm.  I  next  came  to  the  Benjamin  Haines 
place,  since  known  as  the  Jonathan  Brink  place;  then 
to  the  Walter  Kimble  farm,  now  owned  by  Buckley 
Beardslee;  from  there  I  came  to  Tracyville.  There 
was  a  tub  mill  which  had  been  built  to  grind  corn  in 
that  had  been  deserted.  Then  I  went  over  on  the  east 
side  of  L'ving's  cliff,  and  came  down  to  where  Daniel 
Schoonover  lives.  This  was  in  1794 ;  I  moved  up  in 
1798.  The  sheriff  took  for  jurors  whom  he  pleased 
and  they  received  no  pay.  I  lirst  settled  on  the  John 
Nelson  place.  That  year  the  county  was  organized 
into  eight  militia  companies,  and  an  election  held  at 
Wilsonville  to  choose  officers.  John  H.  Schenck  was 
elected  lieutenant-colonel,  Ephraim  Killam  was  elect- 
ed major  for  the  first  battalion;  Samuel  Stanton  for 
the  second  battalion;  William  Chapman,  captain    of 


Palmyra;  Ephraim  Kimble,  captain  of  Lackawaxen; 
Jesse  Drake,  captain  of  Damascus;  Edward  Doyle, 
captain  of  Buckingham;  John  Tiffany,  captain  of 
Mount  Pleasant ;  and  Asa  Stanton,  captain  of  Canaan, 
etc.  In  1799,  I  went  to  Elijah  Dix's,  in  Mount 
Pleasant,  to  election.  Two  went  from  Cherry  Ridge 
and  three  from  Dyberry.  There  were  but  forty-five 
votes  cast  in  the  county.  I  killed  in  Bethany  one  elk, 
two  wolves,  four  bears,  and  thirty-seven  deer,  and  I 
killed  all  but  the  deer  before  1800.  My  oldest  daugh- 
ter, Betsey,  was  born  on  the  Nelson  place  in  1799,  and 
is  the  wife  of  John  Raymond,  Esq.,  of  Scranton,  Pa. 
In  1800  I  moved  upon  and  bought  the  land  which  is 
now  the  farm  of  widow  Mary  Stephens.  My  daugh- 
ter, Catharine,  was  born  in  1803;  my  son,  John  S.,  in 
August,  1812 ;  and  Esther  in  December,  1820.  I  had 
other  children,  but  the  above  named  are  all  that  are 
alive.  My  second  daughter,  Phebe,  was  burnt  to  death 
by  the  accidental  and  sudden  destruction  of  my  house 
in  the  night  by  fire.  She  was  thirteen  years  old.  I 
have  neglected  to  say  that  I  was  married  to  Susan 
Headley,  January  2d,  1798.  I  moved  into  Bethany 
in  1817,  and  kept  a  boarding-house  for  many  years." 
It  may  be  said  truthfully  that  Esq.  Spangenberg  was 
a  very  temperate  man  and  never  used  profane  lan- 
guage. Being  of  German  descent  he  could  talk  that 
language.  He  was  commissioner  and  county  treasurer, 
and  was  for  fifty-three  years  a  justice  of  the  peace. 
He  died  April  8th,  1864,  aged  about  eighty-nine  years. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  M.  E.  church. 


Joseph  Miller  was  a  son  of  Eliznr  Miller,  of  Salem, 
and,  wlien  a  young  man,  eame  to  Betliany  and  took 
the  the  job,  in  1816,  of  building  the  court-house,  which, 
it  used  to  be  said,  cost  the  enormous  sum  of  $15,000, 
a  sum,  in  those  days,  considered  almost  uncountable. 
He  built,  in  1811:,  the  house  which  has  )>een  overhaul- 
ed i\m\  rebuilt  by  Dr.  Isaiah  Scudder.  He  was  twice 
elected  sheriff  of  the  county,  and  died  in  Bethany  re- 
spected and  regretted.  He  had  one  son,  Joseph,  who 
married  a  daughter  of  Judd  Raymond,  and  they  have 
gone  to  the  mysterious  realm;  one  daughter,  Hannah, 
deceased ;  and  another  daughter,  Armenia,  who  is  the 
widow  of  Enos  Woodward,  deceased,  and  is  yet  living. 

Nathaniel  B.  Eldred,  son  of  Elislia  and  Maiy 
Eldred,  was  born  in  Dolsontown,  Orange  county,  N. 
Y.,  in  1795.  He  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Daniel 
Dimmick  and  Edward  Mott,  in  Milford,  where  he  was 
admitted  to  tlie  practice  of  hiw  in  1816,  and  in  that 
year  ren:ioved  to  Bethany  where  he  practiced  in  his 
profession  for  nearly  twenty  years.  During  some  of 
said  time  he  was  in  the  mercantile  business.  He  was 
elected  to  the  State  Legislature  for  four  terms,  and 
was  county  treasurer  two  years.  In  1835  he  was  ap- 
pointed, l)y  Gov.  Wolf,  president  jndge  of  the  eight- 
eenth judi(dal  district,  and  served  four  yeai*s,  and  in 
1839,  by  Gov.  Porter,  president  jndge  of  the  sixth 
judicial  district,  in  which  position  he  served  four  years, 
and  tlien  he  was  appointed  president  judge  of  the 
twelfth  district,  (composed  of  the  counties  of  Dauphin, 
Lel)anon,  Schuylkill,  et(%;  whereupon    he  removed    to 


Harrisburg  and  resided,  until,  in  1849,  the  twenty- 
second  judicial  district,  composed  of  Wayne,  Pike, 
Monroe,  and  Carbon,  was  erected,  of  which  district  he 
was  appointed  president  judge  by  Gov.  Johnston,  and 
then  returned  to  Bethany  where  he  resided  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life.  After  the  Constitution  was 
amended  making  the  judiciary  elective,  he  was  unani- 
mously elected  president  judge  of  the  twenty-second 
district  aforesaid.  In  Polk's  administration  he  served 
four  years  as  naval  officer  at  the  port  of  Philadelphia. 
Judge  Eldred  was  often  appointed  to  act  in  other  posi- 
tions. He  was  a  very  straight-forward  man.  As  a 
judge  he  was  always  desirous  to  reach  the  justice  of  a 
case  and  to  put  the  law  and  facts  in  so  clear  and  con- 
spicuous a  light  as  to  leave  little  room  for  mistake  or 
misapprehension  by  a  jury.  He  seldom  or  never  took 
a  case  away  from  a  jury  and  decided  it  himself,  conse- 
quently he  was  highly  esteemed  for  his  impartiality. 
He  died  at  his  residence  in  Bethany  in  January,  1867. 
He  had  seven  children,  four  of  whom  died  young  and 
unmarried.  Mary,  the  first  wife  of  Hon.  E.  O.  Ham- 
lin, and  Lucinda,  the  wdfe  of  Ara  Bartlett,  are  dead. 
Charles,  who  removed  toWarsaw,Wisconsin,  and  Carrie, 
the  wife  of  Mr.  Watson,  of  Warren  county,  are  living. 
Isaac  Dimmick,  always  in  his  latter  days  called 
Judge  Dimmick,  was  from  Orange  county,  E^.  Y., 
and  came  into  Bethany  in  1805.  He  bought  and 
cleared  up  the  farm  now  owned  by  Edwin  Webb.  He 
was  an  associate  judge  of  the  county,  and  was  often 
employed  in  the  county  offices.     He  married  a  daugh- 



ter  of  Hon.  Abisha  Woodward.     He  sold  his  farm  to 
Robert  Webb,  Sen.,  and  removed  West. 

James  Manning  was  born  in  Coventry,  in  Tolland 
county,  Connecticut,  in  the  year  1792.  He  came  to 
Bethany  in  1815,  and  began  as  a  merchant,  which 
business  he  successfully  pursued  for  twenty  years.  He 
was  a  shrewd,  enterprising  business  man.  He  married 
Charity  B.,  the  only  child  of  David  Wilder,  and  she 
is  yet  living  in  the  mansion  house,  w^hich  belonged  to 
her  husband  at  the  time  of  his  death.  Mrs.  Manning 
and  Asa  Torrey  alone  remain,  and  have  continued  to 
live  in  the  place  where  their  parents  were  original  set- 
tlers. Mr.  Manning  w^as  register  and  recorder,  and 
for  many  years  an  associate  judge.  He  was  an  am- 
bitious man,  but  his  ambition  benefited  others.  Born 
in  a  land  where  the  school-house  and  spelling-book  are 
considered  indispensable,  where  every  patriot  deems  it 
his  duty  to  spread  knowledge  with  a  broad  and  boun- 
tiful cast,  he  at  once  recognized  the  newspaper  as  the 
most  effectual  agent  in  the  diffusion  of  knowledge. 
Alone  and  unaided  he  bought  a  printing  press  and 
type  and  started  the  first  newspaper  in  Wayne  county, 
entitled  the  Wayne  County  I£irro7\  Its  first  number 
was  dated  in  March,  1818.  It  was  well  conducted, 
and  was  in  those  days  considered  a  ivonderful  wonder. 

The  Mirror  gave  way  to  the  Republican  Advocate^ 
which  was  published  by  Davis  and  Sasman.  Manning 
furnished  the  printing-press  and  capital.  Tlie  concern 
gave  notice  that  they  would  take  tallow  and  maple 
sugar  in  payment.     The  first  number   was  issued    in 


November,  1822.  Jacob  S.  Davis,  having  become 
mipopiilar,  the  paper  took  the  name  of  the  Wayne 
Enquirer,  and  was  published  by  William  S  asm  an, 
Manning  furnishing  the  press.  It  was  twenty  by 
twelve  and  one-half  inches  in  size  and  gave  the  home 
and  foreign  news.  The  second  number,  dated  January 
6th,  1830,  gives  an  account  of  the  borough  as  it  then 
was,  as  follows:  "Bethany  is  the  seat  of  justice  for 
Wayne  county.  It  is  situated  on  a  commanding  emi- 
nence which  declines  on  every  side  except  the  north, 
and  overlooks  the  adjacent  country.  It  contains  forty 
dwelling-houses,  a  court-house,  a  county  lire-proof 
building,  a  Presbyterian  church,  an  academy,  two  tav- 
erns, four  stores,  a  post-office,  and  several  artisan  and 
mechanical  establishments.  It  is  thirty-six  miles  from 
Milford,  one  hundred  and  ten  miles  from  New  York, 
and  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  miles  from  Phila- 
delphia. The  borough  was  incorporated  March  31st, 
1821."  Such,  in  1830,  was  what  is  now  the  beautiful 
village  of  Bethany. 

Abisha  Woodward,  son  of  Enos  Woodward,  of 
Cherry  Ridge,  was  elected  sheriif  of  Wayne  in  1807, 
and  was  for  a  long  time  an  associate  judge.  He  lost 
his  left  arm,  l)ut  for  all  that  he  bought  and  cleared  up 
the  farm  now  owned  by  Henry  Webb,  which  lies 
westward  one-half  mile  from  the  borough.  He  mar- 
ried Lucretia,  a  daughter  of  Jacob  Kimble,  Sen.,  of 
Palmyra,  Penn.  Among  the  children  were,  1st,  John 
K.  Woodward,  who  married  Mary,  a  daughter  of  Silas 
Kellogg,  Esq.;  their  children  were  Warren  J.  Wood- 


ward,  late  jnclge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsyl- 
vania; Jackson  K.  Woodward,  attorney-at-law,  late  of 
Honesdale,  deceased;  and  Densey,  who  married  Dr. 
Johnson  Olmstead,  of  Dundaff,  Penn.  2d,  Nathaniel 
Woodward,  w^ho  once  represented  the  county  in  the 
Legislature  and  removed  to  the  West.  3d,  George  W. 
Woodward,  who  held  various  important  offices,  and 
was  once  a  member  of  Congress,  and  a  judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania.  Hon.  Isaac  Dim- 
mick  married  the  oldest  daughter,  and  George  Little, 
Esq.,  attorney-at-law,  married  the  youngest.  All  the 
family  above-named  are  dead. 

Capt.  Charles  Hole*  was,  according  to  old  records, 
an  early  resident,  as  he  or  David  Wilder  was  employed 
as  supervisor  of  the  roads,  then  considered  the  most 
important  township  office.  He  had  a  brick-yard  where 
all  the  brick  that  were  used  in  the  town  w^ere  made. 
He  built  the  house  where  George  Hauser  now  lives. 
He  had  two  sons;  John,  deceased,  and  Washington. 
The  latter  is  now  living  in  Lake  township,  and  for  a 
second  wife  married  a  daugliter  of  Amasa  Jones,  de- 
ceased. He  had  four  daughters,  namely,  Louisa,  first 
wife  of  Dr.  Otis  Avery;  Martha,  wife  of  Rezzia 
Woodw^ard;  Joanna,  wife  of  Ezekiel  Birdsall;  and 
Mary,  wife  of  John  J.  Schenck,  deceased.  Mrs. 
Schenck  is  the  sole  survivor  of  the  daughters. 

Charles  Hole  and  Jacob  Hole  were  twins.  Jacob 
Hole  settled  in  Dyberry.     Lewis  Hole  was  his  son,  and 

*The  orthography  of  this  name  has  been  changed  and  is 
now  spelled  ' '  Hoel. " 


he  liad  a  daughter  named  Phebe.     Caleb  Ho^^ 

the  William  Hensey  farm  and  was  the  fath(  'r.u 

Elijah,  and  Cornelia  Hole.     Cornelia  is  not   living. 

Randall  Wilmot  married  a  daughter  of  James  Carr, 
of  Canaan,  and  David  Wihnot,  of  Wilmot  Proviso 
■iiQtori,(^,t\%  v^^as  their  son.  John  A.  Gustin,  a  noted 
mechanic,  also,  married  a  daughter  of  James  Carr. 
Gustin  for  many  years  was  a  merchant  in  Bethany, 
and  removed  to  Honesdale  and  there  was  postmaster. 
His  widow  and  some  of  his  daughters  are  yet  living. 
Randall  built  the  house  and  store  now  occupied  by 
Hon.  A.  B.  Gammell.  John  A.  Gustin  was  the  main 
carpenter  and  workman  in  erecting  it. 

Amzi  Fuller,  from  Litchlield  county.  Conn.,  studied 
law  in  the  office  of  Hon.  Dan  Dimmick,  of  Milford, 
and  came  to  Bethany  about  1816,  from  which  time  he 
practiced  law,  until  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  to 
Honesdale,  when  he  disposed  of  his  property  and  re- 
moved to  Wilkesbarre,  Pa.  He  was  not  an  easy,  flu- 
ent speaker,  but  his  opinion  upon  difficult  and  knotty 
questions  in  law  was  seldom  controverted.  He  had 
but  one  son,  Hon.  Henry  M.  Fuller,  who  was  a  mem- 
ber of  Congress,  from  Luzerne  county,  of  acknowedg- 
ed  ability,  but  who  died  in  the  meridian  of  life. 
Thomas  Fuller  studied  law  with  his  brother  Amzi, 
and  was  not  admitted  to  the  Bar  until  many  years 
afterward.  He  was  argumentative  and  persuasive  and 
a  much  better  speaker  than  his  brother.  He  never 
attempted  to  make  the  worse  appear  the  better  reason. 
He  was  too  conscientious  to  take  any  unfair  advantage 


of  Kent's  opponent.     After  the  removal  of    the 

court  to  Honesdale,  he  took  up  his  abode  there,  and 
ov^uii  c.ioor  died  in  the  meridian  of  life.  Hon.  John 
Torrey  married  one  of  his  sisters.  Mr.  Fuller  left 
one  son,  William,  who  is  now  living  in  the  house 
which  his  father  built.  His  only  daughter,  Mary, 
married  Dr.  Kalph  L.  Briggs,  who  died  in  Wisconsin, 
[November  4,  1863.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was 
postmaster  of  Honesdale. 

Levi  C.  Judson  lived  some  time  in  Bethany,  and 
his  son,  who  writes  under  the  norti  deplume  of  "Ned 
Buntline,"  was  born  in  the  village. 

By  the  assessment  of  1825,  Hon.  E.  W.  Hamlin 
was  mentioned  as  a  single  man.  A  full  notice  is  giv- 
en of  him  in  another  part  of  this  book. 

Besides  the  persons  aforementioned,  it  appears  by 
an  assessment,  made  by  Henry  W.  Stilley,  1825,  that 
there  were  then  other  prominent  men  living  in  the 
borough,  among  whom  were  Daniel  Baldwin,  a  hatter, 
who  married  Buey  Hamlin,  sister  of  E.  W.  Hamlin, 
and  afterwards  removed  with  his  family  to  Minne- 
sota; Levi  Ketchum,  who  was  a  tanner  and  shoe- 
maker, and,  as  a  boot-maker,  could  not  be  excelled, 
his  children  being  Lawrence,  deceased,  William,  of 
Susquehanna,  Pa.,  and  Eliza,  wife  of  Spencer  Keen, 
of  Honesdale;  Osborn  Olmstead,  who  came  in  about 
1819,  from  Connecticut.  He  was  a  shoe-maker  and 
tanner.  His  children  were  as  follows:  Raymond,  de- 
ceased; Isaac  P.,  of  New  York  city;  Johnson  C, 
physician,   in    Dundaff,    Pa. ;  Hawley  Olmstead,  de- 


ceased;  Harriet,  of  Dnndaff;  and  Arnej,  who  married 
Wm.  Y.  R.  Sloan,  deceased. 

Judd  Raymond  was  a  carpenter,  and  the  father  of 
John  Raymond,  Esq.,  and  Wm.  Raymond.  Philan- 
der K.  Williams,  Esq.,  married  one  of  his  daughters, 
and  Joseph  Miller,  Jr.,  another.  John  Raymond  is 
then  noticed  as  being  a  carpenter  and  owTiing  a  good 

Moses  Ward,  who  was  a  joiner  by  trade,  was  assess- 
ed in  the  borough,  in  1825.  He  was  from  Chatham, 
N.  J.,  and  first  settled  or  lived  on  the  Dyberry.  He 
was  the  father  of  Rev.  E.  O.  Ward,  and  lived  to 
be  eighty-one  years  of  age.  The  Rev.  E.  O.  Ward, 
pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  came  from  Dun- 
daif  to  Bethany,  in  1851.  In  his  ways  he  reminds  us 
of  the  village  preacher  described  in  Goldsmith's  "De- 
serted Village." 

The  house,  which  is  now  the  M.  E.  parsonage,  was 
built  by  J.  S.  Davis,  who  was  many  years  a  commis- 
sioners' clerk  and  deputy  county  treasurer,  and  who 
proved  to  be  a  defaulter  to  the  county  for  several 
thousands  of  dollars,  the  most  of  which  was  lost. 

The  county  seat  was  removed  to  Honesdale  by  act 
of  Assembly,  passed  1811.  After  the  removal  of  the 
courts  the  court-house  was  used  as  an  academy  until 
the  ITniversity  of  Northern  Pennsylvania  was  char- 
tered, in  1848,  when  the  old  court-house  w^as  changed 
and  enlarged  for  the  use  of  said  University,  and  a 
school  opened  therein  in  the  fall  of  1850.  The  next 
year.  Professor  John  F.  Stoddard  was  elected  princi- 


pal  of  the  institution.  It  was  patronized  by  over  two 
hundred  students,  and  gave  a  most  salutary  impetus 
to  the  cause  of  education.  Then  for  a  time  the  insti- 
tution was  managed  by  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church.  Professor  Stoddard  linally  purchased  the 
whole  building  and  grounds,  and  while  under  him  at 
the  time  of  its  greatest  prosperity,  the  building  was 
burned  on  the  night  of  the  19th  of  April,  1857.  Mr. 
Stoddard  generously  gave  the  fire-proof  building  and 
public  square  to  the  borough  for  the  use  of  the  com- 
mon school.  But  the  University  was  not  the  only 
institution  of  learning  with  which  Bethany  has  been 
favored.  In  1813,  the  Beech  Woods  Academy  was 
chartered,  and  the  State  aided  it  by  an  appropriation 
of  $1,000.  A  substantial  brick  building  was  erected, 
the  best  teachers  that  could  be  found  were  em- 
ployed, and  here  many  young  men  were  educated, 
among  whom  were  Benjamin  Dimock,  Esq.,  Isaac  P. 
Olmstead,  Warren  J.  Woodward,  late  Judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  State,  and  David  Wilmot.  In 
1853,  the  building,  which  is  now  the  property  of  the 
Westons,  was  sold  and  the  proceeds  turned  over  to  the 
University  aforesaid.  The  Presbyterian  church,  which 
cost  $5,000,  was  commenced  in  1822,  and  was  com- 
pleted in  1835.  There  is  a  Methodist  Episcopal,  and 
a  Baptist  church,  one  school,  two  stores,  no  licensed 
tavern,  a  lodge  of  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
and  a  Good  Templars'  lodge. 

By  request,  we  insert  the  following  piece  of  poetry, 
written   by  Alonzo  Collins,  fifty  years  ago.     It  will 


probably   apply   to  different  latitudes   and  meridians: 

"Come,  oh !  my  muse,  with  heavenly  fire, 

Assist  my  pen,  and  tune  my  lyre, 
That  I  may  write  with  ease  and  grace 

While  I  describe  a  little  place, 
A  country  town  not  far  from  here. 

Where  people  of  all  grades  appear ; 
They  are  a  wrangling,  jangling  crew. 

And  disagree  like  Turk  and  Jew. 
Religion  is  contested  here 

In  terms  most  rigid  and  severe ; 
Each  sect  affirms  its  doctrines  stout. 

And  twists  the  Scriptures  wrong-side  out; 
The  Baptists  do  afiirm  and  say 

Immersion  is  the  only  way. 
And  if  we  will  not  dive  like  trout, 

From  heaven  we'll  be  blotted  out ; 
Others  declare  it  is  no  matter. 

How  small  the  quantity  of  water ; 
That  it's  a  type,  designed  to  show 

Who're  the  church  militant  below. 
See  gamblers,  sharpers,  speculators, 

And  hypocrites,  and  Sabbath-breakers, 
And  doctors,  too,  of  wondrous  skill, 

Who  sometimes  cure  and  sometimes  kill ; 
The  friendly  clods  their  errors  screen, 

And  hide  their  faults  from  being  seen. 
The  ladies  here  in  Bethany, 

Of  different  shades  of  dignity. 
Bring  in  their  hats  from  Yankeetown, 

Of  different  shades,  pink,  white,  and  brown, 
Tipped  off  with  artificial  flowers. 

Which  look  like  squash-blows  after  showers, 
Or  bean-vines  running  up  a  pole  ; 

They  make  me  laugh,  they  look  so  droll. 
The  office-holders  here  increase, 



Disturbers  of  the  public  peace  ; 
Tliey  hunt  for  oflSce  as  sincere, 

As  hounds  do  hunt  the  weary  deer; 
With  public  money  strut  about, 

While  honest  people  go  without. 
Dandies  are  here  of  every  grade, 

Gallanting  ladies  is  their  trade ; 
They  swell  around  with  stiiffed  cravata, 

And  polislied  boots  and  tippy  hats ; 
They  lug  a  lady  on  each  side, 

As  sficks  upon  a  jackass  ride. 
But  I  would  have  it  understood, 

Many  are  virtuous,  pure,  and  good ; 
And  but  for  them  the  rest  would  sink. 

And  go  where  sinners  howl  for  drink. ' 


THIS  tOAVBsliip  was  erected  ISTovember  iTtli,  1834, 
It  is  bounded  north  and  north-east  by  Mt.  Pleasant^ 
east  by  Dybeny  and  Prompton,  south  by  Prompton 
and  Canaan,  and  west  by  Lackawanna  and  Susquehan- 
na counties.  More  tlian  one-quarter  of  the  township 
is  taken  up  by  the  acclivities  and  declivities  of  the 
Moosic  mountain,  and  is  sterile  and  unfit  for  tillage. 
In  tlie  western  part,  as  the  line  extends  over  the  Lack- 


awanna  river,  there  is  anthracite  coal,  the  only  por- 
tion of  the  county  in  which  it  has  been  found.  The 
west  branch  of  the  Lackawaxen  and  its  tributaries  af- 
ford ample  water-power  for  mills.  As  said  before, 
the  Lackawanna  river  runs  over  into  this  township  for 
several  miles  and  a  short  section  of  the  Jefferson  Rail- 
road, at  a  place  called  Forest  City,  where  the  D.  & 
H.  Company  has  a  large  saw-mill,  crosses  over  into 
the  township.  The  chief  ponds  are  the  Elk,  Forest, 
and  White  Oak.  The  lands  east  of  the  mountain  are 
good,  are  mostly  susceptible  of  a  high  state  of  cultiva- 
tion, and  produce  good  crops  of  grass,  corn,  rye,  oats, 
buckwheat,  and  potatoes  equal  to  any  part  of  the 
county.  There  are  some  large  orchards  stocked  with 
rare  varieties  of  fruit.  The  Nortons  and  David  S. 
West  led  the  way  in  the  selection  and  cultivation  of 
good  fruit,  and  their  success  stimulated  others  to  fol- 
low their  example.  This  may  be  called  the  Fomonia 
of  the  county.  The  old  north  and  south  state  road, 
and  the  Easton  and  Belmont  turnpike  road,  subse- 
quently following  nearly  the  same  route,  afforded  an 
early  access  to  the  tow^iship,  and  invited  an  enterpris- 
ing class  of  farmers. 

The  following  from  Alva  W.  Norton  is  an  accurate 
account  as  to  who  were  the  first  settlers  in  the  town- 
ship : 

"  My  father  was  born  in  Goshen,  Litchfield  county. 
Conn.,  May,  1759.  In  1775,  when  in  his  sixteenth 
year,  he  went  as  a  substitute  for  his  older  brother, 
Samuel,  to    defend  New  York.     He    enlisted    under 


'  Old  Put'  for  five  years,  in  the  Light-horse,  and  it  was 
tln'ee  years  before  he  saw  home  again.  When  he  was 
discharged,  he  received  what  w^ere  called  pay  certiii- 
cates  for  what  was  due  him  and,  in  the  spring  of 
1783,  went  into  the  township  of  Winchester,  now 
called  West  Winsted,  Conn.,  and  pin-chased  three  hun- 
dred acres  of  land,  paying  for  it  at  the  reduced  rate 
of  sixpence  on  the  pound.  In  1784,  he  married  Olive 
Wheeler  and  removed  to  his  new  purchase,  where  he 
continued  to  reside  until  1812.  His  children  were  War- 
ren W.,  Alva  W.,  Sheldon,  Clarissa,  and  Samuel.  In 
Sept.,  1810,  Levi  Norton,  David  Graylord,  Kufus 
Grinnell,  S.  E.  North,  and  some  others  came  to  Penn- 
sylvania looking  for  a  better  country,  where  they 
could  worship  God  according  to  the  dictates  of  their 
own  conscience.  In  pursuance  of  tliat  purpose,  they 
examined  the  wild  land  in  Wayne  and  Susquehanna 
counties.  After  that  examination,  Levi  Norton  went 
to  Philadelphia  and  purchased  nine  tracts  of  land,  sit- 
uated in  the  north  part  of  old  Canaan,  now  Clinton 
Center.  In  December,  1811,  he  fitted  out  his  second 
son,  Alva,  and  started  him  for  the  wilderness,  and 
this  son  came  into  Waj^ne  county,  Christmas  day.  At 
Mount  Pleasant  he  found  a  young  man  who  had  been 
sent  out  with  some  sheep,  and  tlie  two  came  down  the 
old  north  and  south  road  to  the  base  of  the  mountain, 
opposite  what  is  now  the  Clinton  Center  Baptist  meet- 
ing-house, built  a  cabm  ten  by  twelve,  and  split  bass- 
wood  poles  for  a  puncheon  floor.  Here  they  tarried 
during  the  winter,  but  very  little  improvement  could 


be  made,  as  the  snow  was  four  feet  deep.  Some  time 
in  March,  Warren  W.  Norton,  with  his  wife  and  one 
child,  and  Benjamin  Johnson,  with  his  wife  and  five 
children,  came.  The  first  week  in  June,  1812,  Levi 
Norton,  his  wife,  and  the  balance  of  his  family,  Hor- 
ace G.  Squire,  and  Michael  Grinnell  came ;  they  were 
followed  in  September  by  David  Gaylord  and  wife, 
and  D.  S.  West  and  wife.  At  the  same  time  Amasa 
Gaylord  and  son,  Myron,  arrived  and  made  arrange- 
ments to  move  the  family  the  next  year  and,  in  No- 
vember, Ilufus  Grinnell's  wife  and  eight  children 
came,  which  closed  the  colony  for  1812. 

In  May,  1813,  Amasa  Gaylord,  wife,  and  family 
arrived.  About  the  same  time  Capt.  Wm.  Bayley 
came  and  lived  witli  my  father  until  he  paid  for  one 
hundred  and  seventeen  acres  of  land.  In  the  fall  of 
1813,  John  Griswold,  Sen.,  and  some  of  his  family 
came  from  Torrey  lake,  and  put  up  a  log-cabin  on 
land  adjoining  that  of  Rufus  Grinnell,  and,  in  Janu- 
ary following,  moved  his  family  down  on  an  ox-sled. 
In  1814,  S.  E.  North  and  wife,  and  Fisher  Case  and 
family  came." 

Mr.  Norton  gives  also  the  following  account  of  a 
great  wolf  hunt:  "  In  the  fall  of  1837,  a  pair  of  black 
wolves  from  the  Rocky  mountains"  (or  Canada,) 
"made  their  appearance  in  Wayne  and  Susquehanna 
counties.  During  the  fall  and  early  winter,  in  Her- 
rick  township,  Susquehanna  county,  and  Mount  Pleas- 
ant and  (/linton  townships,  Wayne  county,  they  de- 
stroyed over  five  hundred  sheep.     In  Mount  Pleasant 


and  Clinton  there  were  societies  formed  for  the  pur- 
pose of  raising  money  to  exterminate  them  and  pay 
the  bounty.  The  amount  of  premium  raised  was 
ninety  dolhirs.  In  addition  to  this  sum,  Ahmson  Til- 
den,  of  Herrick  Center,  Susquehanna  county,  and  A. 
W.  N^orton,  collected  forty  dollars,  making  a  total  of 
one  hundred  and  thirty  dollars.  My  brother,  Sheldon, 
offered  one  dollar  extra  for  the  scalp  of  the  he-wolf. 
On  the  first  of  March,  1838,  Merritt  Hines,  keeping 
the  toll-gate  on  the  Belmont  and  Ohquagua  turnpike, 
near  Sugar-loaf  mountain,  received  information  from 
a  traveler  going  north,  that  south  of  the  Pete  Stevens 
place  he  saw  two  large  black  animals  cross  the  road 
towards  the  Moosic  mountain.  He  supposed  them  to 
be  bears  until  he  saw  their  brushes.  Hines  imme- 
diately equipped  himself  for  the  chase  and  followed 
on,  sending  a  messenger  to  Col.  Calvely  Freeman  at 
Belmont,  to  follow  him.  Col.  Freeman  equipped  him- 
self, took  the  track,  and  followed  Hines.  These  two 
men  pursued  the  wolves  eleven  days  and  were  in  at 
the  death.  On  the  third  day,  having  driven  them 
south  nearly  opposite  the  Dimock  settlement  in  Frost 
Hollow,  about  midday,  Hines  and  Freeman  called  at 
a  farm-house  for  refreshments  and  to  replenish  their 
knapsacks.  The  wolves,  wanting  their  dinner,  entered 
a  farmer's  yard  and  killed  fifteen  sheep.  That  was 
the  only  time  that  Hines  and  Freeman  gave  the  wolves 
any  time  to  satisfy  their  hunger,  for  they  followed 
them  so  closely  that  when  they  lay  down  at  night,  the 
hunters  could  see  by  the  place    wherein  the    animals 


had  lain  that  they  never  left  it  to  procure  anything  to 

There  are  several  persons  named  in  Mr.  Norton's 
sketch  who  deserve  further  notice.  David  S.  West 
was  spoken  of  under  Canaan  township.  Alva  W. 
Norton,  Esq.,  now  aged  about  eighty-eight  years, 
taught  school  at  Salem  Corners,  1816,  and  afterwards 
in  Bethany,  He  was  considered  a  competent  teacher, 
and  was  for  more  than  forty  years  a  practical  surveyor. 
He  was  county  commissioner  for  three  years,  and  it  is 
probable  he  was  hi  that  office  when  those  destructive 
wolves  were  killed,  which  made  us  state,  in  another 
place,  that  he  was  chiefly  instrumental  in  their  capture. 
He  lives  with  his  son,  L.  F.  Norton,  and  to  a  remark- 
able degree  retains  his  physical  and  mental  capacities. 
Ira  B.  Stone,  Esq.,  once  a  county  commissioner  and 
now  a  resident  of  the  town,  married  a  daughter  of  Mr. 
Norton.  Sheldon  Norton  was  for  three  years  prothon- 
otary  of  the  county.  He  was  a  very  prominent  man 
in  the  Baptist  church.  In  1815  he  was  assessed  as 
owning  forty-five  acres  of  improved,  and  two  hundred 
and  fifteen  acres  of  unimproved  land.  His  son,  E.  K. 
Norton  now  owns  the  homestead  which  is  considered 
one  of  the  best  farms  in  the  town. 

Michael  Grennell,  Sen.,  who  lived  to  be  one  hun- 
dred and  two  years  old,  settled  about  one-half  mile 
west  of  the  Baptist  chm*ch,  where  Horace  G.  Squire 
once  lived,  and  which  is  now  owned  by  A.  B.  Squire. 
He  was  the  father  of  Michael  Grennell,  Jr.,  who  mar- 
ried a  sister  of  Mrs.  Pope  Biishnell.     He  was  also  the 


father  of  Deacon  liiifus  Grennell.  The  sons  of  the 
latter  were  Yirgil,  once  associate  judge,  Homer,  Ov^d, 
Jasper,  Michael  3d,  and  Hufiis  M.,  who  was  once  pro- 

Amasa  Gaylord  settled  on  the  north  and  south  road. 
His  sons  were  David,  Carmi,  and  Giles,  all  of  whom 
sleep  with  their  fathers.  Giles  Gaylord  married 
Joanna  W.,  a  daughter  of  Elder  Elijah  Peck,  Sen., 
and  she  is  still  living. 

John  Griswold,  Sen.,  was  the  father  of  Francis 
Griswold,  who  for  many  years  kept  what  was  called 
the  Cold  Water  tavern ;  so  called  because  it  w^as  near 
a  stream  of  cold  water  that  came  rushing  down  from 
the  mountain.  Sumner  was  another  son,  and  was  a 
farmer.  Horace  was  a  son  or  grandson  of  John  Gris- 
wold, Sen, 

Sylvester  E.  North,  a  farmer,  is  yet  living.  He 
and  his  family  were  noted  for  making  the  best  butter 
and  cheese  to  be  found  in  the  county. 

Fisher  Case  w^as  the  father  of  Ralph,  Jerome  B., 
and  Robert  Case.     There  are  none  of  them  living. 

There  were  many  families  that  have  not  been 
mentioned  which  from  time  to  time  added  materially 
to  the  wealth  and  importance  of  the  towTi,  among 
whom  were  Daniel  Arnold,  a  mason ;  Chester,  Lewis, 
and  Horace  Buckland;  David  Bunting,  Daniel  Bunt- 
ing, Jr.,  and  John  Bunting,  who  lived  on  the  west 
branch ;  Bunting  and  Randall,  who  owTied  a  saw-mill 
and  tannery;  John  Belknap,  who  lived  and  kept  tav- 
ern on  the  Judson  place ;  Seth  Hay  den,  and  George 


Hopkins,  on  the  west  branch;  Joseph  Kingsbury,  a 
farmer;  Luther  Ledyard,  a  farmer,  who  lived  adjoin- 
ing Francis  Griswold  ;  Pliny  Muzzy,  a  farmer ;  James 
and  George  Mc  Mullen,  farmers,  of  Scotch  descent, 
famed  as  hunters;  and  Keuben,  Cyrus,  and  Rufus  Peck. 
These  latter  were  the  descendants  of  Elder  Elijah 
Peck,  of  Mt.  Pleasant,  whose  children  were  Elijah, 
Jr.,  William,  Reuben,  Lewis,  Myra,  and  Joanna  W. 
Elijah  Peck,  Jr.,  had  nineteen  children.  The  Sanders 
family  were  numerous.  There  were  Samuel,  David, 
Jonathan,  Nathaniel  C,  David  2nd,  Selma,  and  Shep- 
pard,  who  were  all  farmers.  The  following  persons  were 
all  farmers  :  Ashbel  Stearns,  Levi,  Levi,  Jr.,  Jason,  Ja- 
son D.,  Alfred,  and  Elisha  Stanton;  John  Sears;  John 
Sherwood,  and  William,  his  son;  Charles  L.  Tenant, 
Sen.,  Charles  L.,  Jr.,  and  John  A.  Tenant;  Washington 
Williams;  [N'athan  Wheeler,  son  of  Benjamin  Wheel- 
er; Jabez  Welch,  who  was  also  a  lumberman;  and 
John  .K.  Davison,  who  lived  first  in  Dyberry  and  then 
removed  to  and  died  on  the  fai'm  now  occupied  by  his 
son,  Warren  W.  Davison.  The  farms  in  Clinton  are 
well  cultivated  for  the  reason  that  very  little  attention 
was  ever  paid  to  lumbering.  Almost  the  whole  of  the 
original  settlers  were  of  Puritanic  origin. 

Aldenville  was  started  by  Pratt  and  Aid  en,  who 
built  a  tannery  at  the  place,  and  the  village  was  nam- 
ed in  honor  of  Levi  C.  Alden,  who  took  charge  of 
and  ran  the  tannery.  The  village  is  well-situated  for 
business  and  has  one  store,  a  post-ofiice,  a  Baptist  and 



a  M.  E.  churcli.     The  tannery  is  kept  running  under 
the  charge  of  Henry  Alden. 

Clinton  has  six  common  schools  and  one  school  in 
the  Independent  District  of  "  Mount  Republic."  There 
is  a  Baptist  church  in  the  Norton  settlement.  The 
number  of  taxables,  in  1878,  was  two  hundred  and 


THIS  borough  was  at  iirst  incorporated  in  1845, 
but,  in  consequence  of  some  irregularity^  or  dis- 
satisfaction, it  was  reorganized  and  enlarged,  at  Sep- 
tember sessions,  1850.  It  was  taken  from  Texas,  Ca- 
naan, and  Dyberry.  The  most  of  the  village  is  situa- 
ted near  the  junction  of  the  Yan  Auken  creek  with  the 
west  branch,  four  miles  west  of  Honesdale.  William 
Jenkins  made  an  assessment  of  the  borough,  in  1845; 
upon  examining  the  same,  we  iind  only  two  persons 
that  we  are  sure  resided  there  at  that  time.  One  is 
George  Alvord,  Esq.,  and  the  other  is  George  W. 
Hall,  then  assessed  as  a  bedstead-maker.  At  that 
time    Phineas   and    David  Arnold  were   there;    Levi 


Bronsoii,  wlio  manufactured  shovel-handles;  Alexan- 
der Conyne,  who  was  strangely  killed  l)y  the  spring- 
ing up  of  a  pole  upon  which  he  had  felled  a  tree; 
George  Dimock,  now  living  in  Carbondale ;  Foot  and 
Tingley,  merchants;  E.  E.  Guild,  clergyman;  Simon 
Plum,  removed ;  Roswell  Patterson,  now  of  llerrick 
Centre,  Pa.;  E.  K.  Norton,  merchant,  now  of  Clin- 
ton; Sylvanus  Osborn,  now  living  at  No.  19,  Lake 
township;  Hiram  Plum,  deceased;  Henry  Dart,  inn- 
keeper, who  removed  to  Honesdale  and  kept  the 
Wayne  County  Hotel,  and  from  thence  went  to  Rock 
River,  in  Illinois;  and  Alonzo  Tanner,  deceased. 
Then  all  the  Jenkins  family  were  living,  excepting 
Benjamin  Jenkins,  Sen.  He  Avas  from  Connecticut, 
and  began  there  with  his  family  before  Honesdale  was 
thought  of.  He  bought,  in  1813,  a  tract  of  land  in 
the  warrantee  name  of  James  (^lapinan.  There  was 
no  road  or  settler  near  him,  and  there  he  lived  and 
died,  surrounded  by  his  family.  His  sons  were  Ben- 
jamin Jenkins,  Jr. ;  Samuel  Jenkins,  lately  deceased  ; 
Asa  Jenkins,  the  father  of  Wm.  Jenkins,  assessor,  as 
aforesaid;  Edward  Jenkins,  who  was  county  treasurer 
when  said  assessment  was  taken ;  and  John  Jenkins. 
Jacob  S.  Davis  married  one  of  his  daughters,  and 
Ralph  Case  another.  His  cliildren  clustered  around 
him,  and  there  they  peacefully  dwelt, 

* '  Far  from  the  madding  crowd's  ignoble  strife  ; 
Theu'  sober  "wishes  never  learned  to  stray  ; 
Along  the  cool  sequestered  vale  of  life, 
They  kept  the  noiseless  tenor  of  their  way. " 
No  nobler,   purer   family    ever  lived.     We  cannot 


l)e  justly  accused  of   flattery,  for  all  of   the  family  of 
Benjamin  Jenkins,  Sen.,  are  in  their  graves. 

Joseph  Headley  in  early  life  lived  in  Bethany.  He 
married  Mary,  the  oldest  daughter  of  Kobert  Bortree, 
Sen.,  of  Sterling.  More  than  sixty-live  years  ago,  he 
bouo'ht  two  hundred  acres  of  land  in  the  south-east 
section  of  the  Elk  Forest  tract.  He  was  an  industri- 
ous farmer.  His  sons,  who  are  living,  are  John  W., 
Robert,  and   William.     He  had,  also,  one  daughter, 

named  Eliza. 

Kockwell  Bunnell,  the  oldest  son  of  David  Bunnell, 

Esq.,  lives  within  the  bounds  of   the  borough.     Geo. 

Alvord,  Esq.,  son  of  Zenas  Alvord,  an  old  settler  in 

Dy berry,  has   been   many  years  justice  of  the  peace. 

George  W.  Hall  &  Son   continue  the  manufacture  of 

choice  furniture.     The  Wayne  County  Normal  School 

is  located  here.     The  village  contains   one  store  and 

two  common  schools.     Number  of  taxables,  in  1878, 

one  hundred  and  twenty. 


THIS  township  was  set  oif   from  Dyberry,  Novem- 
ber 28tli,  1826.     It  then  included  Oregon,  and,  by 
the  first  assessment  made  after  its  erection,  by  Andrew 


Davison,  it  contained  but  fifteen  houses,  all  valued 
at  $470.  The  house  of  John  Smith  was  valued  at 
$200,  that  of  John  Garrett,  Sen.,  at  $125,  and  that  of 
Frederick  Smith  at  $80,  leaving  twelve  houses  alto- 
gether valued  at  $65.  Oregon  has  since  been  taken 
off  from  this  towTiship,  and  it  is  now  bounded  nortli 
by  Oregon  and  Damascus,  south-east  by  Pike  county, 
south  by  Palmyra,  and  south-west  and  west  by  Texas. 
The  chief  streams  are  the  branches  of  the  Mast  Hope, 
Beardslee's  creek  and  Holbert's  brook.  The  Long, 
Beech,  Adams,  and  Open  Woods  ponds  are  in  the 
to\^mship,  and  a  part  of  Catchall  pond.  There  are  no 
very  high  hills,  but  some  of  the  lands  southward,  east- 
ward, and  westward  of  the  Adams  pond  are  sterile. 

At  the  erection  of  the  township  the  principal  taxa- 
bles  were  Lester  Adams,  Stephen  D.  Bunnell,  John 
Cressman,  Samuel  Camtield,  Martin  Kellogg,  Andrew 
Davison,  Jeremiah  Garrett,  eTohn  Garrett,  Sen.,  John 
Garrett,  Jr.,  Hugh  McCrannels,  Henry  Pulis,  Peter 
Pulis,  Samuel  Smith,  John  Smith,  Peter  Smith,  Wm. 
Charles  Smith,  and  Frederick  Smith.  Ephraim  Tor- 
rey  and  Moses  Ward  were  taxed  as  non-residents. 
Samuel  Camfield,  one  of  the  above-named  is  still  living 
in  the  town.  Ephraim  Torrey  was  one  of  the  first 
l)eginners  at  Beech  Pond,  and  died  there  about  1829. 
Near  that  time  Wm.  Olver  and  Jonathan  Tamblyn 
commenced  this  side  of  i\\e  pond.  Wm.  Spry  was  the 
next  settler  and  is  yet  living  on  his  original  location; 
then  William  Tamblyn  bought  west  of  him,  and  Ed- 
ward Marshal  bou2:ht  where  his  son  Edward  now  lives. 


John  Olver  took  up  and  bought  land  west  of  the  Long 
pond  where  his  widow  and  son  now  live.  These  set- 
tlers were  from  England. 

The  opening  of  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal 
gave  a  great  impetus  to  the  settlement  of  the  country 
about  Honesdale,  and  Berlin  township  was  particular- 
ly benefited  thereby.  The  Honesdale  and  Big  Eddy 
turnpike  was  built,  and  subsequently  a  plank-road 
near  the  same,  over  which  all  the  travel  between 
Honesdale  and  New  York  via  Narrowsburg  passed 
until  the  building  of  the  Honesdale  branch  of  the  Erie 
railroad.  Before  the  building  of  this  railroad  so  great 
we;*e  the  transportation  and  travel  between  Honesdale 
and  the  New  York  &  Erie  railroad,  tliat  a  plank  road 
was  made  from  near  the  former  residence  of  Buckley 
Beardslee,  deceased,  to  Mast  Hope,  now  called  Pine 
Grove.  But  it  failed  to  meet  the  expectations  of  its 
projectors,  and  is  now  a  useful  township  road.  Siim- 
uel  Smith  is  reputed  as  having  been  the  first  settler  in 
the  township,  on  Smith  Hill.  Here  is  some  of  the 
best  land  for  corn  and  grain  in  the  county.  It  is  call- 
ed red  shale  soil;  it  covers  a  large  area  in  the  north- 
western part  of  the  town  and  extends  northw^ard  into 
Oregon  township.  The  numerous  descendants  of 
Samuel  and  John  Smith  have  mostly  departed  from 
Smith  Hill,  and  their  farms  are  owned  and  occupied 
by  new-comers. 

Berlin  Center,  which  owes  its  name  to  the  intersec- 
tion of  two  township  roads,  is  in  the  Smith  Hill  vicin- 
ity.    Here,  living  with  his  son,  John  Seaman,  is  C. 

TO  WNSI'Il\S--BEBLjy.  335 

B.  Seaman,  Esq.,  in  his  ninety-second  year.  His  wife 
is  aged  about  eighty-eight  years.  She  was  the  daugh- 
ter of  Jacob  Kimble,  of  Paupack,  Pike  county ;  and 
in  the  same  house  with  them  lives  the  widow  of  John 
Smith,  deceased,  a  sister  of  Charles  B.  Seaman,  aged 
about  ninety  years.  The  ages  of  the  three  average 
about  ninety  years.  Where  can  the  like  be  found  in 
any  house  in  the  county  ?  Having  within  six  months 
past  visited  this  family,  we  w^ere  delighted  to  see  the 
kindness  and  respect  with  which  these  good  people  are 
treated  by  their  children  and  grandchildren.  It  may 
be  said  unto  them,  "  Yerily,  ye  shall  in  nowise  lose 
your  reward." 

Isaac  Seaman  removed  from  Haverstraw,  N.  Y.,  and 
settled  in  Damascus,  where  Chas,  B.  Seaman  was  born. 
From  thence  he  removed  to  Dy berry  and  bought  the 
farm  now  owned  by  Daniel  M.  Eno.  Isaac  Seaman 
sold  the  farm  to  Peter  Smith  who  sold  it  to  Deming 
&  Eno.  Charles  B.  Seaman  removed  to  Pike  county 
where  he  held  the  offices  of  sheriff  and  prothonotary 
and  after  returning  to  tliis  county  was  elected  county 

Henry  Bishop  lives  in  this  township.  His  father, 
an  old  Revolutionary  soldier,  came  from  New  Jersey, 
first  settled  at  the  Narrows  in  Pike  coimty,  from  thence 
removed  to  Bethany  and  was  accounted  the  first  set- 
tler therein.  He  was  a  carpenter  and  built  the  first 
frame  house  for  William  Schoonover  that  was  built  in 
Dyberry.  He  carried  the  mail  on  foot  for  several 
years  between  Bethany  and  Stroudsburg.      His  sons 

336  JE    COUNTY. 

were  Jo]  '    airy,  David,  Jacob,  and 

Harvey.  Henry  Bishop,  the  sul)ject  of  this  paragraph, 
is  aged  eighty-two  years,  and  was  a  half-brother  on  his 
mother's  side  to  Joseph  Atkinson,  deceased.  He  says 
that  he  has  eaten  bread  that  was  made  from  flom*  that 
his  father  brought  np  on  his  back  from  Minisink. 
Henry  has  one  sister,  widow  Rachel  Schoonover,  now 
liviag  at  Forest  Mills  with  her  son. 

Beech  Pond.  This  village  is  situated  below  the 
pond  of  the  same  name.  Thomas  Burke  began  a  tan- 
nery there,  did  but  little,  and  sold  out  the  same  to 
Henry  W.  Stone  and  Horace  Drake,  who  carried  on 
tanning  successfully  for  several  years,  and  established 
as  appurtenant  thereto  a  large  store.  Mr.  Stone  sold 
out  to  Messrs.  Drake  ik  Sons,  who  continued  in  the  bus- 
iness as  long  as  the  same  could  be  made  remunerative. 
Being  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  good  agricultural  re- 
gion, the  village  is  well  kept  up  by  the  business  arising 
therefrom.  When  Beech  Pond  began  to  flourish,  Ste- 
phen W.  Genung  built  a  saw-mill  upon  the  outlet  of 
Adams  pond,  and  for  a  time  carried  on  lumbering; 
hence  the  place  w^as  called  Genungtown,  and  it  is 
about  two  miles  south  of  Beech  Pond.  Wm.  Hol- 
bert,  now  of  Equinunk,  came  into  the  possession  of 
the  place,  and  pursued  the  lumbering  business  upon  a 
large  scale,  built  good  and  substantial  buildings,  clear- 
ed up  and  improved  the  lands,  and  made  a  good  farm. 
He  then  sold  out  the  same  to  J.  Williams.  The  lum- 
ber from  this  mill  was  drawn  down  through  the  Catch- 
all settlement  to  the  Delaware. 


Soon  after  the  making  of  the  turnpike  road  from 
Indian  Orchard  to  Narrowsbm-g,  Wm.  Kockwell,  from 
Connecticut,  took  up  a  large  tract  of  land  about  one 
mile  and  a  half  westward  of  Beech  Pond,  cleared  up 
a  large  farm  of  red-shale  soil,  built  a  convenient  tavern 
house,  and  kept  a  licensed  inn  for  many  years.  He 
had  three  children,  two  of  whom,  with  himself,  are  in 
the  grave.     The  farm  is  now  owned  by  P.  Staff. 

About  one  mile  east  of  Beech  Pond  there  is  a  road 
that  starts  off  from  near  Lucius  Keyes'  house  and  runs 
south  throuo-h  the  Henshaw  and  Mclntire  settlement 
to  intersect  the  Catchall  road.  There  is  much  excel- 
lent land  in  this  settlement.  On  the  Catchall  road  is 
sufficient  population  to  maintain  a  common  school. 
Jacob  W.  Travis  located  and  bought  land  about  one 
mile  east  of  Beech  Pond,  on  the  old  turnpike  road, 
about  fifty  years  ago,  and  kept  tavern  for  some  years. 
He  left  two  children  who  are  yet  living. 

In  this  township,  six  miles  from  Honesdale,  is  a 
poor-house,  built  on  a  large  farm,  which  the  overseers 
of  the  poor  of  Honesdale  and  Texas  purchtised  of 
Henry  Bishop.  The  paupers  are  employed  upon  the 
farm  for  the  purpose  of  utilizing  their  labor,  and  en- 
abling them  to  contribute  in  part  to  their  own  sup- 
port. The  system  has  been  in  operation  for  many 
years,  and  long  enough  to  test  its  utility.  It  is  under 
the  care  of  Joseph  Dewitt,  Esq.,  of  Honesdale. 

A  majority  of  the  people  in  Berlin  are  of  English 
descent,  and  there  are  also  many  Germans.  The 
American  element  was  from  different  States,  though 



but  few  of  them  are  of  New  England  origin.  In  1878 
there  were  two  liundred  and  fifty  dwelling-houses  in 
the  town,  valued  at  about  §39,000.  There  is  one 
Baptist  church  near  Berlin  Center,  one  Methodist 
Episcopal,  and  also  one  Free  Methodist  church  near 
Beech  Fond.  There  are  nine  district  schools,  and  the 
number  of   taxables  is  three  hundred  and  sixty-three. 


THIS  township  w^as  erected  at  December  sessions, 
1846.  It  was  taken  from  Berlin,  which  had  been 
organized  twenty  years  before.  It  is  one  of  the 
smallest  of  the  townships,  ranking  in  size  with  Fal- 
myra,  Texas,  and  Cherr}^  Kidge.  It  is  bounded  north 
by  Lebanon,  east  by  Damascus,  south  by  Berlin,  and 
west  by  Dyberry.  The  streams  are  Carley  brook, 
which  rises  in  the  township,  runs  south-westward 
through  it,  and  joins  the  Lackawaxen  at  Tracyville ; 
Big  brook,  a  part  of  which  nins  through  its  western 
section ;  and  Holbert  brook,  in  the  south-eastern  cor- 
ner. The  ponds  are  the  Day  pond.  Spruce,  Huck, 
Mud,  Lovelass,  Smith,  Lower  Wilcox,  and  Upper 
Wilcox,  or   Yarnell  pond,  upon    the  northern  side  of 


wliich  lives  Capt.  John  Kellow,  a  distinguished  sol- 
dier of  the  late  war.  Oregon,  in  Spanish,  means 
marjoram.  Can  a  sprig  of  that  aromatic  herb  be 
found  in  the  township  ? 

Lester  Adams  and  William  Adams  appear  to  have 
been  early  settlers.  Exactly  when  they  began,  and 
from  whence  they  came,  we  cannot  find  out.  There  are 
many  of  the  Adams  family  whose  pedigree  is  untrace- 
able. We  find  one  named  in  a  very  old  history,  that 
first  settled  on  the  river  Euphrates,  and,  being  alone, 
he  was  called  in  the  singular  number  "Adam."  He 
had  several  children.  There  were  Abel  Adams,  Cain 
Adams,  Seth  Adams,  and  some  others  not  named. 
As  the  children  increased,  they  were  called  the 
"  Adams  family."  They  spread  over  the  whole  world, 
and  it  is  not  strange  that  some  of  them  found  their 
way  into  Oregon,  Manchester,  and  other  parts  of  the 
county.  We  never  heard  of  an}^  who  preserved  the 
original  family  name  that  were  not  respectable.  Among 
these  were  John  Adams,  John  Quincy  Adams,  and 
Charles  Francis  Adams ;  but  we  have  not  time  to  trace 
their  genealogy  back  to  the  old  gentleman. 

Henry  Pulis,  a  son  of  Conrad  Pulis,  began,  in  1827, 
on  the  road  leading  from  Dyberry  to  Rileyville, 
though  the  road  was  not  then  made.  There  was  a 
road,  when  Bethany  was  fu-st  started,  laid  out  from 
the  Dyberry  through  to  the  Cochecton  and  Great 
Bend  tm-npike,  and  called  the  "  Gate  road."  Hugh 
McCrunnels,  a  noble  Irishman,  settled  on  that  road, 
about  sixty  years  ago,  distant  al)out  half  a  mile  from 


the  Dyberry  post-offi(ie.  A  part  of  that  old  farm  is 
now  owned  by  Thomas  Dunn,  and  near  by  is  the  farm 
that  Lewis  Hole  cleared  up,  now  owned  by  H.  W. 
Adams.  Most  of  the  roads  and  improvements  in  the 
town  have  been  made  within  thirty  years  past. 

There  was  a  road  laid  out  in  this  townsliip  from 
Honesdale,  after  it  began  to  prosper,  through  Smith 
Hill  settlement,  by  the  way  of  James  Smitli's,  to 
Eldred,  and  thence  to  the  mouth  of  Calkin's  creek. 
The  most  of  the  people  on  that  road  are  English,  and 
they  have  some  very  good  farms.  Near  the  Berlin 
line,  on  the  same  road,  is  a  Methodist  Episcopal 
church,  and  near  William  Boucher's  is  another.  The 
road  which  runs  from  Girdland,  diagonally  through 
the  township,  was  laid  out  in  1850,  about  which  time 
Hard,  Palmer  &  Gilbert  built  the  tannery,  now 
owned  by  Wefferling,  Brunig  &  Co.,  upon  Carley 
brook.  After  that,  Wm.  Penwarden,  who  was  born 
in  England,  built  a  saw-mill  upon  said  brook,  one  mile 
above  the  tannery,  and,  by  strict  attention  to  business, 
has  become  wealthy.  He  married  a  daughter  of 
Thomas  Depuy,  of  Madison,  Pa.  John  E-eifler,  coun- 
ty commissioner,  owns  a  superior  saw-mill,  situated 
below  Penwarden's;  he  is  a  German,  and  about  one- 
quarter  of  the  land-holders  in  the  town  are  of  the 
same  nationality. 

Girdland  is  situated  mostly  on  the  old  Gate  road 
aforesaid,  part  of  it  being  in  this  township  and  part 
in  Lebanon.  Soon  after  the  settlement  of  Bethany, 
Jason  Torrey  bought  a  tract  of  land  in  the  warrantee 

TO  WN SHIPS—  OR  EG  ON.  341 

name  of  Abuer  Skinner  and  caused  the  large  trees  to 
be  girdled  in  order  to  kill  tliem,  as  he  designed  to  have 
a  brother  of  his  clear  up  a  farm  there,  which,  however, 
he  did  not  do.  Charles  Torrej  began  and  made  a 
small  clearing.  Then  Jonathan  Brvant,  a  son  of 
Thomas  Bryant,  bought  the  place,  and,  after  many 
years,  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  George  Croy,  who  now 
lives  upon  the  place.  The  settlement  was  called 
Girdland.  The  second  settler  was  James  Nelson,  who 
took  up  a  lot  of  excellent  land;  but,  being  remote 
from  society,  schools,  and  churches,  he  became  dis- 
couraged, sold  out  his  improvement,  and  went  to 
Nebraska.  After  that,  several  Germans  were  attract- 
ed to  the  vicinity  by  the  smoothness  and  fertility 
of  the  soil,  and  they  have  secured  themselves  with 
comfortable  homes.  There  are  many  English  families 
but  the  German  element  predominates.  Jonathan 
Bryant,  who  did  not  lack  the  gift  of  continuance  in 
well-doing,  has  acquired  a  competence  which  he  most 
surely  deserves.  There  is  a  post-office  at  Girdland, 
kept  by  J.  Budd,  Esq.,  who  has  a  higher  position,  in 
that  he  is  a  good  blacksmith. 

This  township  and  Lel)anon  jointly  support  a  school, 
so  that  there  are  four  and  a  half  common  schools  in 
the  township.  The  number  of  taxables  is  one  hun- 
dred and  eighty-two. 



AT  November  sessions,  1837,  this  township  was 
taken  off  from  Dyberry,  and,  in  1843,  Cherry 
Kidge  was  set  off  from  Texas,  leaving  it  in  shape  like 
an  awkwardly-made  square-toed  boot.  It  is  now 
bounded  north  by  Dyberry  and  Prompton,  east  by 
Berlin,  south  by  Palmyra  and  Cherry  Ridge,  and  w^est 
by  Cherry  Ridge,  Canaan,  and  Prompton.  The  Lack- 
awaxen  runs  south-eastward  nearly  through  the  cen- 
tre of  the  township,  and  the  stream  is  joined  at  Hones- 
dale  by  the  Dyberry,  which  comes  in  from  the  north. 
The  most  easily  cultivatable  lands  are  the  alluvions 
along  the  Lackawaxen  and  the  Dyberry. 

WnrrE  Mills.  A  saw-mill  was  built  at  this  place 
by  Daniel  Parry  &  Co.,  which  mill  afterwards  fell 
into  the  hands  of  A.  H.  Farnham  &  Co.  Some  of  its 
owners  having  whitewashed  the  buildings,  it  was  called 
"White  Mills.  At  these  mills  an  enormous  amount  of 
white  pine  was  sawn,  and  from  thence  run  to  market. 
Christian  Dorflinger,  from  Rochsteig,  Alsace,  in 
France,  came  to  the  United  States  in  1816.  He 
learned  his  trade  as  a  manufacturer  of  ornamental  and 
enameled  glass-ware,  at  St.  Louis,  in  Loraine,  France ; 
and  after  his  arrival  in  this  country,  was  first  connect- 


ed  with  the  flint-glass  works  at  Greenpoint,  Long  Is- 
land, N.  Y.  In  or  about  1865,  he  selected  a  point  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  Lackawaxen,  near  White  Mills, 
upon  which  to  build  a  glass  factory.  The  works  have 
been  in  operation  eight  or  ten  years,  and,  notwithstand- 
ing the  monetary  difficulties  which  have  crippled  or 
suspended  many  manufacturing  establishments,  Mr. 
Dorflinger  has  successfully  continued  his  business. 
Between  his  works  and  the  depot  on  the  Honesdale 
branch  of  the  Erie  railroad  is  a  substantial  county 
bridge  across  the  Lackawaxen  and  canal.  There  are 
from  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and  twenty  men, 
women,  and  children  employed  in  and  about  said  fac- 
tory. The  glass  produced  there  combines  every  de- 
gree of  excellence  and  ornamentation.  Specimens  of 
the  perfection  of  the  work  were  exhibited  at  the  Cen- 
tennial Exposition  at  Philadelphia  in  1876,  and  were 
not  excelled  b}^  the  best  work  made  at  Pittsburg  or 
elsewhere.  There  is  one  public  house  and  a  large 
store  kept  by  E.  A.  Dorflinger.  Here  is  the  St. 
Joseph's  Catholic  church  whicli  is  visited  monthly 
from  Hawley.  Above  the  depot  on  the  western  side 
of  the  river  is  the  residence  of  the  Hon.  Frederick  W. 
Farnham,  this  being  the  place  where  Enos  "Woodward 
once  lived.  The  latter  was  a  popular  county  commis- 
sioner in  1838.  His  wife,  who  survives  him,  was  a 
daughter  of  Joseph  Miller,  Esq.,  and  is  living  at 
White  Haven  on  the  Lehigh. 

The  next  place  on  the  river  is  where  Walter  Kim- 
])le   located    after   the  Indian   Avars   on  the  Paupack. 


He  was  the  fatliei*  of  Charles  and  Stephen,  and  was 
one  of  tlie  most  enterprising  lumbermen  on  the  Lack- 
awaxen.  He  sold  out  all  his  possessions  to  Buckley 
Beardslee  and  removed  to  the  West.  Mr.  Beardslee 
held  several  offices,  one  being  that  of  county  commis- 
sioner. He  married  a  daughter  of  Walter  Kimble 
and  she  is  yet  living,  but  he  has  been  dead  several 
years.  Their  sons  are  all  living,  namely,  Walter,  a 
farmer;  Howkin  B.,  attorney;  and  Cliarles,  a  farmer. 
Hon.  H.  B.  Beardslee,  in  1845,  w^as  elected  register 
and  recorder  of  the  county ;  afterwards  he  edited  the 
Wayne  Comity  Herald^  and  was  elected  Representa- 
tive, and  then  to  the  State  Senate.  Finally,  he  dis- 
posed of  his  interest  in  the  Herald^  and  removed  to 
Wilkesbarre  and  became  the  editor  of  the  Luzerne 
ZTnion,  a  Democratic  paper.  He  married  a  daughter 
of  Wm.  Clark,  of  Abington,  Fa.  According  to  his 
testimony  there  was  a  place  on  his  father's  farm 
where  the  Indians  had  paved  a  dancing-ground  by 
laying  down  large,  flat  stones,  where  they  gathered 
together  like  the  ancient  worshipers  of  Odin,  in  the 
Orkney  islands,  around  the  mossy  stones  of  power. 
There  the  simple  Indians  performed  their  fantastic 
dances,  and  invoked  the  aid  of  the  Great  Spirit  to  as- 
sist them  in  their  contemplated  enterprises.  Mrs.  Fan- 
ny Atkinson,  of  Hawley,  says  that  upon  the  flats  at  In- 
dian Orchard  were  formerly  found  flint  arrows,  an 
pestles  and  liatchets,  made  of  stone.  She  thinks  tha 
a  man,  by  the  name  of  Holbert,  lived  at  the  Beardt 
lee   place   before  Walter  Kimble  l)egan  on  it.     SIk 


also  says  that  David  Ford,  one  of  the  original 
settlers  on  the  upper  Paupack,  first  lived  at  Indian 
Orchard,  and  that  her  father,  Benjamin  Kimble, 
bonght  Ford's  possessions,  and  that  Thomas  Schoon- 
over,  also,  once  lived  on  a  part  of  the  flats.  Simeon 
Kimble  is  a  son  of  Benjamin  Kimble.  Wm.  Holbert, 
Jr.,  bought  the  Schoonover  farm. 

The  Holbert  family.  The  first  of  the  Holberts  that 
came  into  Pennsylvania  was  William  Holbert,  Sen., 
from  Connecticut.  In  1776  he  first  settled  in  New 
Jersey,  opposite  Milford,  Pa.  He  bought  Mast  Hope 
and  Holbert  Bend.  At  the  latter  place  the  Indians 
prevented  his  making  a  settlement,  and  he  temporarily 
returned  to  New  Jersey.  His  sons  were  Benjamin 
and  Joseph.  Benjamin  settled  at  the  Bend,  where 
Frederick  R.  Holbert  now  lives.  His  sons  were,  1st, 
William  Holbert,  Jr.,  who  settled  at  Indian  Orchard 
as  aforesaid.  2d,  Joseph  G.  Holbert,  who  was  father 
of  William  Holbert,  of  Equinunk,  county  commission- 
er, and  of  Benjamin  Franklin,  Thomas  J.,  and  John 
Holbert.  The  latter  owns  a  farm  and  mill  on  the 
Shehawken.  Another  of  the  sons,  George  Holbert, 
lives  at  the  mouth  of  the  "Lackawack,"  as  it  was  al- 
ways called  in  former  times.  Joseph  Holbert,  Sen., 
located  at  Mast  Hope.  William  Holbert,  of  Indian 
Orchard,  married  a  daughter  of  Stephen  Kimble. 

Leonardsville  was  named  after  John  Leonard,  who 
oegan  there  soon  after  the  canal  was  finished.  The 
place  was  selected  for  a  boat-yard  and  many    of   the 



best  mechanics  and  boat-biiilders  gathered  there.    The 
business  of  the  place  lias  declined. 

Jabez  Rockwell.  In  the  Methodist  cemetery  at 
Honesdale  is  the  grave  of  Jabez  Rockwell.  He  was 
born  in  Connecticut  in  November,  1762.  When  in 
his  sixteenth  year  he  enlisted  in  a  company  raised  in 
that  place,  was  nnistered  into  a  regiment  commanded 
by  Benedict  Arnold,  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of 
Saratoga,  was  afterwards  transferred  to  the  army  fur- 
ther south,  and  was  in  the  battles  which  culminated  in 
the  surrender  of  Cornwallis,  at  whicli  event  he  was 
present.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he  settled  in  Mil- 
ford,  Pike  county,  whic^h  was  then  a  wilderness.  He 
was  twice  married.  One  of  his  sons  by  his  first  wife 
was  Lewis  Rockwell,  formerly  sheriif  of  Pike  county, 
and  who  is  now  living  a  few  miles  from  Tafton,  in 
that  county,  being  over  ninety  years  of  age.  In  Sep- 
tember, 1798,  Jal)ez  Rockwell  was  appointed  crier  of 
the  courts  of  Wayne  county,  and  in  1805  he  was 
deputy  sheriff  under  Abram  Mulford,  wliose  daughter 
he  married  for  his  second  wife.  In  1 824  he  was  one 
of  three  Revolutionary  soldiers  that  went  from  Pike 
county  to  New  York  to  see  General  La  Fayette,  by 
whom  they  were  warmly  welcomed.  Mr.  Rockwell 
removed  to  Leonardsville  in  1837,  and  there  resided 
until  the  time  of  his  death,  in  January,  1847.  Being 
a  Mason  he  w^as  buried  with  the  honors  of  that  order, 
and  with  the  honors  of  war,  and  the  obsequies  were 
solemn  and  imposing.  He  was  a  lifer,  and  one  of  his 
favorite  airs,  "The  Masonic  Adieu,"  was  fifed  in  the 


funeral  procession  from  Leonardsville  to  Honesdale, 
by  the  author  of  this  work.  He  had  been  for  many 
years  preceding  his  death  in  receipt  of  a  pension  from 
the  government.  Charles  F.  Kockwell,  Esq.,  ex-treas- 
urer of  the  county;  Mrs.  E.  H.  Mott,  of  Honesdale; 
and  Mrs.  Isaac  Decker,  of  Leonardsville,  are  grand- 
children, and  John  B.  Rockwell,  of  Prompton,  is 
a  great-grandchild  of  Jabez  ilockwell,  aforesaid. 
William  Rockwell,  a  Connecticut  man,  who  first  settled 
in  Berlin,  on  the  Honesdale  and  Big  Eddy  turnpike 
road,  and  who  died  some  years  ago  in  Leonardsville, 
was  of  a  different  family. 

Tracyville  is  situated  on  the  east  side  of  the  Lacka- 
waxen  near  the  confluence  of  Carley  brook  tlierewith. 
Esquire  Thomas  Spangenberg  tells  us  that  when  he 
first  came  into  the  county,  in  1794,  he  found  a  tub- 
mill  for  grinding  corn,  at  this  place ;  that  it  would  not 
pay  for  tending,  and  every  man  went  and  ground  for 
himself.  Stephen  Kimble  built  the  first  saw-mill  that 
we  ever  knew  at  the  place.  In  his  later  days  Mr. 
Kimble  moved  to  the  west  side  of  the  river.  The 
place  was  called  Tracyville  after  Thomas  H.  R.  Tracy 
who  built  a  mill  up  the  stream  and  encouraged  some 
mechanics  to  found  some  shops  in  the  village.  About 
1842,  Jacob  Faatz  started  a  factory  for  the  making  of 
window-glass,  but  for  w^ant  of  capital  he  was  obliged 
to  abandon  the  l)usiness.  James  Brookfield  succeeded 
him,  but  the  dam  of  a  reservoir  belonging  to  the  Del- 
aware &  Hudson  Canal  Company,  far  up  the  stream, 
having  broken  away,  during  a  great  storm,  carried  the 


works  of  Mr.  Brooklield  into  the  river.  In  1873,  the 
Honesclale  Ghiss  Company  started  a  factory  for  the 
making  of  hollow  glass-ware,  and  their  yearly  manu- 
facture now  amounts  to  about  $100,000,  and  employs 
nearly  one  hundred  men,  women,  and  boys.  An  ax 
factory  was  started  in  the  place  by  E.  Y.  White,  in 
1842,  and  by  him  continued  until  his  death  in  1866, 
since  which  time  his  son,  Gilbert  Wliite,  has  continued 
the  business,  and  he  now  makes  fifty  dozen  axes  per 
week.  B.  P\  Frailey,  also,  has  been  for  some  years 
engaged  there  in  manufacturing  hay -rakes.  The  steam 
grist-mill  of  John  P.  Kimble  is  between  Tracyville 
and  Honesdale.  Benj.  F.  Kimble  built  the  old  mill 
near  by. 

Seelyville.  It  is  claimed  that  the  lirst  white  man 
known  to  have  set  foot  on  the  soil  about  Seelyville 
was  the  Kev.  Jonathan  Seely,  a  Methodist  clergyman, 
who  was  led,  in  1760,  through  the  almost  impenetra- 
ble forests  to  the  place  by  a  friendly  Indian,  and  hj 
him  was  shown  the  falls  at  Seelyville,  also  those  on 
the  Middle  creek,  Dyberry,  and  Jennings  brook.  The 
warrant,  by  which  this  tract  was  held,  was  dated  6th  of 
August,  1769,  was  surveyed  the  23d  of  October,  1790, 
and  patented  to  Sylvanus  Seely,  November  7t]i,  1820. 
Col.  Sylvanus  Seely  first  commenced  improving  the 
mill-site  in  1802  by  building  a  small  saw-mill  at  the 
falls,  and  in  putting  up  a  small  house,  to  which  lu^ 
moved  his  family  in  1805,  cutting  his  road  all  the  wav 
through  the  woods  from  Cherry  Ridge  settlement 
At  that  time  the  getting  of  hemlock  would    not  pay. 

TO  WNSJIIFS—  TEX  A  S.  349 

nor  would  it  a  long  time  afterwards,  so  that  lumbering 
was  confined  to  getting  a  few  scattered  pines,  with 
curled  maple  and  cherry,  which  was  rafted  in  small 
rafts  of  seven  or  eight  thousand  feet  each,  and  was 
rafted  on  the  ground  where  Birdsalls'  factory  now 
stands.  In  the  year  1808,  Col.  Sylvanus  Seeiy  built 
a  small  grist-mill  immediately  down  stream  from  the 
saw-mill,  and  used  one  pair  of  mill-stones  obtained  on 
the  top  of  Moosic  mountain,  which  stones  were  used 
about  twenty-five  years.  During  the  life-time  of  Col. 
S.  Seely,  who  died  in  the  year  1819,  he  lived  by  lum- 
bering and  by  his  grist-mill,  paying  little  attention  to 
farming.  In  his  latter  days  he  became  involved  by 
endorsing  for  others,  so  that  after  his  decease  his 
whole  real  estate,  including  "  Seely's  mills,"  was  sold. 
In  1824,  Richard  S.  Seely  came  to  this  county  on 
a  visit,  and,  in  1825,  returned  wdth  his  father,  John 
W.  Seely,  from  Trumbull  Co.,  Ohio,  who  then  pur- 
chased the  property,  consisting  of  three  hundred  and 
thirty-six  acres,  for  $900.  On  the  16tli  of  March,  1826, 
R.  S.  Seely  arrived  at  Seelyville,  on  horseback,  by 
the  way  of  Cherry  Ridge,  with  leather  saddle-bags 
containing  all  his  goods  and  money.  A  more  forlorn, 
desolate,  and  uninviting  place  could  not  have  been 
conceived.  The  only  road  was  from  Cherry  Ridge  to 
Bethany,  and  the  only  one  to  where  Honesdale  is  was 
the  bed  of  the  creek.  The  woods  hung  all  around  the 
place.  Having  no  knowledge  of  sawing  or  grinding, 
he  took  off  his  coat,  put  on  a  tow-frock,  and  went 
merrily    to    work,  having  for  his  aid  and  general  ad- 


viser  Jonathan  D.  Simpson.  A  new  saw-mill  was 
])uilt  and  the  house  and  grist-mill  repaired.  Col.  See- 
ly,  by  running  from  one  mill  to  the  other,  kept  them 
in  operation,  thus  performing  the  work  of  two  men 
under  disadvantages  that  would  have  crushed  the  con- 
stitution of  almost  any  man  of  the  present  day.  In 
1827,  the  canal  and  railroad  were  located,  infusing 
new  life  into  business.  In  February,  1830,  Baldwin 
(k  Co.  began  the  making  of  axes  and  edge-tools;  their 
shop  was  afterwards  torn  down,  rebuilt,  and  enlarged. 
In  the  same  year  a  small  foundry  was  started  by  Cas- 
per Hollenback,  and  John  H.  Bowers  commenced 
building  a  small  turning-shop.  This  was  subseqently 
occupied  by  Gilbert  and  Robert  Knapp,  then  enlarged 
and  used  by  John  H.  G-ill  as  a  machine-shop,  and 
subsequently,  by  James  Birdsall,  as  a  woolen  factory, 
until  it  was  burned  down,  in  1849.  In  1831,  a  facto- 
ry for  manufacturing  scoop-shovels  was  built  and  car- 
ried on  business  in  the  name  of  R.  S.  Seely  &  Co.  It 
resulted  in  loss  to  the  parties,  three  in  number,  of 
$1,000  each.  This  shop,  after  standing  idle  a  year  or 
two,  was  occupied  by  Burbank  &  Burk  as  an  edge- 
tool  shop,  into  which  R.  S.  Seely  was  drawn  and,  up- 
on its  failure,  he  was  obliged  to  foot  bills  amounting 
to  $2,000,  which  left  him  not  worth  a  cent.  Still  re- 
taining a  strong  arm  and  a  strong  resolution,  he  per- 
severed and  finally  retrieved  his  fortune.  In  1832, 
Col.  Seely  was  made  superintendent  for  building  the 
turnpike  from  Honesdale  to  Waymart.  Seelyville 
never  witnessed  a  siffht  so  grand  as  the  tirst  four-horse 


stage  wliicli  was  driven  tlirough  the  village.  In  1834, 
D.  0.  &  B.  Payne  commenced  the  manufacture  of 
lead  pipe,  in  the  loft  over  the  scoop-shovel  shop,  and 
closed  in  1837.  Ephraim  Y.  White  afterwards  made 
axes  and  edge-tools  in  the  place.  In  1850,  Col.  Seely 
built  the  woolen  factory,  now  conducted  by  the  Bird- 
sail  Brothers.  Their  father  rented  it  until  his  de- 
cease, in  1857.  He  used  three  thousand  pounds  of 
wool  per  year.  They,  from  time  to  time,  have  en- 
larged and  improved  the  premises.  Last  year  they 
used  one  hundred  thousand  poimds  of  wool,  one-half 
of  which  was  raised  in  the  county.  They  contem- 
plate using  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  pounds  the 
present  year,  (1880)  as  the  business  is  remunerative. 
Birdsall  Brothers  manufacture  cassimeres,  flannel  of 
various  descriptions,  and  stocking-yarn.  They  will  em- 
ploy fifty  liands  this  year*  Christian  Erk  manufac- 
tures umbrella  and  parasol  sticks  and  makes  some 
doors,  &c.  He  emplo3^s  about  twenty-five  hands. 
Seelyville  has  one  licensed  tavern,  a  store,  and  a  grad- 
ed school  of  a  superior  order.  The  village  is  one  mile 
and  a  half  west  of  Honesdale. 

In  the  spring  of  1849,  a  large  dwelling-house,  built 
in  the  village  by  Col.  Seely,  and  then  occupied  by 
Ezekiel  Gr.  Wood,  was  consumed  Iw  fire,  of  which 
lightning  was  supposed  to  be  the  cause.  Col.  Seely 
removed  to  Honesdale  in  1848,  and  erected  that  fine 
mansion,  now  the  residence  of  Hon.  Coe  F.  Young, 
where  he  died,  Nov.  8,  1863.  Upon  the  organization 
of   the  Honesdale  Bank,  in  1836,  lie  was  elected  the 


President  thereof,  which  post  he  occupied  while  he 
lived.  He  was,  in  all  respects,  a  good  and  useful 
man.  He  left  three  sons.  Col.  Franklin  A.  Seely,  of 
the  United  States  Army;  Henry  M.  Seely,  Esq.,  attor- 
ney-at-law,  in  Honesdale;  and  George  D.  Seely,  of 
Washington,  D.  C 

Tlie  lands  now  occupied  by  Daniel  M.  Eno,  and  the 
lands  adjacent,  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  acres,  were, 
in  1805,  assessed  to  Isaac  Seaman,  the  father  of  Chas. 
W.  Seaman.  Isaac  Seaman  sold  out  to  Peter  Smith, 
wlio  sold  the  same  to  Doming  &  Eno. 

All  the  lands  which  the  late  Daniel  Schoonover 
owned  were  taken  up  and  patented  to  his  fatlier,  Wm. 
Schoonover.  The  tract  included  all  the  upper  part  of 
Honesdale.  Wm.  Schoonover  was  one  of  the  earliest 
settlers  on  tlie  Dy berry.  He  was  w^iere  Daniel 
Schoonover  lived  as  early  as  1T94.  He  w^as  the  father 
of  Daniel,  Levi,  (who  was  the  iirst  w^liite  child  bom 
on  the  Dy  berry)  Jacob,  and  Simon  S<*Iioonover. 

Peter  Cole,  and  his  son,  Josiah  Cole,  came  into 
Dy  berry  township  (now  Texas)  in  the  spring  of  1813, 
and  settled  in  the  woods,  on  Cole's  hill,  one  mile  north- 
west of  Honesdale,  which  was  then,  like  the  place  at 
which  they  began,  a  dense  wilderness.  Josiah  was 
then  sixteen  yea2*s  of  age.  They  built  a  log-cabin 
without  wdndows,  and  hung  up  a  bed-quilt  for  a  door. 
Then  Mr.  Cole  and  his  son  went  back  to  JS^ew  Jersey, 
to  assist  in  harvesting,  and  left  Mrs.  Cole  alone  in  thai 
cabin,  around  which  the  wolves  prowled  and  howled 
She  had  no  company  or  defense  except  a  faithful  dog 


Peter  Cole  bought  his  land  of  Charles  Kimble,  who 
married  a  daughter  of  his.  Benjamin  Kimble,  Sen., 
married  Betsey,  a  sister  of  Peter  Cole.  She  was  tlie 
mother  of  widow  Fanny  Atkinson,  of  Paupack  Eddy. 
Josiah  Cole  succeeded  to  the  estate  of  his  father.  He 
had  two  sons ;  one  of  them,  Lewis  R.  Cole,  was  wound- 
ed at  Fort  Fisher,  and  died  in  a  hospital,  in  1865. 
His  other  son,  P.  J.  Cole,  rents  and  conducts  the 
Honesdale  Mill.  He  had  tw^o  daughters;  one  was 
the  wife  of  Reynolds  Case,  and  is  not  living ;  and  the 
other,  named  Eleanor,  now  living,  is  the  wife  of 
Charles  H.  Peck,  of  Preston. 

Robert  Beardslee  began  adjoining  Peter  (^ole,  about 
1812.  He  married  a  sister  of  Charles  Kimble.  Buck- 
ley was  his  brother.  Lewis  and  David  were  Robert 
Beardslee's  sons.  The  Beardslee  family  were  from 
Litchfield  Co.,  Conn. 

Texas  township  is  divided  into  three  election  dis- 
tricts, and  has  fourteen  common  schools,  besides  the 
graded  school,  at  Seely  ville.  The  number  of  taxables, 
in  1878,  was  1,083. 




FIFTY-FIVE  years  ago  the  borough  of  Ilonesdale, 
now  so  l>eautifiil  and  prosperous,  was  covered  with 
liemloeks  and  laurels.  Tlie  wolf  and  the  fox  roamed 
there  unmolested  and  unlimited.  ''The  thistle  shook 
there  its  lonely  head  and  the  wild  moss  whistled  to 
the  wind."  A  small  opening  at  the  lower  end  of  the 
boat-yard  was  made  at  an  early  day  by  one  Andrew 
Showers,  and  the  improvement  was  transferred  from 
one  to  another  until  it  Avas  pur(diased  by  Samuel  Kim- 
ble, now  deceased.  The  density  of  the  forest,  and 
other  considerations,  prevented  the  lands  from  being 
tilled  for  agricultural  purposes.  The  town  owes  its 
consequence  to  other  causes.  In  1769,  Obadiah  Gore, 
a  blacksmith  of  Wilkesl)arre,  discovered  that  stone- 
coal,  as  it  was  then  called,  was  a  good  substitute  for 
(*.harcoal  in  the  working  of  iron,  jind,  in  1808,  the 
greater  discovery  was  made  that  it  produced  an  excel- 
lent fire  when  burned  in  a  grate.  After  long  and 
varied  experiments  its  value  was  generally  conceded. 

Inexliaustible  mines  of  this  coal  had  been  discover- 
ed in  the  valleys  of  the  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming; 
l>ut  it  was  valueless  unless  it  could  be  conveyed  to 
market  where  it  would  1>e  purchased  and  used.    Many 


iittenipts  were  made  to  take  coal  to  Philadelphia  by 
drawing  it  across  the  mountain  to  the  Lackawaxen  and 
running  it  on  rafts  of  lumber  to  the  city,  but  the 
scheme  was  found  to  be  impracticable  and  profitless. 

Maurice  and  William  Wurtz,  Quakers  of  Philadel- 
phia, men  with  far-seeing  and  prophetic  vision,  devised 
the  plan  of  constructing  a  canal  from  the  Lackawaxen, 
the  site  of  Honesdale,  to  the  Hudson  river  at  Kings- 
ton, a  distance  of  one  hundred  and  eight  miles;  and 
of  making  a  railroad  with  inclined  planes  from  the 
Lackawanna  to  the  Lackawaxen,  a  distance  of  sixteen 
miles,  which  railroad  would  ascend  the  Moosic  moun- 
tain at  an  elevation  of  two  thousand  feet  above  tide- 
water. With  a  determination  and  perseverance  equaled 
only  by  that  of  Field  in  the  laying  down  of  the  Atlan- 
tic cables,  Maurice  and  William  Wurtz  carried  out 
their  plans,  being  aided  by  many  enterprising  capital- 

The  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company  was  or- 
ganized and  the  proposed  canal  and  railroad  made  and 
put  in  operation  in  the  year  1829.  By  way  of  experi- 
ment one  or  two  boats  were  run  up  the  canal  in  the 
autumn  of  1828.  Many  difficulties,  almost  insur- 
mountable, were  encountered  in  building  the  canal. 
At  a  point  l)etween  Paupack  Eddy  and  tlie  Narrows 
was  a  sharp  bend  in  the  Lackawaxen  called  "  the  pul- 
pit," where  it  was  found  indispensable  to  use  the  river 
for  the  canal,  consequently  a  new  channel  was  dug 
around  "the  pulpit"  for  the  river  to  run  in.  A  great 
flood  in  the  spring  of  1829  l)roke  away  the    embank- 


ments  between  "the  pulpit"  and  the  new  channel,  and 
part  of  the  river  resumed  its  old  course.  The  repairs 
were  very  costly  and  were  not  completed  until  mid- 
summer, and  heavy  damages  were  paid  to  lumbermen. 
This  misfortune  happening  in  the  very  commencement 
of  the  enterprise  was  very  disheartening,  and  this  was 
the  most  critical  period  in  the  existence  of  the  Com- 
pany. James  Archibald,  then  its  general  superinten- 
dent, counseled  perseverance,  and  his  salutary  advice 
was  heeded.  When  the  canal  was  repaired  there  was 
but  little  coal  to  be  found  at  Honesdale;  none  had 
been  brought  over  by  the  railroad.  Men  had  been 
employed  the  previous  winter  to  haul  coal  from  Car- 
bondale  to  Honesdale,  but  there  was  but  little  snow 
that  season,  and  consequently  but  little  coal  was  drawn, 
so  that  the  Company  delivered  only  seven  hundred 
tons  at  Kondout  in  1829.  Since  that  time  its  advance 
has  been  steadily  progressive  with  constant  rapidity  of 
advancing  step  until,  wonderful  to  tell,  in  1879,  by 
said  Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal  Company,  there  were 
mined  and  sold  of  coal  shipped  from  Honesdale  via 
canal  and  railroad  one  million,  nine  hundred  and  thirty- 
three  thousand,  eight  hundred  and  seventy-four  tons. 
The  upper  part  of  Honesdale  was  owned  by  Jason 
Torrey,  and  the  lower  part  was  bought  by  the  Dela- 
ware and  Hudson  Canal  Company  of  Samuel  Kimble 
for  a  slight  consideration.  One  of  its  chief  patrons 
was  Philip  Hone,  a  wealthy  merchant  of  the  city  of 
New  York,  and,  out  of  respect  to  liim,  the  place  at  the 
head  of  canal  navigation  was   named  Honesdale.     It 


was  first  laid  out  in  1826,  and  was  incorporated  as    a 
borough  January  26th,  1831. 

In  the  winter  of  1841,  through  the  active  exertions 
of  Ebenezer  Kingsbury,  Jr.,  of  Honesdale,  then  State 
Senator,  an  act  for  the  removal  of  the  county  seat 
from  Bethany  to  Honesdale,  was  passed.  A  court- 
house was  commenced  in  1841,  the  pul)lic  papers  were 
removed  from  Bethany,  and  the  first  court  held  in 
Honesdale  at  August  sessions,  1843.  The  Delaware 
and  Hudson  Canal  Company  were  invested  with  bank- 
ing powers,  and  established  a  bank  in  the  city  of  New 
York,  called  "The  Bank  of  the  Delaware  and  Hud- 
son Canal  Company,"  which  issued  bills  for  a  number 
of  years.  The  money  was  always  at  par  and  furnished 
a  most  convenient  and  reliable  currency. 

The  Honesdale  Bank  was  incorporated  in  1836. 
Richard  L.  Seely  was  its  president  during  his  life,  and 
John  Neal  was  its  first  cashier.  In  1864  it  came  un- 
der the  banking  law^  of  the  United  States  as  a  national 
bank.  Tlien  Zenas  W.  Russell  was  president,  Stephen 
D.  Ward  cashier,  Horace  C.  Hand  teller,  and  Warren  i 
K.  Dimock  clerk.  Coe  F.  Young  is  now  president  of  / 
the  National  Bank,  and  Edwin  F.  Torrey  cashier.  The 
Wayne  County  Savings  Bank  was  chartered  in  1870 
under  the  laws  of  Pennsylvania.  W.  W.  Weston  is 
now  president,  and  H.  C.  Hand  cashier.  The  nearest 
depot  to  Honesdale  before  1865  was  at  Narrowsburg 
upon  the  New  York  and  Lake  Erie  Railroad,  sixteen 
miles  distant.  In  that  year  a  branch  of  said  road  was 
built  from  Lackawaxen  to  Hawley  and    in    1868  tlie 


Branch  was  extended  to  Honesdale,  thereby  affording 
direct  raih-oad  communication  with  the  city  of  New 
York,  distant  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  miles. 

John  Torrey,  Stephen  Torrey,  John  F.  Roe,  Ahxn- 
son  Blood,  Charles  P.  Clark,  and  Elkanah  Batnior 
were  among  the  first  begiimers  in  Honesdale,  and  are 
yet,  as  such,  the  only  surviving  residents.  Jason  Tor- 
rey, owning  the  lands  upon  which  the  upper  part  of 
the  town  is  situated,  erected,  upon  the  north  side  of 
the  Lackawaxen,  a  short  distance  above  its  junction 
with  the  Dyberry,  the  first  dwelling-house,  and,  as  it 
was  afterwards  used  as  a  place  of  public  worship,  it 
was  called  the  "Tabernacle."  Isaac  P.  Foster  and 
Jason  Torrey  built  tlie  first  store,  and  that  was  on  the 
Avest  bank  of  the  Dyberry,  near  the  Goodman  bridge. 
Jason  Torrey,  having  made  the  first  improvements,  it 
is  to  be  presumed  that  his  sons,  John  and  Stephen, 
were  among  the  primitive  settlers.  John  F.  Roe 
came  from  Long  Island,  JS^.  Y.,  in  1827.  He  has 
been  engaged,  during  his  sojourn  in  the  place,  until  a 
year  or  two  ago,  in  the  mercantile  business.  Mr. 
Roe's  recollections  of  past  events  are  very  vivid  and 
correct.  According  to  him,  Isaac  P.  Foster  and  him- 
self kept  the  second  store  in  a  house  built  by  Mr.  Fos- 
ter, on  a  corner  opposite  the  Wayne  County  House, 
remo\dng  the  goods  from  the  first  store  thereto,  which 
first  store  is  \Qi  standing,  it  having  been  moved  up  to 
and  adjoining  the  house  of  Dr.  E.  T.  Losey.  That 
store-house  now  belongs  to  B.  B.  Smith,  Esq.  The 
second  store-house  was,  not  long  afterwards,  rented  l)y 


Foster  to  Humphrey  tfe  Coe,  as  a  tavern,  but  they  did 
not  run  it  long.  Foster  &  Roe,  in  1831,  built  a  store 
down  town,  where  W.  W.  Weston  is  now  located. 
The  place  has  been  burned  over  once  or  twice,  and 
the  street  and  the  land  since  that  time  have  been  so 
much  raised  and  tilled  up,  that  what  was  the  top  of 
the  ground,  in  1831,  is  now  the  bottom  of  the  cellars. 

The  "  Stourbridge  Lion,"  the  lii'st  locomotive  ever 
run  in  America,  was  placed  upon  the  D.  &  H.  Canal 
Company's  Railroad,  near  where  the  old  M.  E. 
church  now  stands,  on  the  9th  of  August,  1829.  The 
engine  was  built  in  England.  It  was  run  two  or  three 
miles,  when  it  was  found  to  be  too  heavy  for  the  slen- 
der trestle-work  upon  which  the  rails  of  the  road  were 
laid.  Its  use  was  abandoned  and  stationary  engines 
and  inclined  planes  were  substituted  in  its  stead. 

Charles  P.  Clark,  now  a  carpenter,  was  an  early 
comer,  and  was  one  of  the  first  school-teachers  in 

Elkanali  Patmor,  Esq.,  came  from  (Jrange  county, 
N.  Y.,  in  1830.  He  has  been,  and  is  yet,  a  manufac- 
turer of  and  a  dealer  in  all  kinds  of  carriages  and 
wao-ons.  He  has  held  the  office  of  coroner  of  the 
county  time  out  of  mind.  He  also  held  the  office  of 
justice  of  the  peace  for  many  years. 

David  Tarbox  was  the  first  justice  of  the  peace. 
Then  succeeded  Stephen  D.  Brush,  Ebenezer  Kings- 
bury, Jr.,  Thomas  J.  Hubbell,  John  Scott,  A.  B.  Bid- 
well,  Simon  G.  Throop,  and  others.  The  present  jus- 
tices of   the  peace  are  John  Mcintosh,  and  James  B. 


Eldred.  Mr.  Mcintosh  was  once  an  efficient  sheriff 
of  the  connty,  and  for  six  years  held  the  office  of 
clerk  of  the  several  courts  thereof;  and  Mr.  Eldred 
was  once  a  popular  sheriff,  which  is  proof  positive 
that  the  Honesdale  people  have  a  due  appreciation  of 
the  abilities  of  those  that  they  choose  for  magistrates. 

Charles  Forbes  built  and  kept  the  first  public  house, 
which  w^as  erected  in  1827.  Divers  persons  kept  it  af- 
terwards, among  whom  was  Henry  Dart.  The  house, 
now  the  Wayne  County  Hotel,  is  owned,  and  is  neat- 
ly and  quietly  kept  by  Henry  Ball. 

The  next  public  house  in  Honesdale  was  built  near 
the  present  store  of  C^harles  Petersen.  It  was  kept 
l)y  divers  persons  until  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  Elia- 
kim  Field,  the  prince  of  hotel  keepers,  who  obtained 
license  at  January  sessions,  1839.  By  his  delicate, 
gossamer  net  of  flattery,  he  entangled  his  customers. 
It  was  his  to  make  the  lean  appear  the  fatter  morsel: 
to  make  pork  and  beans  superior  to  the  delicious  vi- 
ands w^hich  Dyonisius  sat  before  the  infatuated  Dam- 
ocles, and  to  make  his  guests  believe  that  his  vile  corn- 
whiskey  exceeded  the  nectar  which  Jupiter  sipped  on 
Mount  Olympus.  When  a  passenger  alighted  from 
the  stage,  he  was  gaily  greeted  by  the  complaisant 
host,  who,  rubbing  his  hands  as  if  he  were  w^ashing 
them  with  invisible  soap  in  imperceptible  water,  would 
exclaim,  "  I  was  afraid  I  should  never  see  you  again : 
walk  right  in.  My  wife  was  speaking  about  you  last 
night;  John,  go  and  tell  Mrs.  Field  that  Mr.  Brown 
lias  come.     Oh  !  liow  rejoiced  she  will  be  to  see  you." 


Public  houses  are  now  kept  by  Mrs.  Betsey  xilleu, 
widow  of  Samuel  Allen,  deceased,  R.  W,  Kiple,  Mi- 
chael Coyne,  A.  F.  Yoigt,  and  Henry  Ball,  already 

The  first  merchants  or  retailers  of  foreign  merchan- 
dise, in  Honesdale,  according  to  the  court  records, 
Nov.  1,  1828,  were  Foster  &  Roe,  Zenas  H.  Russell, 
Northrup  &  Hayes.  In  April,  1830,  there  were  Nor- 
thrup,  Hayes  ife  Co. ;  Russell  <k  Wilcox ;  Isaac  P.  Fos- 
ter ;  and  Edward  Mills.  In  1831,  there  were  Foster 
ife  Roe;  Thomas  T.  Hayes  &  Co.;  Edward  Mills; 
Russell  Bronson ;  Hastings  Frisbie ;  Russell  &  Wilcox ; 
P.  S.  Tyler ;  Charles  Kent ;  and  Humphrey  &  Co. 
In  1833,  Edward  Mills;  Thomas  T.  Hayes  &  Co.; 
Hastings  Frisbie ;  Russell,  Wilcox  &  Co. ;  Hand  & 
Kirtland;  Roe  &  Co.;  Phineas  S.  Tyler.  In  1834, 
Hayes  &  Williams;  Edward  Mills;  Hand  &  Kirtland; 
John  F.  Roe ;  Hastings  Frisbie ;  Russell,  Wilcox  «% 
Co.;  N.  M.  Bartlett;  Delezenne  &  Beach;  Isaac  P. 
Foster;  St.  John  &  Perkins;  Murray  &  Madigan ;  E. 
T.  Losey;  Snyder  &  Stryker.  Soon  after  this  James 
Bassett  and  Cornelius  Horn  beck  bought  out  the  hrm 
of  Hayes  &  Williams.  John  D.  Delezenne,  the  father 
of  Joseph  Delezenne,  of  Honesdale,  afterwards  traded 
independently  of  Beach.  The  most  of  the  aforesaid 
merchants  must  be  w^ell  remembered  throughout  tlie 
county  for  their  fair  and  honoralJe  dealing.  John  F. 
Roe,  and  Isaiah  Snyder,  of  Honesdale,  and  A.  J. 
Stryker,  of  Damascus,  ai-e  the  only  survivors  of  the 
merchants  above  named.     How  true  it  is  that  "  life  is 



but  M  ^'apor,  that  appeareth  for  a  little  time,  and  then 
vanisheth  away." 

The  Honesdale  Mill  was  completed  in  1840,  and 
was  built  by  John  Torrey,  E-ichard  L.  Seely,  and  Jer- 
emiah C.  Giinn.  Mr.  Gunn  came  from  or  near  the 
city  of  Geneva,  N.  Y.  He  was  an  experienced  miller 
Avhen  he  came  into  the  comity,  and  the  business  of  the 
mill  was  conducted  under  his  direction  for  many  years. 
Afterwards  the  mill  was  run  for  some  years  by  Chas. 
T.  Weston  and  Jas.  K.  Dickson.  It  now  belongs 
wholly  to  Hon.  John  Torrey,  and  is  rented  by  Peter 
J.  Cole,  an  experienced  miller. 

The  first  physician  was  Samuel  G.  Dimmick,  of 
Sullivan  Co.,  N.  Y.,  a  brother  of  the  first  wife  of 
Hon.  Nathaniel  B.  Eldred,  deceased,  and  a  cousin  of 
Hon.  Wm.  H.  Dimmick,  Sen.  Almost  coeval  with 
him,  in  1830,  was  Ebenezer  T.  Losey.  Dr.  Dimmick 
removed;  Dr.  Losey  remained  during  his  life-time. 
Dr.  Adonijah  Strong  first  located  in  Bethany,  and, 
about  1838,  removed  to  Honesdale.  He  was  a  clas- 
sical scholar  and  a  most  learned  physician.  In  his 
latter  days  he  compounded  a  medicine  for  the  cure  of 
diphthei'ia,  and  another  as  a  curative  for  many  diseas- 
es, which  medicines  are  highly  extolled  by  those  who 
have  tested  their  virtues.  Dr.  Edwin  Graves  came 
from  Delaware  Co.,  N.  Y.,  to  Bethany,  then  removed 
to  Honesdale,  where  he  died  in  184:9.  Dr.  W.  F. 
Denton,  from  Orange  Co.,  N.  Y.,  of  the  botanical 
school,  a  very  successful  physician,  practiced  in  the 
days  of   Dr.  Graves,  and  survived  him  many  years. 


Next  came  Dr.  W.  W.  Sanger,  from  Kew  York  city, 
whose  stay  was  transient.  Dr.  C.  King,  from  Otsego 
Co.,  N.  Y.,  succeeded  liim  and  remained  all  his  life. 
About  this  time  Dr.  D wight  Reed,  a  son  of  Charles 
G-.  Reed,  of  Dyberry,  and  Dr.  Wm.  Reed,  a  son  of 
the  same,  began  their  practice.  Dr.  Joseph  Jones, 
homeopathist,  who  married  a  daughter  of  John  A. 
Gustin,  when  he  lirst  came  to  Honesdale  gave  his  at- 
tention to  his  profession.  The  present  physicians  and 
surgeons  are  Dr.  C.  M.  Dusinberre,  Dr.  Dwight  Reed, 
Dr.  Wm.  Reed,  Dr.  Reed  Burns,  Dr.  H.  G.  Keefer, 
Dr.  W.  H.  Cummings,  Dr.  R.  W.  Brady,  who  has 
been  as  much  a  druggist  as  a  physician,  and  has  com- 
pounded a  medicine  called  "Dr.  Brady's  Mandrake 
Bitters,"  which  is  highly  extolled  for  its  medicinal  vir- 
tues, and  Dr.  Fr.  A.  Friedman,  (graduate  of  Vienna). 
We  have  not  forgotten,  nor  would  we  fail  to  men- 
tion. Dr.  Ralph  L.  Briggs,  from  Massachusetts,  who 
practiced  medicine  some  years  in  Honesdale.  He  was 
skillful  in  his  profession,  widely  known,  and  highly 
esteemed  throughout  the  county.  He  married  Mary, 
the  only  daughter  of  Thomas  Fuller.  She  is  yet  liv- 
ing in  the  borough.  Upon  the  incoming  of  the  ad- 
ministration of  Abraham  Lincoln,  he  was  appointed 
postmaster.  He  died  Dec.  4,  1863,  aged  thirty-seven 

Of  the  earlier  postmasters  were  Thos.  H.  R.  Tracy, 
John  Scott,  John  A.  Gustin,  and  John  Y.  Sherwood. 
Rol)ert  A.  Smith  succeeded  Dr.  Briggs,  has  since 
held  the  office,  and  will  probably  continue  to   hold  it 


until  we  have  a  cliaiio-e  of  administration  in  the  gen- 
eral government. 

Knssell  F.  Lord  was  one  of  the  original  engineers 
and  managers  of  the  Canal  (Company.  His  brother, 
Solomon  Z.  Lord,  at  Hawley,  now  in  the  Company's 
employ,  was  coeval  with  him.  Thomas  H.  R.  Tracy 
came  to  Honesdale  in  1829.  He  was  born  in  Frank- 
lin, Connecticut,  in  1806,  and  was  appointed  superin- 
tendent of  the  Pennsylvania  section  of  the  D.  c<:  H. 
Canal  Company,  which  position  he  held  until  his  death. 
He  was  elected  an  associate  judge  of  the  county  in 
1851,  and  died  in  the  office.  Miles  L.  Tracy,  his  son, 
is  pay-master  in  the  service  of  the  Company.  Hon. 
H.  M.  Seely  married  a  daughter  of  Judge  Tracy. 

John  Kelly  was  one  of  tlie  earliest  comers  to  Hones- 
dale,  where  he  arrived  from  Ireland,  in  1828.  He 
was  in  the  service  of  the  ('anal  Company  for  thir- 
ty-two years,  and  died  March  28,  1880,  aged  eighty- 
two  years. 

There  are  six  different  Christian  denominations  in 
Honesdale,  whose  places  of  public  worship  are  distin- 
guished as  follows:  First  Presbyterian  church,  Chas. 
S.  Dunning,  D.  D.,  pastor;  First  Methodist  Episcopal, 
church,  E-ev.  Thos.  Harroun,  pastor,  and  Rev.  H.  Fox, 
assistant  pastor;  Grace  Episcopal  church.  Rev.  T.  E. 
Caskey,  rector;  German  Lutheran  church,  Rev.  F. 
A.  Hertzberger,  pastor;  St.  John's  Catholic  church. 
Rev.  J.  J.  Doherty,  pastor;  St.  Magdalena  Catholic 
church.  Rev.  G.  Dassel,  pastor.  The  Baptist  church 
has  no  pastor  at  present.     A  new,  massive  structure  of 


stone,  sixty-live  feet  in  front,  and  one  hundred  and 
four  feet  in  depth,  is  being  built  on  the  Cherry  Kidge 
road,  near  the  borough  limits,  by  the  St.  John's  Cath- 
olic Church. 

There  are  about  twenty -live  families  of  Hebrews,  or 
Jews,  in  Honesdale.  Our  readers  probably  know  that 
they  believe  in  the  Old,  or  Hebrew  Bible.  They  are 
thought  to  be  a  clannish,  exclusive  people.  The  truth 
of  their  history  is  stranger  than  fiction.  They  have 
been  a  proscribed,  persecuted  people  in  some  coun- 
tries, having  been  denied  the  right  of  liolding  lands  or 
offices,  and  were  placed  under  great  civil  disabilities. 
Germany  relaxed  her  severities,  and  England,  under 
the  strong  arguments  of  Lord  Macaulay,  was  forced 
to  suspend  her  rigors;  but  the  United  States,  undei- 
the  Constitution  of  AYashington,  Jefferson,  and  other 
founders  of  true  liberties,  had  nothing  to  suspend. 
Here  every  man  could  worship  God  according  to  the 
dictates  of  his  own  conscience.  To  this  tolerating 
country  the  Jews  were  then  attracted.  They  never 
take  the  name  of  God  in  vain,  avoid  intemperance, 
do  not  violate  the  injunction  of  the  seventh  com- 
mandment, have  no  cases  of  assault  and  battery, 
support  their  own  poor,  and  never  cite  eacli  other  to 
the  litigious  bar.  Their  morality  is  worthy  of  gene- 
ral imitation.  They  have  a  synagogue  on  Third  street, 
of  which  the  Rev.  Mr.  Fass  is  Rabbi.  Prominent 
among  them  is  William  Weiss,  grocer,  Avho  came  to 
this  coimtry  from  Austria,  in  1847,  declared  his  inten- 
tion to  ]>ecome  a  citizen  in  1848,  and  was  admitted  as 


such  in  1853,  since  which  time  he  hfis  l)een  a  jury 
commissioner,  and  auditor  of  the  county,  and  has  been 
for  eighteen  successive  years  a  member  of  the  Hones- 
dale  Board  of  Education. 

The  original  stock  of  the  Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal 
Company  was  $1,500,000,  which  has  been  increased 
to  $20,000,000.  Over  one  million  tons  of  coal  can  be 
shipped  by  the  canal  in  an  uninterrupted  season. 
About  one  thousand  boats  constitute  its  carrying  capac- 
ity. The  boats  are  towed  down  the  Hudson  river  from 
Rondout  to  the  docks  of  the  Company  at  Weehawken. 
As  said  before,  there  were  shipped  l)y  the  way  of 
Honesdale,  in  1879,  one  million,  nine  hundred  and 
thirty-three  thousand,  eight  hmidred  and  seventy-four 
tons  of  coal.  Consequently  a  large  amount  of  coal  is 
transported  by  the  Honesdale  Branch  of  the  Erie  Rail- 
road. The  laboring  force  of  the  Company  is  about 
twelve  thousand  men,  and  they  mined  and  delivered 
at  diiferent  markets,  in  1879,  three  million,  fifty-four 
thousand,  three  hundred  and  ninety  tons  of  coal.  The 
progress  and  prosperity  of  Honesdale  and  the  sur- 
rounding villages  and  townships,  with  all  their  divers 
l)ranches  of  industry,  have  been  identified  with  and 
dependent  upon  the  business  and  success  of  this  Com- 
pany. The  canal  is  supplied  with  water  by  flowing  a 
number  of  ponds  in  different  parts  of  the  county, 
thereby  forming  reservoirs  that  can  be  drawn  upon  as 
needed.  These  are  as  follows:  Belmont  reservoir. 
Miller's  pond,  and  Stevenson  pond,  in  Mount  Pleasant; 
Long  pond  and  reservoir  below  on  its    outlet.  White 


Oak  pond,  and  Elk  pond  in  Clinton ;  Keen's  pond  in 
Canaan;  Lower  Woods  pond  in  Lebanon;  Yarnell  pond 
in  Oregon ;  and  Cajaw  pond  in  Cherry  Ridge.  All 
the  coal  carried  to  market  by  the  canal  is  brought  over 
the  Moosic  mountain  by  the  Gravity  Railroad.  This 
was  the  lirst  railroad  built  for  actual  transportation  in 
America.  There  are  no  locomotives  used  on  the  road. 
The  road  ascends  an  elevation  of  eight  hundred  and 
fifty  feet  to  the  summit  of  the  mountain.  At  the 
head  of  each  plane  is  a  substantial  stationary  engine. 
An  endless  wire  rope  passes  over  a  huge  drum  at  the 
head  and  extends  to  the  foot  of  the  plane ;  there  the 
cars  are  attached  to  the  rope,  and,  upon  a  given  signal, 
the  cars  start  up  the  plane,  often  at  the  rate  of  twelve 
miles  an  hour.  The  track  between  the  head  of  one 
plane  and  the  foot  of  the  next  is  built  on  a  decline  of 
fifty  feet  to  the  mile  and  is  called  a  "  Level."  There  are 
eight  of  these  planes  between  Honesdale  and  Carbon- 
dale,  and  from  Carbondale  to  Honesdale  there  are 
eight  planes  up  and  four  down  the  mountain.  The 
cars,  having  been  let  down  the  mountain  by  four  in- 
clined planes  to  Waymart,  from  thence  run  by  theii- 
own  gravity  to  Honesdale.  The  track  from  Honesdale 
to  Carbondale  is  called  the  "  Light "  track  because  the 
cars  return  to  the  mines  empty.  The  other  is  called  the 
"Loaded"  track  as  loaded  cars  use  it  only.  The  scene- 
ry along  this  mountain  railroad  is  enchanting.  This 
road  has  been  several  times  relaid  and  has  undergone 
important  repairs,  adding  greatly  to  its  strength  and 
safety.         ^ 

368  HIkSTORY    of    WAYNE    COUNTY. 

Passenger  trains  commeneed  running  npon  it  in 
1877 ;  they  are  well  conducted  and  safely  run,  and  are 
a  source  of  proiit  to  the  company.  They  are  exten- 
sively patronized  by  the  votaries  of  pleasure  and  in- 
valids seeking  pure  air.  The  docks  of  the  company 
at  Honesdale  are  nearly  a  mile  in  length,  along  the 
western  side  of  the  village,  and  sometimes  there  are 
500,000  tons  of  coal  stored  there  awaiting  shipment ; 
at  other  times  there  is  none.  The  present  officers  of 
the  company  are  as  follows :  President,  Thomas  Dick- 
s(m,  of  Scranton,  Pa.;  Vice  President,  Robert  M. 
Olyphant,  New  York  city ;  General  Manager,  Coe  F. 
Young,  Honesdale,  Pa. ;  Treasurer,  Jas.  G.  Hartt,  New 
York  city;  Seci'etary,  George  L.  Ilaight,  New  York 
city;  Sales  Agent,  Rodman  G,  Moulton,  New  York 
city;  General  Agent  of  Real  Estate  Department,  E. 
W.  Weston,  Providence,  Pa. ;  Superintendent  of  Coal 
Department,  A.  H.  Vandling,  Providence,  Pa.;  Su- 
perintendent of  Railroad  Department,  R.  Manville, 
Carbondale,  Pa.;  Assistant  Canal  Superintendent,  W. 
F.  Wil])ur,  of  Plonesdale;  Sales  Agent,  Southern  and 
Western  Department,  Joseph  J.  Albright,  of  Scran- 
ton, P^ 

.^xTlie  streets  of  Honesdale  are  l)road,  and  finely  shad- 
ed by  maples  and  other  trees.  The  sidewalks  are 
paved  witli  ilag-stones.  Main  street  is  tlie  principal 
business  part  of  the  town ;  Second  and  Third  streets 
are  mainly  oc(nipied  by  private  residences.  Second 
street  might  with  propriety  be  called  Church  street,  as 
the  Baptist,  Metliodist  Episcopal,  Presbyterian,  Episco- 


pal,  German  Lutheran,  and  German  Catholic  el  lurches 
are  situated  upon  it.  There  are  tln-ee  suhstantial  iron 
hridges  in  the  borough.  In  the  central  part  of  tlie 
town  is  a  spacious  park,  in  the  center  of  which, 
through  tlie  enterprise  of  the  ladies  of  tlie  borougli,  a 
fountain,  sparkling  with  beauty,  was  erected  in  1879. 
Soon  after  the  late  civil  strife  tlie  patriotic  ladies  of 
flonesdale,  assisted  by  others  in  the  connty,  erected 
in  the  park  a  costly  monument  to  perpetuate  the  mem- 
ory of  the  Wayne  county  volunteers  who  fell  in  tli:!t 
wai-.  This  monument,  of  Quincy  granite,  is  pedestri 
in  form,  and  surmounted  by  a  bronze  figure,  life  size, 
of  a  U.  S.  soldier  at  parade  rest.  The  monument, 
together  with  the  statue,  is  about  fonrteen  feet  in 
lieight,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  neat  ii-on  fence.  Tlie 
inscription   and    names    of    the   fallen   soldiers  ai*e  ns 

follows : 







'*That  Government  of  the  people,  by  the  people,  and  for  the 

people,  should  not  perish  from  the  earth. " 

Capt.  James  L.  Mumford. 

J.  H.  Bryant,  J.  Markle,  D.  Palmer, 

H.  C.  Pidis,  W.  Rix,  G.  Palmer, 

G.  Scambler,  E.  Jordan,  A.  F.  Elmeudorf, 

J.  J.  Thoi-p,  D.  Seibold,  S.  E.  Elmendorl', 

E.  Barhipht,  J.  G.  Griggs,  O.  K.  Stears, 

C.  Thorp^  A.  Graham,  S.  F.  Davall, 




J.  E.  Chubb, 
I.  Thomas, 
J.  Wallace, 

C.  N.  Bagley, 

D.  HoweU, 
O.  Wolf, 
S.  Gilcrist, 
S.  H.  Cross, 

J.  H.  Simpson, 
T.  Nodclin, 
W.  E.  Martin, 
R.  Martin, 
G.  H.  Hoover, 
J.  Shiever^ 
B.  Pell, 
G.  Pell, 
J.  Simpson, 
O.  Gillett, 
S.  Bidwell,     . 
H.  Bidwell, 

F.  Bidwell, 

E.  Bidwell, 
S.  Peet, 
W.  Brooks, 
O.  BrcK>ks, 
J.  Mann, 
a  Hathrill, 
T.  Bryant, 
W.  Tamblyu, 
D.  C.  Lathrop, 
M.  Stevens, 

G.  H.  Stevens, 

D.  Maloney, 

E.  W.  De  Reamer, 

E.  M.  Clark, 

F.  Zahn, 

J.  E.  Bagley, 
Ew  W.  FaiTiham, 

C.  Henwood, 
J.  Baker, 

J.  B,  Karslake, 

D.  B.  Torrey, 
T.  Benney, 

S.  Strong, 
T.  Clark, 
T.  J.  Firth, 
A.  Little, 

F.  Marshall, 
N.  G.  Hiird, 
H.  Nye, 
W.  Surplice, 
H.  McKaue, 
M.  Rollison, 
A.  Rollison, 
W.  Holdron, 
J.  E.  Reed, 

G.  Compton, 
N.  Warder, 

D.  Freer, 
W.  Kellum, 
N.  G.  Hand, 
J.  Johnson, 
T.  Bourke, 
N.  Foy, 
R.  Kirtz, 
M.  Devitt, 
L.  Cole, 

E.  Haven, 
J.  D.  Simp»3n, 
P.  Ennis, 
-J.  Kranglian, 
J.  McLaughlin, 
J.  C.  Anthony, 

D.  Wall, 

H.  Buchanan, 
I.  Knapp, 
Z.  N.  Lee, 

Capt.  James  Ham. 

A.  Broat, 
M.  V.  Tvler, 

B.  Lord; 
J.  Jones, 

E.  Jones, 
J.  Price, 

N.  Tyler,  Jr., 
J.  Hauser, 
S.  D.  Ward, 

W.  Brotzmau, 
H.  Case, 
H.  Kinney, 

C.  H.  Munroe, 
G.  H.  Palmer, 
N.  J.  Simpson, 
G.  W.  Simpson, 
A.  C.  Starbird, 
J.  W.  Smith, 

J.  H.  Worth, 
W.  Short, 
J.  Ogden, 
J.  Ogden, 
J.  Northcott, 
S.  Hines, 
J.  Keifer, 
J.  H.  Belknap, 

0.  Chamberlain, 
T.  C.  Brigham, 
Y.  D.  Brigham, 
H.  B.  Wood, 
W.  E.  Dodge, 
J.  Lukens, 

D.  L.  Brown, 
G.  D.  Parsons, 
C.  T.  Jackson, 
J.  A.  Dodge, 

J.  W.  Framptou, 

1.  Frampton, 
G.  Parsons, 
H.  Conklin, 
J.  Cole, 

J.  M.  Gavett, 
J.  R.  Garton. 

G.  W.  Haynes. 
G.  D.  Slocum,' 
G.  Seely, 
J.  T.  Wliittaker, 
T.  Sterling, 
R.  Whitney, 
H.  Keersey, 
C.  H.  Cole, 
J.  Hardwick, 



A.  K.  Pruden, 
N.  Thoi-p, 
W.  Hunter, 
A.  Benjamiu, 
W.  W.  Valentine, 
E.  Taeubner, 

C.  Neihart, 
r.  Wilcox, 

A.  S.  Luclwig, 
r.  Metzger, 
E.  E.  Fisher, 
G.  Metz, 
H.  Nelmes, 
W.  F.  Hurlbiu-t, 

D.  Burton, 
D.  S.  Charles, 
W.  Carney, 
G.  Frace, 

G.  M.  Cole, 
H.  Price, 
J.  Brown, 
W.  H.  Gifford, 
L.  Bailey, 
L.  N.  Purdy, 
C.  Haines, 
H.  West, 
H.  Lynch, 
G.  J.  Price, 
J.  Hathaway, 
A.  B.  Hathaway, 
J.  E.  Dart, 

W.  T.  Hall, 
G.  Ortnung, 
J.  Tobin, 
E.  Dexter, 
E.  J.  Bunnell, 
H.  J.  Borchers, 

D.  Avery, 

A.  E.  Gleason, 

A.  Niles, 

W.  J.  Thomas, 

J.  Best, 

J.  D.  Hamlin, 

E.  Torpyn, 
I.  Crago, 
R.  Clift, 
W.  Cory, 

J.  Bronson, 
J.  E.  Taylor, 
G.  A.  Taylor, 
H.  Whittaker, 

D.  Reynolds, 

E.  Lake, 

0.  S.  Hoffman, 
T.  Newman, 
W.  Surrine, 

S.  H.  Thomas, 
W.  C.  Thomas, 

1.  Hill, 

S.  W.  Jayne, 
E.  S.  Hufteln, 
J.  H.  Wilds, 

D.  Woodward, 
D.  Darling, 
A.  J.  Dai'ling, 
J.  Hull, 

C.  M.  Griffis, 
P.  P.  Knight, 
W.  Randall, 
R.  Humphrey, 

D.  Martin, 
J.  O'Niel, 

M.  Kingsbury, 
A.  B.  Hall, 
T.  Coddmgton, 
A.  Martin, 
J.  W.  Waller, 
J.  Elmer, 
H.  C.  Wright, 

F.  O.  R.  Benjamin, 
I.  J.  Bradshaw, 

G.  M.  Grotevant, 

D.  Howell, 

E.  G.  Belknap, 
G.  W.  Warner, 
E.  W.  Freeman, 
J.  B.  Hanser, 

A.  L.  Chittenden, 
J.  B.  Muzzy, 
O.  Wilcox, 
J.  J.  Rude, 
A.  D.  Stark, 
J.  McKeon. 


Lieut.  H.  F.  Willis, 

D.  Lake, 
D.  McGowan, 
W.  C.  Bently, 
W.  S.  Hoffman, 
J.  Jackson, 
G.  W.  Welton, 
M.  Wood, 
J.  Markle, 
B.  Sherwood, 
W.  Rhodes, 
J.  Brigham, 

P.  G.  Griffin, 
H.  Shaffer, 
S.  H.  Thomas, 
S.  Dobson, 
H.  T.  Angel, 
E.  O.  Polly, 
H.  Nicholson, 
D.  Dickins, 
C.  Dickins, 
G.  W.  Dickins, 
J.  Dickins, 

Lieut.  A.  E.  King, 

T.  Kennedy, 
R.  Harford, 
A.  Colbath, 
E.  S.  Bayley. 
H.  J.  Wheeler, 
R.  Bunnell, 
J.  Emery, 
L.  Slote, 
L.  Bui'leigh, 
A,  Mattison, 
D.  Mattison, 



G.  W.  Marks, 

A.  J.  Marks, 
D.  Siitliff, 
M.  Hickney, 
W.  Cole. 

J.  G.  Boss, 

D.  Dibble, 

B.  Boults, 
J.  Bray, 
O.  Tyler, 

W.  H.  Wilcox, 

C.  Lees, 

J.  S.  Sutliff, 
J.  F.  Wright, 

E.  O.  Haines, 
A.  Huffman, 
J.  S.  Marricle, 
J.  G.  Boss, 

D.  Brazee, 
K.  P.  Knapp, 
N.  T.  Andrews, 
G.  G.  Andrews, 
A.  J.  Swingle, 

J.  J.  Cunimiskey, 
L,.  Spangenberg, 

J.  J.  Monk, 

C.  P.  Andreas, 

A.  L.  Rowley, 
I).  Carpenter, 
H.  A.  Thurston, 

B.  S.  Merwin, 
N.  J.  Van  Orden, 
J.  W.  Cobb, 

J.  M.  Easby, 
J.  N.  Stevens, 
J.  C.  Rockwell, 

F.  Baird, 
N.  Wilbur, 

A.  H.  Stewart, 
L,  Croue, 
A.  Jordan, 
J.  Elmor, 
M.  L.  Denslow, 

D.  A.  Denslow, 
J.  F.  Jackson, 
O.  L.  Bath, 

G.  S.  Brown, 
G.  P.  Euslin, 
J.  S.  Kennedy, 

E.  Lake, 

A.  Clock, 
W.  Upright, 
J.  F.  Barnes, 
D.  Swingle,      ^ 

A.  London, 
T.  Woodward, 
J.  Hehnes, 

B.  Curtis, 
H.  Brigliam, 
G.  Foler, 

J.  A.  Adams, 

D.  Catterson, 
P.  Swartz, 

L.  Applemau, 
J.  Cauth, 
S.  Shearer, 

E,  Cramer, 
L.  Jordan, 
J.  Rollison, 

C.  A.  Weed, 
H.  Harris, 

G.  W.  Brown, 

J.  Tobee, 

J.  Adams, 

J.  H.  Schoonmaker. 

The  enterprise  of  Isaac  P.  Foster,  in  connection 
witli  Jason  Torrey  and  John  F.  Roe,  in  erecting  the 
iirst  1  )uiklings,  and  in  starting  the  first  stores  in  Hones- 
dale  has  been  mentioned.  Mr.  Foster  was  of  New 
Enghmd  descent,  and,  in  1827,  (^ame  from  Montrose, 
Pa.,  at  the  instance  of  Major  Torrey.  Mr.  Foster  had 
l^een  for  some  years  engaged  in  the  tanning  bnsiness, 
and  soon  resolved  to  establisli  a  tannery  near  Hones- 
dale.  Having  chosen  a  site,  one  mile  np  the  west 
branch,  in  company  with  Ezra  Hand,  Daniel  P.  Kirt- 
land,  and  John  F.  Roe,  reliable  Imsiness  men,  a  tan- 
nery was  bnilt  and  put  in  operation  in  ISoO.  At  an 
early  day,  Mr.  Foster  bought  out  the  interest  of   his 


partners,  finally  associated  his  sons  with  him,  and  the 
tannery  was  run  as  long  as  hark  could  he  ol)tained  for 
its  support.  In  connection  with  his  mercantile  husi- 
ness,  his  tanning  estal)lishment  proved  to  ]>e  highly 
remunerative,  and  he  acquired  more  than  a  compe- 
tence. It  is  claimed  that  Deacon  Foster  brought  the 
lirst  imported  hides  into  the  county,  and  sent  out  of 
the  county  the  iirst  leather  manufactured  therein.  He 
was  called  Deacon  Foster,  from  tlie  fact  of  his  having 
i»een  for  many  years  a  deacon  in  the  First  Presl)yte- 
rian  Church.  He  was  an  ardent  abolitionist  and  was 
doubtless  sincere  in  his  professions.  When  the  free- 
dom of  the  slaves  was  fully  assured,  lifting  up  liis 
hands,  he  exclaimed,  "  Lord,  let  now  thy  servant  de- 
part in  peace,  for  mine  eyes  have  seen  thy  salvation." 
He  was  much  more  than  an  ordinary  man,  and  died 
in  Honesdale,  Nov.  18,  1876. 

Henry  W.  Stone,  now  living  in  Honesdale,  aged 
eighty-nine  years,  was  born  in  Kew  England,  and,  in 
1822,  was  assessed  in  Mount  Pleasant  as  a  single  man 
and  a  merchant.  Afterwards  he  traded  awhile  in 
Honesdale,  and  then,  in  company  with  Horace  Drake, 
estal>lished  a  tannery  and  store  at  Beech  Pond,  which 
were  successfully  continued  for  many  years,  when  Mr. 
Stone  sold  out  to  Drake  c%  Sons,  and,  with  a  compe- 
tence, retired  from  l)usiness.  Being  a  temperate  and 
unexcitable  man,  his  l)odily  and  mental  powers  remain 
unimpaired  by  the  ravages  of  time.  Judge  Cliarles 
P,  Waller  married  his  oldest,  and  E.  F.  Torrev  anoth- 


er  daughter.  His  only  son,  Henry  William,  is  living 
in  Honesdale. 

Among  the  attorneys  of  note  who  practiced  in  om' 
com'ts  since  they  have  been  held  in  Honesdale  were 
the  following: 

Earl  Wheeler,  who  was  born  in  Hampden  county, 
Mass.,  1802.  He  was  a  son  of  Hansom  Wheeler,  and 
a  cousin  of  the  late  Marvin  Wheeler,  a  well  known  mer- 
chant of  Hancock,  N.  Y.  Earl  Wheeler  commenced  the 
practice  of  law  in  Dundaff,  from  thence  he  removed 
to  Bethany,  and,  upon  the  removal  of  the  county  seat, 
took  up  his  abode  in  Honesdale.  He  was  a  well-read 
lawyer  and  very  fond  of  mathematics.  In  his  sixty- 
fourth  year  he  was  smitten  with  paralysis,  which  un- 
iltted  him  for  practicing  his  profession.  He  died  De- 
cember 30,  1875,  at  the  residence  of  his  brother-in- 
law,  Hiram  K.  Mumford,  in  Dyberry  township. 

William  H.  Dimmick,  Sen.,  was  a  son  of  Dan  Dim- 
mick,  of  Milf ord ;  he  studied  law  with  N,  B.  Eldred, 
was  admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1840,  removed  to  Hones- 
dale, was  elected  to  Congress  in  1856,  and  died  Au- 
gust 3,  1861.     He  was  never  married. 

Samuel  E.  Dimmick  was  born  in  Bloomingburg, 
Sullivan  county,  N.  Y.  He  was  a  son  of  Alpheus 
Dimmick,  and  cousin  of  William  H.  Dimmick,  Sen., 
with  whom  he  commenced  the  study  of  law,  in  1814. 
He  was  admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1846.  Such  was  his 
celebrity  as  a  lawyer  that,  in  1873,  he  was  appointed 
l)y  Gov.  Hartranft,  attorney-general  of  Pennsylvania, 
in  which  office  he  died,  Oct.  11,  1875. 


Frederick  M.  Crane  was  born  in  Salisbury,  Conn., 
in  1815.  He  came  to  Honesclale  in  1844,  and  was 
then  admitted  to  the  Bar,  and  was  twice  elected  as  a 
member  of  the  Legislature.  His  mental  capacity  was 
great,  and  his  legal  knowledge  extensive.  He  died 
suddenly  at  Honesdale,  January  8,  1877. 

Ebenezer  Kingsbury,  Jr.,  John  I.  Allen,  Simon  G. 
Throop,  Jackson  Woodward,  and  H.  B.  Beardslee 
were  admitted  to  the  Wayne  County  Bar,  but  busi- 
ness outside  of  the  legal  profession  diverted  their  at- 
tention therefrom. 

Want  of  space  compels  us  to  contract  our  intended 
notice  of  the  present  members,  of  the  Bench  and  Bar. 

Hon.  Chas.  P.  Waller,  president  judge,  was  born 
in  Wyoming  Yalley,  of  which  place  his  father  was  a 
native.  His  mother  came  from  Connecticut,  and  his 
grandparents  were  from  the  same  State.  He  studied 
law  with  Judge  Collins,  of  Wilkesbarre,  came  to 
Honesdale  in  1843,  and  was  then  admitted  to  the  Bar. 

The  senior  members  of  the  Bar  are  as  follows: 
(Jharles  S.  Minor,  who  was  born  in  Washington,  Con- 
necticut, in  1817,  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1841, 
and  at  the  law  school  in  New  Haven,  in  1844,  came 
to  Honesdale,  and  was  admitted  to  the  Bar  that  year. 

G.  G.  Waller,  who  was  born  in  Wyoming,  studied 
law  with  Judge  Collins,  came  to  Wayne  county,  and 
was  admitted  to  practice  in  1849. 

E.  O.  Hamlin  was  born  in  Bethany,  studied  with 
Hon.  Geo.  W.  Woodward,  was  admitted  in  1852,  and 
practiced  two  years  in  Wayne  county.     He  then  re- 


moved  to  Minnesota,  was  there  president  judge  for 
several  years,  l)iit  tinally  returned,  and  took  up  liis 
permanent  residence  in  Wayne  eonnty,  in  1873. 

Henry  M.  Seely  was  born  in  Wayne  county,  studied 
law  in  the  city  of  New  York,  and  was  admitted  to  the 
Bar  in  1859. 

William  H.  Dinnnick,  son  of  Oliver  8.  Dimmick,  of 
Pike  (bounty.  Pa.,  studied  law  with  Hon.  S.  E.  Dim- 
mick,  und  was  admitted  to  tlie  Bar,  in  1863. 

Greorge  F.  Bentley,  sou  of  Judge  Bentley,  of  Mon- 
trose, Pa.,  studied  with  C.  P.  <k  G.  G.  Waller,  and 
was  admitted  to  \h^  Bar  in  1866. 

The  junior  meml)ers  of  the  Honesdale  Bar  are  all 
natives  of  Wayne  county,  namely:  P.  P.  Smith,  Geo. 
8.  Purdy,  Wm.  11.  Lee,  E.  C.  Mmnford,  D.  H.  Brown, 
Homer  Green,  and  W.  J.  Tracy.  They  all  studied 
law  in  Honesdale,  and  have  been  duly  admitted  to  the 
Bar.  Being  studious  and  temperate  men,  they  give 
promise  of  attaining  eminence  in  their  profession.  E. 
Richardson,  of  Hawley,  and  L.  G.  Dimock,  of  Way- 
mart,  are  also  members  of  the  Honesdale  Bar. 

The  progress  that  Honestlale  has  made  within  the 
past  twenty  years  may  ]>e  seen  in  the  superior  value 
and  permanency  of  the  buildings  erected,  and  in  otlier 
important  improvements  made.  Tlie  Keystone  and 
Centennial  bloi-ks  below  the  canal  bridge  and  manv 
other  buildings  in  the  town  would  not  appear  to  dis- 
advantage in  any  city.  Many  dwelling-houses  have 
^>een  ei*ected  on  tlie  nortli  side  of  the  Lackawaxen, 
above    Park  street,  which    althoua'h  unlike   in  struc- 


ture,  are  ingenious  specimens  of  architectural  taste 
and  beauty.  Main  street  has  been  macadamized  at 
great  expense.  The  streets  and  the  public  and  private 
l)uildings  are  lighted  with  gas.  The  town  is  abun- 
dantly supplied  with  water  wliich  is  principally  drawn 
from  the  First  and  Second  ponds  in  Dyberry.  The 
business  of  the  canal  and  railroad  affords  so  large  a 
Held  for  labor  that  but  little  attention  has  been  paid  to 
manufacturing.  Still  that  branch  of  industry  has  not 
l)een  entirely  neglected.  The  yearly  manufacture  of 
boots  and  shoes  by  Durland,  Torrey  &  Co.,  amounts 
to  $350,000.  The  Honesdale  Iron  &  Agricultural 
Works,  carried  on  by  Gilbert  Knapp,  do  a  very  large 
business.  Tliere  is  also  a  foundry  on  Front  street, 
conducted  by  Thomas  Charlesworth,  which  does  con- 
siderable business.  P.  Mc  Kenna  is  largely  engaged 
in  the  manufacture  of  butter  Hrkins,  churns,  tubs, 
buckets,  and  many  other  articles  all  of  superior  qual- 
ity, thus  supplying  the  county  and  adjoining  sections. 
M.  B.  Yan  Kirk  tfe  Co.  have  an  umbrella-stick  factory. 
John  Brown  manufactures  cabinet-work.  C.  C.  Jad- 
win  manufactures  a  large  amount  of  his  "  Subduing 
Liniment,"  for  which  there  is  an  extensive  demand. 
B.  L.  Wood  &  Co.  manufacture  lumber  for  building 

The  cause  of  education  has  always  been  considered 
of  the  first  importance  by  the  people  of  Honesdale. 
The  first  school  taught  in  the  place  was  kept  in  a  house 
located  on  liiver  street,  near  John  Brown's  residence, 
and  was  taught  by  Lewis  Pestana,  in  the  winter  of 



1828.  The  next  winter  he  was  succeeded  by  Charles 
P.  Chirk,  whose  school  was  patronized  by  about  fifty 
pupils.  An  academy  was  founded  in  1838,  and  its 
first  principal  was  Henry  Seymour,  A.  B.,  of  Amherst 
College.  He  Avas  succeeded  by  B.  B.  Smith,  A.  M., 
of  Honesdale,  and  it  continued  to  flourish  under  his 
control  until  the  State  appropriation  was  withheld  and 
it  gave  place  to  the  Honesdale  Graded  School,  in  1861. 
A  classical  course  in  the  latter  school  includes  the 
usual  studies  preparatory  to  college.  Prof.  J.  M. 
Dolph  became  its  principal  in  1878.  He  succeeded 
Prof.  L.  H.  Barnum,  who  was  principal  for  the  pre- 
vious six  years.  By  the  school  report  of  1878  there 
were  eleven  schools  in  Honesdale.  The  tax  levied  for 
all  school  purposes  in  that  year  amounted  to  $5,029.21. 

The  contract  for  building  the  first  court-house  in 
Honesdale,  was  awarded  to  Charles  Jameson.  It  was 
built  of  wood  and  cost  $16,000.  The  first  court  was 
held  therein  at  September  Sessions,  1843.  The  fire- 
proof brick  building  in  which  the  public  records  are 
now  kept,  was  built  in  1856,  by  Beers  &  Heath,  and 
cost  the  county  §11,500.  The  present  jail  was  built 
in  1859,  but  the  original  cost  is  now  unknowTi.  The 
order  of  our  judges  for  the  erection  of  a  new  court- 
house was  made  after  a  report  of  the  grand  jury  at 
February  Sessions,  1876,  and  was  as  follows: 

"In  view  of  the  crowded  state  of  the  court  room  for  the  past 
year,  and  the  manifest  necessity  for  enlarged  accommodation 
for  the  people  of  the  county  who  have  business  in  the  courts, 
as  lawyers,  jurors,  parties,  and  witnesses,  and  the  very  imper- 
fect ventilation  of  the  present  court  room,  we  cordially  approve 


the  report  of  the  grand  jury  on  this  subject,  and  recommend 
the  county  commissioners  to  carry  out  the  same  by  at  once 
maturing  plans  and  erecting  the  foundation  of  a  new  buikling 
the  coming  season ;  they  can  then  distribute  the  expense 
through  the  years  necessarily  required  for  the  erection  and 
completion  of  a  building  which  shall  meet  the  wants  of,  and 
be  a  credit  to,  the  county  and  not  impose  unnecessary  burdens 
upon  the  taxpayers.     Dated,  Feb.  15th,  1876. 

(  Chas.  p.  Waller,  President  Judge, 
Signed,  •<  Otis  Avery,  Associate  Judge, 

(H.  Wilson, 

To  make  way  for  the  building  of  the  new  structure 
the  old  court-house  was  taken  down  in  the  summer  of 
1877.  The  new  court-house  has  been  so  far  linished 
that  the  courts  were  held  in  it  at  May  Sessions,  1880. 
What  will  be  the  final  cost  of  the  building  is  as  yet 
unknown.  There  are  so  many  questions  about  the 
matter  that  are  in  al^eyance,  that  want  of  time  and 
space  prevents  our  giving  its  tangled  and  disputed  his- 
tory; we  leave  that  lal)or  to  the  coming  historian. 
Who  should  be  cannonaded  and  who  should  be  canon- 
ized in  the  premises,  it  is  not  our  province  to  decide. 

The  first  newspaper  printed  in  the  county  was  start- 
ed at  Bethany,  by  James  Manning,  who  bought  a 
printing-press  and  type.  It  was  entitled  the  Way7ie 
County  Mirror.  Manning  edited  it  himself,  and  it 
was  well  conducted.  Its  first  number  was  dated  in 
March,  1818.  The  Mirror  was  followed  by  the  Re- 
jntbliean  Advocate,  which  was  published  l)y  Davis 
and  Sasman,  Manning  owning  the  press.  It  com- 
menced in  November,  1822,  but  Davis  became  unpop- 
ular, and,  in  1830,  it  took  the  name  of  the  Bethany 


Inquirer^  with  Wm.  Sasmaii  as  editor.  In  1832  the 
iirst  number  of  the  Way  tie  County  Herald  was  issued 
in  Honesdale  by  Peter  C  Ward.  The  Wayne  Comity 
Free  Press  and  Bethany  and  Honesdale  Advertiser 
was  established  January  1,  1838,  by  Paul  S.  Preston, 
at  Bethany.  Piehard  Nugent  was  editor  and  compos- 
itor. Ebenezer  Kingsbury,  Jr.,  was  then  editor  of  the 
Honesdale  Herald.  In  1840,  The  Free  Press  was  re- 
moved to  Honesdale,  and,  in  1842,  took  the  name  of 
The  Beechivoodsrnan^  which  was  succeeded,  in  1844, 
by  The  Honesdale  Democrat^  and  edited  by  F.  B. 
Penniman,  Esq.,  the  veteran  editor  in  Wayne  county, 
now  of  Honesdale.  The  purity,  propriety,  and  con- 
ciseness of  his  style  attracted  the  notice  of  the  emi- 
nent writers  and  politicians  of  that  day,  and  he  was 
pursuaded  to  accept  the  editorship  of  The  Plttslnirg 
Cazette,  then  one  of  the  most  influential  political  jour- 
nals in  the  Commonwealth;  but  failing  health  forced 
liim  to  retire  from  the  position.  He  has  not,  how- 
ever, lost  his  skill  in  the  use  of  felicitous  language. 
His  ancestors  were  of  Puritan  origin.  Upon  the 
retirement  of  F.  B.  Penniman  from  the  Democrat.,  it 
took  the  name  of  The  Rejniblic.,  and  was  conducted  by 
E.  A.  Penniman.  In  1868  The  Honesdale  Citizen 
was  estal>lished,  which  has  ever  since  been  published 
as  the  organ  of  the  Republican  party  in  the  connty ; 
Hon.  Henry  Wilson  and  E.  A.  Penniman  are  its 
editors  and  publishers.  The  Wayne  County  Herald^ 
the  organ  of  the  Democratic  party,  has  l)een  owned 
and  conducted,  at   different  times,  by  John  I.  Allen, 


II,  B.  Beardslee,  and  Menner  ife  Ham.  In  1865,  it 
passed  into  the  hands  of  Thomas  J.  Ham,  who  is 
its  present  editor  and  owner.  Several  other  papers 
have  been  started  from  time  to  time,  which  were  short 
lived.  The  Ilawley  Free  Press  was  succeeded  by 
The  Hawley  Tkties,  formerly  edited  by  F.  P.  Wood- 
ward, a  son  of  Daniel  D.  Woodward,  Esq.,  of  Cherry 
Ridge,  but  now  edited  by  his  brother,  H.  P.  Wood- 
ward. 2' he  Wayne  In<le2)endent  was  established  in 
1878  by  Benjamin  F.  Haines.  The  initial  number 
was  issued  in  February  of  that  year.  It  being  a  suc- 
cess, the  paper  was  enlarged  with  the  first  number  of 
the  second  volume,  when  Mr.  Haines  associated  as 
copartner  with  him  Miles  Beardsley,  of  Kew  York 
State,  and  it  has  since  been  conducted  under  the  iirm 
name  of  Haines  cfe  Beardslej.  It  is  independent  in 


PAUPACK  Settlement,  as  it  was  always  known  in 
former  times,  was  situated  on  the  eastern  and 
8outh-eastern  side  of  the  Wallenpaupack.  A  man  by 
the  name  of  Carter  and    his    familv  were    the    first 


whites  that  ever  lived  on  the  Paupack.  He  built  a  house 
on  the  Pellet  Flats,  in  1758.  During  the  French  and 
Indian  war  the  family  were  all  murdered  and  the 
house  burned  by  the  Indians.  The  names  of  the  first 
emigrants  were  Uriah  Chapman,  Esq.,  Capt.  Zebidon 
Parrish,  Capt.  Eliab  Varnum,  Nathaniel  Gates,  Zadock 
Killam,  Ephraim  Killam,  Jacob  Kimble,  Enos  Wood- 
ward, Isaac  Parrish,  John  Killam,  Hezekiah  Bingham, 
John  Ansley,  Elijah  Winters,  John  Pellet,  Sr.,  John 
Pellet,  Jr.,  Abel  Kimble,  and  Walter  Kiml>le,  all  of 
w^hom  returned  to  the  settlement  after  the  Revolution. 
But  there  were  others  who  never  returned.  Joshua 
Yarnum  was  killed  during  the  war.  Silas  Parks,  Jr., 
was  in  Capt.  Dethic  Hewitt's  company  and  was  killed 
in  the  battle  of  Wyoming.  Tliere  was  a  nunil)er  of 
others,  who,  after  the  Wyoming  massacre,  nevei*  re- 
turned to  Paupack. 

These  settlers  laid  off  two  townships ;  the  one  in 
which  they  were  all  included,  was  named  Lackaway, 
and  one  further  up  the  Paupack  named  Bozrah. 
When  this  people  started  from  Connecticut  they  ex- 
pected to  go  on  to  Wyoming,  but  finding  good  land 
and  fine  timl^er  on  the  Paupack,  they  stopped  there, 
as  they  expected  to  hold  the  lands  under  Connecticut. 
They  had  friends  in  Wyoming  with  whom  they  were 
in  perfect  accord.  They  built  a  palisaded  fort  enclos- 
ing an  acre  of  land  on  whicli  was  a  good  spring. 
Within  the  fort  was  built  a  block-house,  on  the  top  of 
which  w^as  a  bullet-proof  sentry-box.  When  trouble 
was  anticipated  with   the    Indians,  the   people   with 


their  families  spent  their  nights  in  the  fort.  The  men 
went  in  gangs  to  plant,  hoe,  and  cultivate  each  other's 
iields,  with  their  guns  slung  over  their  backs.  Bands 
of  vagabond  scamps  and  outcasts  of  the  Indian  tribes, 
led  on  by  Tories,  often  molested  the  settlers  in  1777 
and  1778,  with  whom  they  had  frequent  skirmishes. 
The  main  object  of  the  marauders  w^as  to  steal  the  cat- 
tle of  the  settlers.  Brandt,  a  half-blood  chief  with 
great  authority,  had  given  orders  that  the  Paupack 
people,  having  been  kind  to  the  Indians,  should  not 
be  disturbed.  But  Brandt  could  not  control  the 

A  saw-mill  was  built  about  where  Burnham  Kimble 
afterwards  lived,  and  was  burnt  down  by  the  Indians 
in  1779.  Capt.  Eliab  Yarnum  had  command  of  the 
troops  of  the  colony ;  Jonathan  Haskell  was  lieutenant, 
and  Elijah  Winters,  ensign.  In  1777  a  body  of  eight- 
een men  was  discovered  by  a  daughter  of  Nathaniel 
Gates,  (afterwards  Mrs.  Stephen  Bennett.)  She  in- 
formed Lieut.  Haskell  of  the  fact  who  captured  the 
whole  body.  They  proved  to  be  Tories  and  were  con- 
veyed to  Hartford,  Conn.,  where  they  were  punished. 
Some  Tories  disturbed  the  settlers  on  the  3d  of  July, 
1778,  but  were  driven  away,  and  in  their  retreat  burn- 
ed a  grist-mill  at  Wilson ville  which  was  built  by 
Joseph  Washburn.  Among  these  Tories  was  one 
Bryant  Mclvean,  who  was  afterwards  arrested  upon 
suspicion  of  conveying  intelligence  to  the  Indians,  but 
he  was  not  convicted.  One  of  his  neighbors  who  had 
been  instrumental  in  his  (McKean's)  arrest,  he  never 


forgave,  and,  as  a  means  of  satisfying  liis  revengeful 
spirit,  he  agreed  with  tlie  Indians  to  murder  his  neigh- 
l)or.     Bnt  the  Indians  mistook  McKean's  description 
of  the  house  and  nnirdei*ed  MeKean's  own  family  and 
l)urnt  the  house.     This  story  is   well    authenticated. 
On  the  third  of  July,  1778,  was  the  massacre  at  Wy- 
oming.   The  next  day  John  Hannnond  or  Jacob  Stan- 
ton carried  the  news  to  Paupack.    Upon  learning  this, 
the    inhabitants,  taking   their   women,  children,  and 
sick,  and  driving  their  cattle  before  them,  after  hiding 
some  of   their  goods  in  the  woods,  fled    to    Orange 
county,  N.  Y.    Near  the  mouth  of  the  Wallenpaupack, 
Zebulon  and  Jasper  Parrish,  Stephen  Kimble,  (who 
died  a  prisoner  among  the  Indians,)  Stephen  Parrish 
and  Reuben  Jones  were  taken  prisoners  by    the    In- 
dians.    In  August,  1778,  and  in  the  spring  of    1779, 
parties  of  young  men    ventured  to   return,  but   they 
barely  escaped    with    their  lives.     All    the   property 
which  the  settlers  left  behind  them,  with  their  houses, 
had  been  destroyed.     In  1783,  after  the  close  of   the 
Revolution,  the  most  of  the  original  settlers  returned. 
They  suffered  much  as  the  season  was  unfavorable  and 
the  crops  were  poor.     As  they  had  no  mill  with  which 
to  gi-ind  their  corn,  they  were  ol:)liged  to  pound  it  in 
mortars,  and  in  some  cases  went  to  Milford   on  snow- 
shoes  and  brought  home  flour  on    their  backs.     But 
they  withstood  all  hardships  and    afterwards  became 
prosperous  and  happy.     The  original  inhabitants  were 
principally    Presbyterians.      They    were    industrious, 
hospitable,  and  honest.     They  were    remarkable   for 


their  longevity.  Hence  Jacob  Kimble  died  in  1826, 
aged  ninety-one;  Hezekiali  Bingham  in  1811,  aged 
seventy-f om- ;  Moses  Killam,  Sen.,  in  1831,  aged  seven- 
ty-two; John  Pellett,  Jr.,  in  1838,  aged  ninety;  and 
Ephraim  Killam  in  1836,  aged  eighty-seven. 

The  following  were  some  of  the  settlers  that  return- 
ed after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  and 
others  of  their  children  and  grandchildren : 

Hezekiah  Bingham,  Sen.,  had  three  sons :  Hezekiah 
Bingham,  Jr.,  a  man  of  worth  and  intelligence;  Ro- 
dolplms  Bingham,  a  noted  innkeeper  and  lumberman ; 
and  Soloman  Bingham.  Moses  Bingham,  Esq.,  was  a 
justice  of  the  peace.  The  descendants  and  children 
of  the  Bingham  family,  although  numerous  and  highly 
respected,  have  all  removed  from  the  place. 

Uriah  Chapman  settled  at  Blooming  Grove  and 
kept  tavern.  He  had  a  numerous  family,  all  of  whom 
are  gone. 

Ephraim  Killam  married  a  daughter  of  John  Ans- 
ley.  His  family  were  very  intelligent.  He  had  but 
one  son,  Ira,  who  married  a  daughter  of  Roswell 
Chapman.  Ephraim  Killam  was  a  man  of  reading 
and  observation,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  the 
Indian  character.  He  scouted  the  idea  of  civilizing 
them.  "  Why,"  he  used  to  say,  "  an  Indian  is  just  as 
much  a  wild  man  as  a  wolf  is  a  wild  dog ;  you  cannot 
tame  him."  His  brother,  Moses  Killam,  Sen.,  was  in 
the  battle  at  the  mouth  of  the  Lackawaxen,  and  was 
slightly  Avounded.  He  had  two  sons,  Moses  Killam, 
Esq.,  a  very  noted  man  as  a  farmer,  lumberman,  and 



citizen,  and  Benjamin  Killam,  a  local  Methodist  min- 
ister, whose  handwriting  was  a  model  of  excellence. 
He  married  a  daughter  of  Elijah  Winters.  She  was 
the  first  child  born  in  Faupack  and  died  a  few  years 
ago,  aged  one  hundred  years.  Marcus  Killam,  their 
son,  lives  upon  the  old  homestead. 

Jacob  Kimble,  Sen.,  was  a  miller,  farmer,  and  lum- 
berman. His  sons  were  Abel,  Jacob,  Walter,  Daniel, 
and  Benjamin.  Judge  Abisha  Woodward  married  a 
daughter  of  Jacob  Kimble,  Sen.  She  was  the  mother 
of  G.  W.  Woodward.     They  have  all  passed  aw^ay. 

John  Pellet,  Jr.,  was  in  most  of  the  conflicts  with  the 
Indians  on  the  Paupack.  He  married  a  noble  woman, 
Nan(3y  Bingham,  a  daughter  of  Hezekiah  Bingham, 
Sen.  They  had  eight  sons  and  two  daughters.  Asa 
Kimble  married  Abigail,  the  oldest  daughter. 

John  Ansley,  Sen.,  who  was  born  in  England,  was 
a  blacksmith,  as  was  his  son,  John,  Jr.  Joseph  Ans- 
ley, innkeeper,  was  one  of  his  sons,  and  Simeon  Ans- 
ley, another.  David  Lester  and  Orrin  Lester,  who 
were  Revolutionary  soldiers,  lived  some  years  in  Pau- 

Upon  the  return  of  the  settlers  Stephen  Bennett, 
then  a  young  man  from  Massachusetts,  a  soldier  under 
"  Old  Put,"  located  and  married  a  daughter  of  Nathan- 
iel Gates.  He  first  lived  back  of  Walter  Kimble's. 
His  sons  were  Pufus,  Stephen,  and  Lebbeus.  Stephen 
Bennett  died  at  a  very  advanced  age.  Some  of  the 
children  of  Pufus  Bennett  are  yet  living  in  Wayne 


In  doing  justice  to  the  memory  of  those  old  settlers 
we  could  write  scores  of  pages.  They  and  their  chil- 
dren have  passed  over  the  river,  and  we,  standing  on 
its  brink,  aged  seventy-six  years,  cannot  but  look  back 
with  admiration  of  that  noble  people. 


IT  is  no  easy  task,  even  for  one  who  in  early  life 
was  intimately  acquainted  with  the  hardships  and 
struggles  of  the  early  settlers,  to  portray  them  fully 
and  justly.  Their  necessities  were  alike  in  all  parts 
of  the  county,  and  all  were  obliged  to  put  up  log- 
houses  with  large  stone  chimneys,  and  roofed  at  first 
with  bark,  and  having  floors  and  doors  made  of  boards 
split  from  logs.  The  spaces  between  tlie  logs  were 
filled  up  with  moss  and  clay,  to  repel  the  winter's  flaw. 
Loff-barns  were  made  for  cattle  and  horses,  when  the 
settler  had  any,  and  almost  every  settler  had  one  cow 
or  more;  in  1806,  for  instance,  Canaan,  including 
Salem,  Sterling,  and  most  of  Cherry  Ridge,  then  had 
ninety-one  taxables,  ninety-six  cows,  and  thirty-five 
horses.  Some  of  the  settlers  brought  with  them 
feather-beds,  but  the  most  slept  well  on  straw. 


The  lightest  part  of  the  forest  was  cut  down  and 
cleared  np  and  sown  with  rye  and  wheat,  or  planted 
with  potatoes  and  corn.  After  tlie  grain  was  raised, 
by  some  it  was  carried  to  Wilsonville,  to  Damascus, 
or  to  Slocum  Hollow,  (now  Scranton,)  to  l)e  ground. 
The  thoughtful  Germans  of  Canaan,  brought  witli 
them  hand-mills  and  ground  the  grain  themselves ; 
others  pounded  or  boiled  it,  and,  in  cases  of  extremity, 
lived  on  milk  and  boiled  potatoes,  which  is  not  an  un- 
savory dish  to  a  hungry  laboring  man.  The  land 
yielded  abundantly,  and,  after  a  few  years,  enough 
grain  was  raised  to  support  the  people.  The  woods 
were  full  of  wild  game,  and  the  streams  alive  witli 
lish.  But  there  were  many  things  which  they  had  not 
and  could  not  do  without.  They  needed  axes,  scythes, 
plows,  chains,  liarrows,  lioes,  salt,  (which  was  live  dol- 
lars a  bushel,)  leather,  and  clothing  for  themselves  and 
their  children.  How  were  these  indispensables  to  be 
obtained,  and  where  was  the  money  to  come  from 
wherewith  to  purchase  them  ?  Some  of  tliese  things 
they  w^ent  without.  The  skins  of  their  domestic  ani- 
mals they  exchanged  for  salt  and  leather,  often  dis- 
pensing with  dressed  leather  by  weai-ing  moccasins 
made  of  deer-skin,  and  sometimes  they  sold  grain  to 
the  lumbermen  for  cash.  The  lumbermen  along  the 
Delaware  and  Lackawaxen  did  not  have  it  quite  so 
hard  as  the  settlers  who  were  remote  from  tlie  rivers. 
But  most  of  the  latter  sowed  flax  and  dressed  it,  and 
the  women  (blessed  l)e  their  memory,)  carded,  spun, 
and  wove  it  into  a  variety  of   most    excellent    cl(.)ths. 


Then  necessity  required  almost  every  farmer  to  keep 
slieep,  the  wool  from  which  was  carded,  spmi,  and 
woven  by  the  women  into  all  needful  fabrics. 

In  a  few  years  saw-mills  were  erected  in  all  the  new 
settlements,  so  that  the  log-cabins  could  be  made  more 
and  more  comfortable.  Go  to  a  log-cabin  in  those 
days,  and  outside  would  be  found  two,  three,  or  four 
shoats  that  lived  mostly  upon  the  mast  found  in  the 
woods,  and  that  had  come  home  to  see  how  tlie  folks 
were.  "Old  Brindle"  would  be  standing,  reaching 
through  the  rails  wliich  enclosed  a  stack  of  wild  hay. 
There  was  a  wooden-shod  sled  made  mostly  for  win- 
ter use,  but  used,  nevertheless,  at  all  seasons,  as  carts 
and  wagons  were  scarce.  It  was  not  in  the  likeness 
of  anything  in  the  earth  beneath,  or  in  the  water  un- 
der the  earth.  There  was  a  harrow  made  of  a  branch- 
ing tree  which  made  one  letter  of  the  alphabet  in  the 
shape  of  a  Y,  with  live  iron  teeth  on  a  side  and  one 
in  front.  The  plow  was  not  at  home,  having  been 
lent  to  a  near  neighbor  only  two  -miles  distant.  Two 
or  three  acres  had  been  cleared  and  planted,  and  a 
quarter  of  an  acre  sown  with  flax.  Near  by  the  cabin 
was  a  covered  enclosure  in  which  four  or  five  sheep 
were  nightly  folded.  The  dog,  "Tiger,''  glad  to  see 
any  kind  of  a  duplicate  of  his  master,  would  laugli  all 
over  to  see  you.  Dogs  were  not  tlien  taught  to  con- 
sider men  as  thieves  or  tramps.  Knocking,  you  were 
l)id  to  come  in,  and,  upon  lifting  the  wooden  latch, 
were  cheerily  and  sincerely  greeted  and  offered  tlie 
l)est  bench  for  a  seat.     The  furniture    in  said    cabin 


was  rough  and  simple,  and  there  were  no  carpets, 
table-cloths,  or  napkins.  There  was  but  one  room  in 
the  calnn  with  but  one  bed  and  a  trundle-ljed.  A  bed- 
room was  then  made  by  hanging  up  two  blankets.  A 
stranger  who  staid  over  night  had  to  go  up  a  ladder 
and  sleep  on  a  straw  bed  overhead.  The  most  pleas- 
ins:  of  all  was  that  there  in  that  cabin  were  three  or 
four  cherubs,  called  children,  bounding  and  playing  in 
circles  around  that  unadorned  room,  and  who  were 
like  those  of  whom  Christ  said,  ''  Of  such  is  the  king- 
dom of  heaven." 

You  would  perhaps  stay  to  dinner,  where  everything 
would  be  sweet  and  savory,  and  it  would  coiisist  of 
good  johnny-cake  and  delicious  fried  trout,  one  or  two 
of  which  would  make  a  meal,  and  your  neighbor 
would  tell  you  that  he  had  canght  sixty  of  the  like 
that  day.  You  would  have  no  tea,  but  good,  unadul- 
terated coffee,  made  of  burnt  peas  or  browned  rye 
flour,  and  sweetened  with  maple  sugar.  In  those  days 
a  fox  met  a  man  and  wondered  if  he  was  a  new  kind 
of  Indian  or  something  worse,  and  the  owl  hooted  at 
him  as  an  unnaturalized  intruder.  In  such  log-cab- 
ins lived,  sixty,  seventy,  or  eighty  years  ago,  the  first 
settlers  of  Wayne  county,  whether  Yankees,  Dutch, 
Irish,  or  English.  In  those  log-huts  might  perhaps 
have  been  found  some  of  the  following  books :  The 
Bible,  Watts'  inimitable  Psalms  and  Hymns,  The  Pil- 
grim's Progress,  an  Episcopal  Prayer-book,  a  Catho- 
lic Catechism,  or  a  New  England  Primer.  There  was 
an  almanac  found  in  every  cabin.     It    told    much    of 


the  past  and  foretold  coming  eclipses  with  certainty, 
and  coming  storms  and  calms  with  occasional  nncer- 
tainty.  It  often  quieted  the  fears  of  such  as  w^ere 
disturbed  by  strange  and  unaccountable  phenomena. 
Some  sons  of  Belial  one  night,  out  of  pure  wicked- 
ness, pushed  some  squibs  under  the  door  of  an  old 
couple's  cabin.  The  squibs  of  wild-lire  went  whizzing 
and  circling  around  their  room  to  their  great  dismay 
and  affright.  The  old  man,  at  the  suggestion  of  his 
wife,  got  up  and  looking  in  the  almanac,  he  found 
against  that  day  the  strange  word  "  apogee,"  which 
he  spelled  out,  a-po,  a-po,  gee,  a-po-gee,  sounding  the 
g  hard,  and  accenting  the  last  syllable.  ''  There," 
said  he,  "  it's  'apogee'  come,  and  if  it  ha  d  not  been  for 
the  almanac  I  should  never  have  found  out  what  it 
meant,  for  it  is  not  in  the  Bible.  Probably  it  means 
a  little  devil  just  hatched  out."  *  High  up  in  the 
primitive  chimneys,  above  the  reach  of  fire,  was  a 
cross-pole  from  which  descended  trammels  upon  which 
were  hung  as  needed,  a  pot,  a  dish-kettle,  or  tea-kettle ; 
these,  with  a  frying-pan  and  griddle,  made  up  all  the 
culinary  vessels  used  in  preparing  or  cooking  food, 
excepting  that  an  oven  was  built  in  the  stone  chim- 
ney or  out  of  doors  for  the  baking  of  bread.  After- 
wards came  the  tin  oven  which  was  open  towards  the 
fire ;  the  reflection  of  the  heat  from  the  shining  tin 
assisted  in  baking  the  cakes,  pies,  or  bread  in  the  oven. 

*  The  word  "  apogee  "  has  reference  to  the  moon  when  it  is 
at  its  greatest  distance  from  the  earth. 


Stoves  were  not  in  use  mitil  after  1820,  and  were  not 
in  general  use  until  1840.  The  blacksmith  in  those 
early  dajs  was,  as  he  always  will  be,  the  most  useful 
artisan.  He  made  hoes,  upset  axes,  made  plowshares, 
and  all  the  nails  then  used,  also  all  the  chains  and 
hooks,  drew  teeth  with  an  iron  hawk's  bill,  and  in  his 
leisure  time  made  musical  instruments  for  the  boys, 
called  jews-harps.  One  old  blacksmith  made  iisli- 
hooks  and  the  iish  l)it  at  them  just  to  lind  out  what 
tliey  were;  but  they  were  not  very  dangerous  to  the 
Iish.  The  roads  were  then  merely  cleared  of  the  logs 
and  bushes.  Most  of  the  transportation  was  made 
on  horseback  or  manback.  Tlie  latter  mode  of  re- 
moving a  thing  from  one  plac^  to  another  was  called 
"  soul  (carting."  Shoemakers  went  from  house  to  house 
and  made  up  the  shoes  that  would  be  worn  in  a  fam- 
ily for  a  year.  Happy  was  the  lad  or  the  lass  that 
could  rely  upon  having  one  pair  of  shoes  in  a  year. 
The  most  of  the  men,  women,  and  children  thought  it 
no  great  hardship  to  go  barefoot  six  months  in  the 
year.  Most  of  the  people  were  then  poor,  but  pover- 
ty was  not  then  considered  a  crime  or  a  disgrace,  but 
merely  a  discomfort.  Because  a  man  had  naught,  he 
was  not  called  "  naughty."  As  an  example  of  tlie 
poverty  of  many  people,  it  is  a  fact  that  the  house  of 
a  (certain  man  in  Salem  with  all  its  contents  burned 
up  and  he  (claimed  tliat  liis  loss  was  forty  dollars;  but 
it  is  prol)able  tliat  there  was  as  mucli  happiness  to  be 
found  in  those  lodges  in  the  wilderness  as  can  be  found 
anywhere  in  this  world. 


'•Contented  toil  and  hospitable  care, 
And  kind  connubial  tenderness  were  there  ; 
And  piety,  with  wishes  fixed  above. 
And  steady  loyalty  and  faithful  love." 

Few  of  the  pioneers  had  the  money  to  pay  down 
for  their  hinds,  and  it  took  them  many  years  before 
they  w^ere  al)le  to  make  their  payments. 

After  providing  shelter,  food,  and  raiment  for  them- 
selves and  families,  and  making  necessary  roads  and 
l)ridges,  the  next  great  anxiety  of  the  settlers  w^as  to 
establish  schools  for  the  edncation  of  tlieir  children. 
The  great  mass  of  the  original  inhabitants  of  Wayne 
connty  were  from  New"  England,  a  people  who  were 
never  forgetful  of  the  cause  of  education,  but  whether 
they  w^ere  Yankee  or  Dutch,  English  or  Irish,  native 
or  foreign,  in  this  anxiety  they  w^ere  unanimous. 
Scliool-houses  w^ere  built  more  comfortable  than  the 
common  dwelling-houses,  and  the  best  teachers  that 
could  be  found  were  employed.  Some  of  them  had 
made  but  little  progress  in  ascending  the  hill  of  sci- 
ence, w^hile  other  young  men,  educated  in  the  acade- 
mies and  high  schools  of  the  Eastern  States,  came 
liither  in  search  of  employment.  The  principal  branch- 
es taught  w^ere  orthography,  reading,  w^riting,  arith- 
metic, English  grammar,  and  geography.  The  first 
l)Ooks  were  as  follows:  Dihvorth's  and  Wel)sterV 
spelling-books  ;  for  reading  books,  Webster's  Elements 
of  Useful  Know^ledge,  the  Second  and  Tliird  Fart, 
The  American  Freceptor,  and  the  Columbian  Orator, 
l)y  Calel)  Bingham,  the  Englisli  Reader  with  its  Intro- 
duction and  Sequel;  arithmetic — Daboll's  and  Fike's 



— Murray's  English  Grammar — Davies',  Cummings' 
Morse's  or  Woodhridge's  Geography ;  Johnson's  or 
Walker's  Dictionary;  and  Robert  Gibson's  Treatise 
on  Surveying.  Hale's  History  of  the  United  States 
had  been  introduced  into  some  schools.  These  books, 
if  not  equal  to  those  used  at  the  present  day,  possess- 
ed many  excellencies  and  were  abreast  of  the  times. 
It  is  not  pretended  that  those  teachers  in  olden  days 
were  equal  in  qualiiications  to  the  teachers  of  the 
present  day.  The  most  of  them  never  had  access  to 
academies  and  high  schools,  but  they  taught  orthogra- 
phy, reading,  and  writing,  well.  The  first  schools 
were  started  by  a  few  persons  who  generally  hired  a 
teacher,  fixed  his  salary,  requiring  him  to  board  round 
and  collect  his  own  school-bills,  each  patron  of  the 
school  to  pay  pro  rata.  Tradition  declares  that  there 
Avere  good  schools  in  the  county  seventy  or  eighty 
years  ago,  but  it  has  preserved  very  little  concerning 
them.  A  law  of  1809  required  the  (county  to  pay 
for  the  schooling  of  the  children  of  indigent  persons. 
The  law^  of  1834,  authorizing  the  levy  of  taxes  for  the 
support  of  common  schools,  was  amended  in  1836, 
and  by  another  amendment,  in  1854,  provided  for  the 
election  of  county  superintendents  triennially,  by  the 
school  directors.  The  oftice  was  held  as  follows:  By 
John  F.  Stoddard,  one  year;  S.  A.  Terrel,  five  years; 
E.  O.  "Ward,  seven  years;  J.  E.  Hawker,  three  years; 
D.  G.  Allen,  nine  years;  H.  B.  Larrabee  was  elected 
in  May,  1878,  for  three  years. 

The  schools  which  were  in  their  day  chartered,  and 


the  academies  and  high  schools  now  sustained  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  county  have  been  mentioned,  ex- 
cepting the  select  school  at  Hollisterville,  under  the 
charge  of  Prof.  M.  H.  Race. 

There  is  a  graded  school  at  Honesdale,  one  at  See- 
lyville,  and  another  at  Hawley.  By  the  School  Re- 
port of  1878  there  are  two  hundred  and  thirteen 
schools  in  the  county;  the  number  of  male  teachers, 
eiglity-two;  females,  one  hundred  and  eighty-three; 
whole  number  of  scholars,  8,939;  total  amount  of 
tax  levied  for  school  and  building  purposes,  $36,948.95. 

The  Baptists,  it  appears,  organized  the  iirst  Church 
in  the  county  in  Paupack.  Elder  William  Purdy  was 
its  pastor.  One  was  organized  in  Mount  Pleasant  in 
1796,  and  Epaphras  Thompson  was  its  lirst  minis- 
ter, and  was  succeeded  by  Elder  Elijah  Peck.  The 
next  Baptist  Church  was  started  in  Damascus,  then 
one  in  Salem,  and  afterwards  one  in  Bethany  and 
Clinton.  There  are  ten  churches  or  houses  of  public 
w^orship  belonging  to  the  Baptists  in  the  county. 

The  pioneer  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  county  was 
that  of  Salem  and  Palmyra,  which  was  organized  in 
August,  1805,  by  Rev.  David  Harrowar,  Rev.  Worth- 
ington  Wright,  from  Massachusetts,  was  installed 
its  pastor  in  1813.  A  Congregational  Church  was 
also  organized  in  Mount  Pleasant,  in  January,  1814, 
by  Rev.  E.  Kingsbury  and  Rev.  W.  Wright.  A  Pres- 
byterian Church  was  organized  by  the  Rev.  Phineas 
Camp,  in  Bethany,  in  1818 ;  the  house  was  begun  in 
1822,  and  finished  in  1835.     The  Presbyterian  Church 


in  Honesdale  was  organized  in  1829 ;  the  cost  of  the 
present  building  was  |44,000.  The  Church  hi  Way- 
mart  was  organized  in  1835,  and  the  house  built  in 
181:6.  Lebanon  society  or  Church  was  organized  in 
1848,  and  the  house  erected  the  same  year.  The  so- 
ciety or  Church  of  Prompton  was  organized  in  1842, 
and  the  house  built  in  1849.  The  society  or  Church 
of  Hawley  was  organized  in  1849,  and  tlie  house  was 
built  in  1851.  There  may  be  other  societies  which 
have  no  buildings  erected  for  public  worship.  The 
Presbyterians  were  the  descendants  of  the  old  Puri- 
tans, were  generally  well  educated,  and  were  rigid  in 
tlie  enforcement  of  the  strictest  morality.  They  wish- 
ed and  meant  to  be  riglit. 

The  Episcopal  Methodists  were  among  the  first  in 
the  missionary  Held.  Their  preachers  went  every- 
where that  a  soul  could  be  found.  They  had  all  the 
zeal  of  Ignatius  Loyola.  They  generally  held  their 
meetings  in  the  log  school-houses,  or  in  private  dwell- 
ings, and  in  summer  in  barns  or  in  the  woods.  They 
insisted  upon  great  simplicity  of  dress,  and  in  that  re- 
spect were  as  rigid  as  the  Quakers.  No  woman  could 
then  obtain  admittance  to  their  love-feasts  whose  dress 
abounded  with  flounces  and  furbelows,  and  even  a  rib- 
l)on  gathered  up  into  a  Ijow  upon  her  l>onnet  would 
not  be  overlooked.  A  few  old  people  may  be  found 
who  remember  some  of  their  original  preachers,  such 
as  Isaac  Grant,  Joshua  Bil)]>ins,  and  George  Peck,  Sen. 
We  heard  the  latter  preach  his  tirst  sermon  in  Salem 
in  the  West  school-house.     In  or  about  the  vear  1825 


the  first  Methodist  Episcopal  church  was  commenced 
west  of  Salem  Corners,  and  in  1832  one  was  huilt  at 
Mount  Pleasant.  The  progress  of  the  Church  in  tlie 
county  has  l)een  uniform,  until  at  the  present  time 
there  are  twenty-six  churches  or  houses  of  pul)lic  wor- 
ship, which  may  not  include  some  societies  that  are 
without  a  church  edifice.  There  are  two  camp-meet- 
ing groves  used  annually  by  the  church,  one  at  Salem 
and  one  at  Tallmanville. 

There  are  in  the  county  ten  Roman  Catholic 
churches  which  are  all  noticed  under  the  several  local- 
ities where  they  are  situated,  besides  which  there  are 
several  places  which  are  visited  that  have  no  church 
edifices.  The  first  of  those  churches  was  established 
in  Honesdale  in  1834,  and  the  next  in  Mount  Pleasant 
in  1835. 

There  are  four  Episcopal,  four  Union,  two  Free 
Methodist,  two  Lutheran  churches,  and  one  German 
Reform  church. 

It  has  been  shown  that  the  attempt  of  Judge  James 
Wilson  to  commence  the  manufacture  of  flax  and 
hemp  at  the  mouth  of  the  Paupack,  even  before  the 
organization  of  the  county,  proved  abortive.  Saw- 
mills were  early  established  along  the  Delaware  and 
Lackawaxen  for  the  manufacture  of  timber  into 
l)oards,  etc.,  thereby  adding  perhaps  one-fourth  to  its 
market  value.  This  kind  of  manufacturino^  has  been 
carried  on  more  or  less  for  the  past  ninety  years,  and, 
vsince  the  establishment  of  tanneries  in  the  county,  has 
l>een  a  very  large  and  extensive  business. 


The  first  cardiug-macliine  was  set  up  on  Johnson's 
creek,  below  tlie  Seth  Kennedy  mill,  in  Mount  Pleas- 
ant, by  Jacob  Plum,  in  1813.  These  machines,  al- 
though they  did  not  manufacture,  prepared  the  wool 
for  spinning,  and  saved  the  women  much  hard  work, 
Capt.  Keen  started  one  below  Keen's  pond,  in  Canaan, 
in  1820.  Samuel  Hartford,  assisted  by  H.  G.  Chase, 
put  up  one  east  of  Hamlinton  in  1825,  and  Alpheus 
Hollister  one  at  Hollisterville  in  1827.  Hiram  G. 
Chase  aforesaid  moved  into  Dy]>erry  township  in 
1826.  His  father  was  from  Taunton,  Mass.,  but  Hiram 
G.  was  from  Delaware  county,  N.  Y.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  Ira  Hurlburt,  who  was  a  brother  of  the 
remarkable  twin  sisters,  of  whom  Pope  Bushnell's 
wife  was  one.  Mrs.  Chase  was  a  sister  of  Ezra  Hurl- 
l)urt,  of  Honesdale,  and  of  Frederick  Hurlburt,  of 
Canaan.  Mr.  Chase  began  mth  Wm.  B.  Ogden,  in 
1826,  and  started  works  for  the  fulling  of  cloth  at  the 
outlet  of  Jennings  pond,  in  Dyberry,  and  the  next 
year  bought  the  carding-machine  of  Hartford.  Ogden 
sold  out  to  Wm.  N.  Fisher.  Mr.  Chase  continued  in 
the  business  ten  years  and  then  sold  out  to  Henry  Jen- 
niuirs.-  Fisher  continued  in  business  most  of  his  life. 
Mr.  Chase  and  his  wife  are  still  living,  and  should 
have  been  noticed  under  Dyberry  towmship. 

The  Dyberry  glass-factory  was  started  in  1816, 
and,  with  short  intermissions,  was  kept  in  operation 
for  twenty-five  yeters. 

The  manufacture  of  axes  and  edge-tools  by  Ezekiel 
White  was  commenced  in  1820,  and  was  continued  by 


Epliraiin  Y.  White  at  Seelyville  and  Tracyville  during 
liis  life-time.  The  business  is  now  vigorously  carried 
on  by  his  son,  Gilbert  White,  at  Tracyville. 

James  Hendrick,  in  the  early  days  of  Honesdale, 
carried  on  the  making  of  scythes  and  axes,  and  the 
business  was  continued  by  others  after  him. 

Henry  Kemmerer,  in  1835,  started  a  large  powder- 
mill  near  Shaffer's.  Mills,  in  South  Canaan.  The  bus- 
iness was  prosperous  until  the  mill  was  blown  up  in 
the  summer  of  1837  and  three  persons  were  killed. 
The  mill  was  not  rebuilt. 

James  Birdsall  commenced  the  maufacture  of  wool- 
en cloths  at  Seelyville  in  1846,  and  the  business,  hav- 
ing been  continued  and  being  constantly  on  the  in- 
crease, has  assumed  a  most  respectable  importance  un- 
der Birdsall  Brothers.  This  is  one  of  the  most  useful 
of  all  branches  of  manufacture,  and  can  be  contin- 
ued from  time  to  time,  and  from  age  to  age,  without 
any  prospects  of  a  discontinuation  of  its  usefulness. 
Seelyville  has  ever  been  an  attractive  point  for  manu- 
facturing. Window-sashes,  blinds,  and  doors  were  made 
here  for  some  years  by  Messrs.  Costins  &  Erk.  Chris- 
tian Erk  is  now  doing  a  large  business  in  the  manu- 
facture of  umbrella  and  parasol  sticks. 

John  H.  Gill  has  had  a  small  foundry  in  operation 
a  short  distance  above  Seelyville  for  a  number  of 
years.     It  is  now  carried  on  by  his  son. 

George  W.  Hall,  of  Prompton,  has  been,  for  forty 
years,  engaged  in  the  manufacture  from  wood  of  all 
needed  household  furniture,  and  has   not  intermitted 


liis  labors.  Having  associated  Avitli  him  liis  son,  Ar- 
thur, as  copartner,  the  business  is  now  (conducted 
under  the  Urm  name  of  G.  AV.  Hall  tfe  Son. 

The  great  glass-works  of  Christian  Dorflinger,  at 
AVhite  Mills,  established  within  the  last  twelve  years, 
are  the  most  colossal  manufacturing  works  in  the 
(^ountj.  In  1842  Jacob  Faatz  started  glass-works  at 
Tracjville,  but  for  want  of  capital  they  were  discon- 
tinued, and  they  fell  into  the  hands  of  James  Brook- 
tield  but  were  mostly  destroyed  by  the  l)reaking  aw^ay 
of  a  dam  at  the  mouth  of  a  pond  above.  Tlie  Hones- 
dale  Glass  Company,  in  1873,  commenced  the  making 
of  hollow  glass-ware  in  the  same  place,  and  are  doing 
;i  large  and  profitable  business. 

The  manufacturing  done  in  Honesdale  is  by  Dur- 
land,  Torrey  c%  Co.,  in  the  boot  and  shoe  l)usiness; 
Gilbert  Knapp  in  the  foundry  business;  B.  L.  Wood 
ife  Co.,  prepared  lumber;  M.  B.  YanKirk,  umbrella- 
stick  factory;  C.  C.  Jadwin  and  Dr.  Brady,  medicines; 
John  Brown,  furniture;  V.  McKenna,  cooper;  and  P. 
J.  Cole,  flour  and  feed.  Probably  there  are  others  not 

Under  tlie  patronal  cliarge  of  Rev.  J.  J.  Doherty, 
pastor  of  tlie  St.  John's  Catholic  church  of  Honesdale, 
an  industrial  school  was  established  in  1879.  Tlie 
manufacture  of  shirts  is  the  only  branch  of  business 
(iarried  on  at  present,  and  employment  is  given  to 
about  twenty-live  girls.  The  intention,  however,  is  to 
add  other  branches  of  industry  to  the  institution,  the 
object  of  P^ither  Dohei'ty  being  t(^  give  to  the  youth, 


male  and  female,  a  practical  education,  and,  also,  give 
employment  and  bring  up  to  liabits  of  industry  and 
usefulness  scores  who  are  being  reared  in  enforced 
idleness.  The  enterprise  is  in  its  infancy  but  is  likely 
to  grow  into  an  important  and  beneiicent  industry. 

Erastus  Baker,  of  Mount  Pleasant,  more  than  forty- 
five  years  ago,  established  a  carding-machine  on  the 
Lackawaxen  in  Mount  Pleasant  and  dressed  and  dyed 
cloths  during  his  life,  and  the  works  are  carried  on  to 
this  day. 

The  manufacturing  of  chairs  and  other  kinds  of 
wood-work  is  carried  on  at  Forest  Mills,  Lake  town- 
ship, by  Henry  Silkman. 

One  of  the  most  important  branches  of  industry  in 
Wayne  county  has  been  the  manufacture  of  leather, 
and  has  yielded  a  large  amount  of  money.  Its  begin- 
nings were  small.  The  first  tannery  that  we  remem- 
ber w^as  run  by  Samuel  Kogers,  in  Canaan,  and  was 
afterwards  called  the  Cortright  tannery.  Asa  Smith, 
in  Mount  Pleasant,  Thomas  S.  Holmes,  of  Bucking- 
ham, and  Levi  Ketchum  and  Osborn  Olmstead,  of 
Bethany,  carried  on  the  business  for  several  years  on 
a  small  scale.  About  1830  Isaac  P.  Foster  establish- 
ed the  first  great  tannery  in  the  county,  which,  having 
been  profitably  run  for  many  years,  has  been  discon- 
tinued. The  tanneries  that  are  now  in  successful 
operation  and  doing  a  large  business  are  owned  l)y 
H.  Beach  &  Brothers,  at  Milan ville;  E.  P.  Strong, 
at  Starrucca;  Coe  F.  Young,  at  Tanners  Falls;  G.  B. 
Morss,  Ledgedale;  Hoyt  Bros.,  at  Lake  Como;  R.  H. 



Wales,  at  High  Lake;  Wm.  Holbert,  at  Equiniink; 
Hoyt  Bros.,  at  Manchester.  Those  doing  a  moderate 
business  are  Wm.  Gale,  at  Middle  Yalley;  L.  H.  Al- 
den  &  Co.,  at  Aldenville;  Brunig  <k  Co.,  at  Oregon; 
E^ichols  &  Co.,  at  Mt.  Pleasant;  and  Samuel  Saun- 
ders, at  Texas. 

Several  tanneries  have  been  discontinued,  and  the 
Imsiness  as  to  tlie  amount  of  leather  tanned  is  dimin- 
ishing. Ten  or  fifteen  years  ago  the  leather  tanned 
in  the  county  amounted  to  §2,200,000,  or  was  sold  for 
tliat  amount  yearly.  Men  well  acquainted  with  the 
whole  tanning  interests  throughout  the  county  are 
cautious  about  making  an  estimate  of  the  proceeds 
which  have  been  received  therefrom,  admitting,  how- 
ever, that  they  have  been  enormous. 

When  we  take  into  consideration  the  great  amount 
of  water-power  in  the  county  unused,  it  is  to  be  re- 
gretted that  we  have  no  more  manufacturing  estab- 
lishments ^vithin  its  limits.  It  is,  therefore,  pleasant 
to  be  assured  that  a  silk-factory  is  to  be  established 
on  the  Paupack  at  Hawley.  If  I  am  rightly  inform- 
ed, the  building  will  be  built  of  stone,  to  he  three  hun- 
dred and  sixty  feet  by  forty-four  feet,  with  an  exten- 
sion of  eighty  feet  by  twenty-three  feet,  and  to  be 
three  stories  liigli  witli  a  basement.  A  hub  and  spoke 
factory  is  also  (carried  on  at  Hawley  by  J.  Gr.  Diamond. 

The  first  settlers  of  Wayne  county  came  hither  for 
the  purpose  of  taking  up  lands  for  cultivation.  Along 
the  rivers  and  streams  they  were  to  a  great  extent 
diverted  from  their  original  purpose  ])y  engaging   in 


the  cutting,  preparing,  and  running  of  luml)er  to  mar- 
ket, which  business  as  they  considered  it  more  immedi- 
ately hicrative,  was  followed  by  the  settlers  on  the  Del- 
aware and  Lackawaxen  rivers.  But  the  townships  of 
Canaan,  Salem,  Sterling,  Clinton,  and  Mount  Pleasant 
gave  greater  attention  to  the  improvement  of  their 
lands.  When  the  most  valuable  timber  was  removed 
from  the  river  townships,  they  turned  their  attention 
to  the  cultivation  of  the  soil,  and  they  have  made 
rapid  progress.  Such  is  the  case  in  the  townships  of 
Damascus,  Preston,  Manchester,  Scott,  and  Cherry 
Ridge.  The  timber  in  those  townships  is  becoming 
scarce,  and  resort  must  be  had  to  the  cultivation  of  the 
soil,  to  the  raising  of  cattle,  and  to  the  dairy  business, 
for  which  our  natural  grasses  are  peculiarly  adapted. 
What  the  county  needs  is  a  more  ready  market  for 
the  gross  articles  of  production,  such  as  fruit,  potatoes, 
etc.  Every  branch  of  manufacturing  interest  should 
therefore  be  encouraged  and  promoted  for  the  purpose 
of  supplying  a  home  market.  Many  farmers  are  also 
raising  their  own  wheat,  thereby  saving  much  money. 
When  the  lands  were  first  cleared  up  they  were  rich 
in  Jiiiimis^  potash,  and  phospliates,  which  have  been 
exhausted  by  cultivation.  Fifty  or  sixty  years  ago 
three  hundred  bushels  of  potatoes,  fifty  bushels  of 
oats,  and  thirty  bushels  of  rye  to  the  acre,  were  not 
unusual  crops.  By  the  use  of  clover  and  plaster,  and 
the  judicious  application  of  lime,  phospliates,  and  other 
fertilizers,  our  farmers  are  struggling  to  restore  the 
former  fertilitv  of  their  lands.     It  must  be  conceded 


that  niiicli  greater  crops  of  corn  are  now  raised  than 
were  obtained  in  former  times.  Within  a  few  years 
past  the  best  stock  has  been  l)rought  into  the  county 
by  the  importation  of  the  Aklerney  and  Jersey  cattle. 
Anxious  to  avail  themselves  of  every  aid,  our  farmers 
have  at  different  times  organized  agricultural  societies. 
The  present  one  was  organized  in  1862,  and  it  owns 
the  present  pleasant  fair-grounds  upon  the  Dy  berry, 
one  and  one-half  miles  north  of  Honesdale.  By  law 
the  county  pays  from  its  treasury,  yearly,  $100  to  the 
society.  It  is  supposed  that  it  exercises  a  salutary  in- 
fluence upon  the  agricultural  interest  of  the  county. 

In  describing  Honesdale  we  were  led  to  notice  the 
Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal  and  Railroad  Company, 
as  it  Avas  tlie  prime  agent  in  starting  the  town  into  ex- 
istence and  the  main  artery  which  supplies  it  and  the 
country  around  with  the  sustaining  force  of  life.  With 
equal  propriety,  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Company 
might  have  been  described  in  connection  witli  Palmy- 
ra township.  It  is  of  sufficient  importance  to  be  sep- 
arately described. 

The  company  was  organized  in  1839,  but  the  road 
was  not  completed  until  1850.  It  is  a  gravity  road 
w^orked  by  stationary  engines  for  transportation  of 
coal  mined  by  the  company.  No  locomotive  power  is 
used  in  operating  it.  The  length  of  the  main  line 
from  Hawley  to  Port  Griffith  is  forty-seven  miles. 
The  gauge  of  the  line  is  four  feet  three  inches.  In 
1879,  the  average  number  of  persons  regularly  em- 
ployed by  the  company  on  its  road  and  in  its  mines 


etc.,  including  officials  in  Pennsylvania,  amounted  to 
4,100.  This  road  took  to  market,  in  1850,  111,014 
tons,  and,  in  1879,  1,372,759  tons  of  coal.  Passen- 
ger cars  are  rnii  dailj  from  Dunmore  to  Ilawlej  and 
return.  The  coal  is  run  from  Hawlej  by  the  Hawley 
Branch  of  the  Erie  Railway  to  Lackawaxen,  distant 
lifteen  and  eighty-seven  one-hundredth  miles,  and 
thence  by  the  Erie  Railroad  to  New  York.  This 
road  is  doing  an  immense  amount  of  business.  Its 
loaded  and  its  light  tracks  widely  diverge  from  each 
other.  The  building  and  operation  of  this  road  have 
l)een  of  great  importance  and  value  to  Lake  and  Sa- 
lem townships.  The  capital  stock  amounts  to  $5,000,- 
000,  and  $600,000  dividends  were  paid  the  past  year, 
or  twelve  per  cent.  The  road  is  most  admirably  con- 
ducted. Its  officers  are  George  A.  Hoyt,  President, 
Stamford,  Connecticut;  William  E.  Street,  Secretary, 
Darien,  Connecticut ;  Edwin  H.  Mead,  Treasurer, 
South  Orange,  N.  J. ;  Charles  F.  Southmayd,  General 
Solicitor,  New  York;  John  B.  Smith,  Chief  Engineer, 
General  Manager,  General  Superintendent,  and  Divis- 
ion Superintendent,  Dunmore,  Pa. 

The  population  of  Wayne  and  Pike  counties  in 
1800  was  2,562  ;  in  1810,  4,125.  The  population  of 
Wayne  county,  alone,  in  1820,  was  4,127;  in  1830, 
7,663;  in  1840,  11,848;  in  1850,  21,890;  in  1860, 
32,239;  1870,  33,188.  The  greatest  increase  was  be- 
tween 1820  and  1830,  being  eighty-five  and  six-tenths 
per  cent,  gain,  while  the  gain  between  1860  and  1870 
was  scarcely  three  per  cent.  Although  the  late  war  was 


between  the  latter  periods,  yet  it  is  not  reasonable  to 
suppose  that  it  caused  such  a  hiatus  in  tlie  advance  of 
population.  The  census  of  1880  will  settle  the  ques- 


THE  Hon.  George  W.  Woodward  designed  in  his 
contemplated  history  of  Wayne  county  to  include 
the  county  of  Pike.  We  should  be  pleased  to  do 
what  he  proposed  if  we  had  space  and  the  necessary 
data  wherewith  to  construct  such  a  history.  A  long 
journey  through  the  county  would  be  necessary  to 
gather  up  material  for  such  a  work,  and  a  careful  ex- 
amination of  the  public  records  required.  Milford, 
the  couuty  seat  of  Pike  county,  should  not  be  forgot- 
ten. It  was  the  first  place  where  the  first  courts  were 
held,  when  Wayne  and  Pike  were  one.  There  Dan 
Dimmick,  the  father  of  Melancthon  Dimmick,  Oliver 
S.  Dimmick,  and  William  H.  Dimmick,  Sen.,  was  first 
admitted  to  the  Bar,  and  he  was  entrusted  with  one- 
half  of  the  legal  practice  in  the  county  for  a  long 
course  of  years.  His  cotemporaries  in  practice  were 
Daniel  Stroud,  Job  S.  Halstead,  John  Ross,  Thomas 

PIKE    COUNTY.  407 

B.  Dick,  Hugh  Ross,  Daniel  Grandin,  and  George 
Wolf,  who  was  twice  governor  of  the  State.  There 
afterwards  lived  Lewis  Cornelius,  the  corpulent  tavern- 
keeper,  who  at  one  time  weighed  six  hundred  -and  six- 
ty-seven pounds.  There  was  Dr.  Francis  A.  Smith, 
by  birth  an  Austrian,  and  who  was  the  first  man  that 
was  naturalized  in  the  county,  he  being  admitted  a 
citizen  September  12,  1799.  He  was  the  father  of 
the  two  noted  women,  Mrs.  Thomas  Clark,  and  Mrs. 
Jeffrey  Wells.  Milford  is  beautifully  situated  upon 
the  Delaware,  has  pure  air  and  good  w^ater,  and  is 
noted  for  its  salubrity.  The  excellence  of  the  roads 
up  and  down  the  river  is  widely  known.  We  should 
be  pleased  to  give  sketches  of  the  original  inhabitants, 
some  of  whom  were  the  Westbrooks,  the  YanAukens, 
the  Ridgways,  the  Nyces,  the  Newmans,  the  Watsons, 
the  Westfalls,  the  Motts,  and  many  others.  We  should 
like  to  follow  the  route  where  the  old  pioneers  "  colum- 
bused  "  their  way  through  the  forests  to  Paupack  and 
then  onward  to  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming  valleys ; 
and  to  contrast  the  present  state  of  the  country  with 
what  it  w^as  then.  Sixty  years  ago  we  traveled 
that  supposed  old  route.  Beginning  at  Milford  we 
went  to  Blooming  Grove,  w^here  Solomon  Westbrook, 
Esq.,  now  keeps  a  hotel ;  thence  to  Paupack  Settle- 
ment, from  which  all  the  old  settlers  and  their  chil- 
dren have  departed;  thence  through  the  Seven  Mile 
Woods,  then  a  dense  wilderness,  now  dotted  with 
houses  and  improvements,  to  Little  Meadows;  tlience 
to  Salem  Corners,  where  Oliver  Hamlin  kept  a  store. 


then  onward  through  Salem  township,  which  lias 
greatly  improved  since  that  time,  to  John  Cobb's,  at 
the  foot  of  Moosic  mountain ;  thence,  directly  over 
the  mountain  to  Pliilip  Swart's  tavern,  which  had 
been  kept  by  Wm.  Allsworth,  the  place  being  now  in 
Dunmore  ;  thence,  turning  to  the  left  and  going  down- 
ward, Ave  came  to  Slocum  Hollow,  wliere  were  a  saw^- 
mill,  grist-mill,  foundry,  and,  we  believe,  a  distillery, 
now  in  the  vicinity  of  the  city  of  Scranton,  which 
city  seems  to  us  to  liave  been  built  by  enchantment, 
like  the  palace  of  the  Princess  Badroul  Boudour. 
There  lived  in  or  about  Lackawanna  valley,  in  those 
days,  the  Slocums,  Trips,  Athertons,  Coons,  Griffins, 
Phillipses,  and  the  Benedicts.  The  old  road,  above 
described,  was  the  route  taken  ])y  the  original  settlers 
to  reach  the  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming  valleys.  By 
it  they  fled  after  the  battle  of  Wyoming.  The  road 
in  former  times  was  always  a  very  bad  one  except 
when  frozen  up  in  the  winter,  yet  the  travel  upon  it 
was  immense.  All  the  travel  between  Wilkesbarre 
and  Milford  on  to  Newburg  was  by  or  near  that 
road.  But  we  return  to  Milford  and  iind  that  it  has 
been  greatly  improved  and  enlarged  within  sixty  years 

In  drawing  this  history  to  a  close  we  would  have  it 
understood  that  we  never  entertained  the  idea  of  writ- 
ing it  until  we  were  past  the  age  of  three-score  years 
and  ten.     We  ask  the  reader  to  make    due  allowance 


for  our  failing  memory  and  inability  to  present  facts 
in  an  attractive  dress.  It  wonld  be  very  stranire  if 
the  work  should  be  found  without  errors  and  contra- 
dictions. Many  worthy  persons  and  families,  we  are 
well  aware,  have  not  been  mentioned ;  their  history  did 
not  come  in  our  way.  "  One  Cgesar  lives,  a  thousand 
are  forgot."  No  one  has  been  purposely  neglected ; 
\U)  one  spoken  of  disparagingly.  Now,  at  the  age  of 
seventy-six  years,  standing  on  the  shore  of  that  vast 
ocean,  over  which  we  must  soon  sail,  we  bid  our  read- 
ers an  affectionate  farewell. 

THE     END.